• Intensive Reading• Extensive Reading• Intensive and Extensive Reading Together• ReferencesINTENSIVE READING:• students focus on linguistic or semantic details of a reading • students focus on surface structure details such as grammar and discourse markers• students identify key vocabulary• students may draw pictures to aid them (such as in problem solving)• texts are read carefully and thoroughly, again and again • aim is to build more language knowledge rather than simply practice the skill of reading • seen more commonly than extensive reading in classroomsMaterials:• usually very short texts – not more than 500 words in length • chosen for level of difficulty and usually, by the teacher• chosen to provide the types of reading and skills that the teacher wants to cover in the courseIntensive reading exercises may include:• looking at main ideas versus detailsActivities:• understanding what is implied versus stated• making inferences• looking at the order of information and how it effects the message• identifying words that connect one idea to anotherEXTENSIVE READING:1. Students read as much as possible.2. A variety of materials on a range of topics is available.
3. Students select what they want to read.4.
The purposes of reading are usually related to pleasure, information and general understanding.5. Reading is its own reward.
6. Reading materials are well within the linguistic competence of the students in terms of vocabulary and grammar.7. Reading is individual and silent.8. Reading speed is usually faster than slower. 9. Teachers orient students to the goals of the program.
10. The teacher is a role model of a reader for the students.Activities that may occur:• Reading may be combined with a speaking component.
For example, they may interview each other about their reading.• Reading may be combined with a writing component. For example, after reading the newspaper, students may be asked to write a newspaper report. • Class time may be included for book exchange, if there is an in-class library.• Students may set their own goals for their next session.• Students may progress from reading graded reading material to authentic text. It should be expected that students will “slow down” in their reading then, it becomes more challenging.
Intensive and Extensive Reading Together:It is common for both approaches to reading to be used in the same class. For example, where extensive reading is encouraged, the teacher may have all the students read the same text so they can discuss the topic together or learn a specific skill such as writing an outline. In a class where intensive reading is mostly used, students may be asked to read texts of their own choosing to report back on, in either an oral or written format.
In both approaches, it is not the nature of the skills that are of most interest but rather, the results. Role of Teacher:• The teacher selects passages that do include specific information.• The teacher may use authentic materials that are commonly scanned in real life, such as the telephone directory, menus, bus schedules.• The teacher may ask students before they scan a text to note how the information is organized in the text. • The teacher needs to remind students that as they read carefully to find the required information, they should pay particular attention to titles and keywords. Role of the Student:• The student forms questions before reading.
What specific information are they looking for?• The student looks for contextual clues. The student tries to anticipate what the answer might look like and what sorts of clues would be useful.• The student is aware of the graphic form that the answer may take, such as a numeral, a written number, a capitalized word or a short phrase that includes key words.Activities• Activities may include exercises that are devised by the teacher in which students scan for a single word or specific text.
• Activities may include exercises that are often carried on as a competition so students will work quickly.• Students use skills of prediction and anticipation. • WHAT IS INTERFERENCE AND PRIDICTION IN READING?Students may initially be more comfortable making predictions about fiction than nonfiction or informational text. This may be due to the fact that fiction is more commonly used in early reading instruction. Students also tend to be more comfortable with the structure of narrative text than they are with the features and structures used in informational text. However, the strategy is important for all types of text.
Teachers should make sure to include time for instruction, modeling, and practice as students read informational text. They can also help students successfully make predictions about informational text by ensuring that students have sufficient background knowledge before beginning to read the text.In this context, a prediction is made about the outcome of a future event based upon a pattern of evidence. Students might predict that a seed will sprout based on their past experiences with plants or that it will rain tomorrow based on today’s weather. Teachers can help students develop proficiency with this skill by making connections between predicting while reading and predicting in science. Students will not necessarily make these connections independently, so teacher talk and questioning are important.
Sometimes, teachers will use the terms prediction and hypothesis interchangeably in science. While the terms are similar, there are subtle differences between the two. A hypothesis is a specific type of prediction made when designing and conducting an investigation in which a variable is changed.
For example, students might write a hypothesis about what will happen to a plant’s growth if the amount of water is increased. A hypothesis is often written as an “If…then…” statement.The distinction between a prediction and a hypothesis is not something that elementary students need to understand and explain. However, teachers can be cognizant of how they use these words during science instruction – using prediction for statements of what might happen based on prior knowledge or evidence and hypothesis only when an investigation calls for a variable to be changed.
References: http://langue.hyper.chubu.ac.jp/jalt/pub/tlt/97/may/extensive.htmlhttp://www.readingmatrix.com/articles/bell/index.html http://iteslj.org/Articles/Bell-Reading.html.