· blood which passes through the ureters to fill

The renal
system: Consists of kidneys, ureters, the urethra, the bladder and
sphincter muscles which form the urinary tract.  The renal system produces, stores and
eliminates waste products such as urea, excess ions and water from the
bloodstream in a form of urine, excreted by the kidneys. Besides acting as a
filtering system, the renal system is also responsible for regulating acid-base
homeostasis and pH, for controlling blood volume and stabilising blood pressure
as well as regulating electrolytes. Consequently, the kidney is the upper
urinary tract, whereas the remaining structures are the lower urinary tract. The
anatomical features of the renal tract involve two bean-shaped kidneys
surrounded by a fibrous capsule, positioned retroperitoneal in the posterior abdominal
wall of the side of the spine- approximately between the size of 10-14cm in
adults (Field et al., 2010).

This is solely in charge of producing urine by filtering waste and excess water
from the blood which passes through the ureters to fill up the bladder. The two
ureters, essential in the renal tract activity, are muscular hollow tubes that
convey urine from the renal pelvis to the bladder. The size of the ureter
varies from 20- 30cm, depending on the individual’s height and positioning of
the kidney. However, the left ureter tends to be 1cm longer. Its primary
function is to carry urine from the kidney to the bladder (Bergman, 1967). 

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