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1.0 SITE INFORMATION

Figure 1: Site location
Figure 2: Site vew

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Place : Seksyen 9, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor.
Area (m2) : 4,200m² (120m x 35m)
Existing building : 5-Storey Shop Lot / Office
Age existing building : 30 years
Proposed new building : 35-storey office including 5 storey parking lot
Benefit surrounding area

: Near to schools, shopping mall and residential area

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2.0 DEMOLITION WORKS

Demolition is the tearing-down of buildings and other structures. Demolition contrasts
with deconstruction, which involves taking a building apart while carefully preserving valuable
elements for re-use. The demolition should be implemented in the right way and does not
affect the stability of the structure and adjacent structures as it may cause the building to
collapse unplanned. Demolition work in public areas should be done outside peak hours and
does not affect public safety. Demolition methods can vary depending on the area where it will
be held on, time available, the building material, the purpose of the demolition and the way
that debris is going to be disposed. Times saving methods are more expensive than the slower
ones.

2.1 Technique for Demolition
Techniques for Structure Demolition Three types of structure demolition.
i. Progressive Demolition
ii. Mechanism of Control Demolition
iii. De construction or Top Down

2.1.1 Progressive Demolition
Progressive demolition is a technique to demolish, wrecking or taking out of
any load-supporting structural member part by part before the building completely fall
(fully or partially demolish) at the same time considered the structure stability so the
building will not collapse simultaneously. It is commonly adapted to high rate of catch
area and commonly practices using heavy machinery and equipment’s. The heavy
machinery or equipment includes large motorized vehicles such as bulldozers with
rakes, backhoes, hydraulic excavators, and other similar machinery used for
transporting, moving of materials at a demolition site. Cranes equipped with wrecking
balls, clamshells, or buckets are also considered heavy machinery.
2.1.2 Mechanism of Control Demolition
Control demolition is a technique to demolish, wrecking or taking out of the
main structural member or element before the building completely fall, fully or partially
demolish. Equal to progressive demolition; it is commonly adapted to big catch area

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condition and usually practiced using explosion/implosion and wire rope pulling
methods or any other suitable method.
2.1.3 De construction or Top Down
Deconstruction or Top down method is the technique that proceeds from the
roof to ground in a general trend, there are particular sequences of demolition which
may vary, depending on site conditions and structural elements to be demolished, It is
the process of dismantling a building in order to salvage the structural members for
material reuse and recovery and commonly practices by machinery and hand
demolition methods, lop down method is applicable for most sites, particularly for those
situated in busy urban areas.

2.2 Problems May Arise While Carrying Out the Building Demolition

? Accidents due to persons falling from high, unprotected workplaces and through
openings.
? Accidents due to persons being struck by falling objects.
? The building collapsing suddenly may cause death.
? Injury to workers due to difficulty of accessing into or working inside a building.
? Collapsing of unstable structure due to original structure being disturbed.
? Collapse of heavy demolition equipment due to inadequate support of the partially
demolished structure.

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2.3 Safety of Demolition

2.3.1 Precautions regarding equipment
All the equipment should be operated by trained persons. The equipment should be
used and maintained while using. Lifting equipment should be thoroughly examined by
persons in-charged at least 12months once for safety of workers.
2.3.2 Precautions regarding Scaffolding
Scaffolds above 4m in height should be installed by a professional contractor. Working
platforms should be free from debris. Workers should be careful to prevent damage to
scaffolding components falling debris.

2.3.3 Precautions regarding Public Safety
Demolition site should be placed with appreciate warning signs. Unauthorized entry
should be permitted in the demolition site. When demolition of roofs and exterior walls,
catch platforms should be provided. Movement of machinery from floor to floor should
be considered in demolition process.
2.3.4 Precautions regarding Worker Safety
Workers involved in demolition works must be provided with professional trainings and
instructions when carrying out demolition work. Only those workers who had received
training and instructions are allow to carry out demolition work to make sure safety of
workers. All workers must wear safety helmets and boots. When necessary, workers
should wear personal protective equipment such as goggles, hearing protection
devices, gloves and others.

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2.4 Preparation on Site during Demolition

Site clearing is the first step of site preparation. The site should be cleared to remove
any obstacles that might affect the construction process or hinder the project to be done. This
process involves the removal of trees, stumps, brush, stones and the removal of any old
underground infrastructure. By doing so, heavy machinery and construction plant is accessible
to the site.
Hoarding is a temporary structure of solid construction, erected around the perimeter
of construction sites to shield them from view and restrict the unauthorised access of public.
It is an essential component in ensuring health and safety for site workers, visitors and the
general public. It is a part of a site security system as the hoarding can reduce the chances of
costly machinery and materials theft or vandalism.
Besides that, construction signage is displaced. Construction notice are useful for
effectively communicating safety information for both operatives and visitors onsite. The
function is to display health and safety information such as site safety rules and locations of
important places or people. Besides, the notice also includes the information such as the type
of project carry out, name of the construction company, date of commence, contact and so
forth.
A planning permission is obtained from local authority before the construction process
is started. Planning permission is the legal process of determining whether proposed
developments should be permitted. As soon the local authority has approved, the construction
work may start.

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2.5 Machinery Involves

2.5.1 Excavator

Excavator is a machine that commonly used in demolition works. The function
of excavator are digging trenches, holes and pit for foundation, material handling on
site and demolishing building. Excavator consists of boom, dipper, bucket, and cab on
rotating system which also called house. Movement of the excavator will use hydraulic
fluid, hydraulic cylinder and hydraulic motor. This type of system used are totally differ
from cable-operated excavator which use winches and rope. The advantage of using
hydraulic system is the capability of the machine will improve than using steam or
cable-operated excavator.

The model we use for our excavation is CAT 336D2 L. This excavator has
operating weight of 37086.0 kg. The maximum travel speed for the excavator is
4.6km/h. Some advantages while using this excavator are it has LCD monitor that
clearly display critical information needed to operate efficiently and effectively. The
engine system used automatic engine speed control which activated during no-load or
light load conditions to reduce engine speed. This will help to minimize fuel
consumption. The engine also run quietly with limited vibration that increase the
comfortability of the user. Independent pilot system used in the machine will enables
smooth, precise control for the front linkage, swing, and travel operation. This machine
also uses two hydraulic pump which increase the productivity of the work by faster the
implement speed and stronger pivot turns
Figure3: Excavator

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2.5.2 Wheel loader

The function of wheel loader is to move aside or load material and transfer it
from one place to another. Most of the machine will implement the hydraulic system
and transmission component for it movement. Some example of hydraulic component
that used in the machine are pumps, motor and valves. For the transmission
components used are gearbox, axles, pump and motor. The wheel loader itself
consists of backhoe, loader, tractor, cab, bucket, boom, and stabilizer legs.

The wheel loader model was 908M from CAT. This model has operating weight
of 14032.0 lb. The approximated bucket capacity is 0.9m³-1.5m³. The machine is fitted
with heavy duty axles, with outboard planetary reduction gears. The material used for
the machine is high quality solid plastics and well-fitted moldings which can ensure
long life of the components. The machine is easy to use as it complete with easy
access to vital machine information, with light and ECO mode switches. This ECO
mode save fuel. This machine also consists of soft touch keypad on the right hand
console contain new electric functions and setting, LCD that show the travel speed,
engine speed, speed range selection, hydraulic oil temperature, service hour meter,
engine coolant temperature, and fuel level. It also completes with indicator for engine,
electrical and hydraulic.

Figure 4: Wheel loader

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2.5.3 Bulldozer.

Bulldozer is a machine that consists of blade and ripper, a part of the machine
that look like a claw. The main function of the machine is to push large quantity of soil,
sand, rubble, or other material. The bulldozer also consists of a wide track that help it
to maintain the stability and distribute the weight over a large area. This will prevent it
from sinking in sandy and muddy ground. The tracks known as swamp tracks or low
ground pressure tracks. The system used are transmission system to take advantages
of track system. They preferred automatic transmission instead of manual. The blade
and ripper will use hydraulic system for their movement which will enable application
of down force. The function of blade are push object and shove sand, soil, debris, and
snow. The ripper will break the ground surface rock or pavement into smaller rubble.

The model we use for our demolition process is D7R CAT. This model has
operating weight of 24962.0 kg. The capacity of the blade is 3.89 m³. For the ripper,
the maximum clearance raised is 757.0 mm and the maximum penetration force is
85.0kN and have 3 no of pockets. The advantages of this model are isolation-mounted,
pressurized cab that reduce the noise and vibration. The control of all parts are
ergonomically for low-effort and ease operation. This use hydraulic system which
present a precise control. The operator will use a single handle control to perform all
the direction and gear selection which will make his or her work easier. This model
also has load sensing hydraulic that adjust the hydraulic power automatically to
maximize work tool efficiency.
Figure 5: Bulldozer

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2.5.4 Crusher Bucket
This machine usually attached with hydraulic excavator. The function of the
bucket is to reduce large rock into smaller rock, gravel or rock dust. The system use is
hydraulic relief system. This machine can pulverize concrete and cutting reinforcement
rods and small steel profiles. It can withstand from soft to very hard rock. It has no
abrasion limit. This machine also can crush dry, wet and sticky material. The reduction
ratio of the crusher bucket is 3/1 to 5/1.

Figure 6: Crusher bucket

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2.5.5 Hand drill

Most of hand drill fitted with cutting tool or driving tool. The main function of
hand drill is crushing and removing piece of work piece in this demolition process.
However, other function of hand drill is making holes and to combine the DIY
component that use screw. Some type of hand drill is pistol grip drill and hammer drill.
This drill usually uses electricity and battery for cordless type.

Figure 7: Hand drill

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3.0 CONSTRUCTION WORKS

3.1 Structure Design
High rise building is generally a tall building. Many bodies have their own definition of
high rise building. High rise building define as any structure where the height can have a
serious impact on evacuation. This definition is from The International Conference on Fire
Safety. There are several types of structure we can choose to build a high rise building. High
rise demand increase gradually as our world grows toward a modern world. This is due to the
scarcity of land in urban area. So, they need to build a building that maximise the space usage.
Other reason for high rise demand increases are:
? Concept of city skyline.
? Human aspiration to build higher.
? Respected by other country or races.
As structure is one of the most important element to build high rise, so the designer need to
choose wisely. There are some factors that influences the structure selection of high rise
building:
? Loadings
Load consist of live load and dead load. Live load is the load that change according to
time and condition like human load and wind load. While the dead load is the load that
fixed on the building like the weight of the structure and material used.

? Frame and materials
There are many materials we usually used in the construction. Concrete and steel are
the common material used to build commercial building. But for residential we also can
use timber. Timber may give nice preference to the building but they cannot withstand
such bigger load and easy to burn.

? Flexibility and future adaptability
Flexibility must be considered as the building should be adaptive to new changes such
as small load change and the weather of the places. The building also can be adapting
to new renovation on the building such as the new building services to be added like
piping and lift.

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? Deflection and tolerances.
A clear set of interface requirements between the structure and those connecting
elements which require specific movement or tolerance criteria should be identified.
These are likely to cover elements such as lift equipment and maintenance. Deflection
may occur as we choose the design carelessly.

? Vibration
Vibration factor also need to be considered. The building tends to get the vibration from
footfall vibration from the occupants itself and the movement of the transportation like
train and cars.

? Robustness.
The robustness of the building can be connected with the effort to make the building
minimum in collapse risk in the future.

? Sustainability
The building should be built to be sustainable. This will decrease the usage of the new
material and we can decrease the usage of natural resources that unrenewable or took
a long time to recover. The building itself must be eco-friendly.

? Structural fire stating.
The building be complied with the fire protection regulation prepared by the country.
This will make sure that the building is safe.

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3.2 Types of Structure.

Type of structure we use for our building is tube system. This structure system is
categorised in the exterior structure system which the major part of the lateral load is at the
building perimeter. They provide structural support and support the entire building by acting
as a skeletal support. (Voice of Volta Green, 2017).
The tube system is a system that can withstand lateral load from the wind, and seismic
pressure. It acts like hollow cylinder, cantilevered perpendicular to the ground. The tube
system concept is closely-spaced column are tied together with deep spandrel beam through
moment connections as part of the external perimeter of the building. This will result in a dense
and strong structural tube around the exterior. Since, the lateral load supported by the exterior
part of the building, the interior column can be reduced and the space can be fully used. The
interior part can simply be framed for the gravity loads.
The tube system itself is divided into 4 tube systems which are framed tube system,
trussed tube system, bundled tube system, and tube-in-tube system. We choose to use the
framed tube system.
Framed tube system is the simplest tube system used. The column spaced usually 2-
4 meter between centre, which is closely build. The tube can use both steel and concrete. Due
to costing and commonly use in Malaysia, our team choose to use the reinforced concrete.
The floor also not restricted only for rectangular shape, but it works on circular and triangle
shape. But the shape of our building is rectangular shape as it will maximise the space use.
Some example of the current building that use the framed tube system are the World
Trade Centre Towers.

Figure 8: Top view of frame tube system Figure 9: World Trade Centre Tower

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3.3 Type of Materials Used.

The type of material used for the 35 storey office building are concrete and recycled
material. The main reason to use concrete is it the common material use in Malaysia which
will make it easier to find the supplier and have many choice of company with quality we want.
The recycled material used because of the sustainability reason. The use of recycle material
will decrease the usage of the natural resources. We will use the demolished material from
the previous building. Some examples of the recycled materials and it usage is at the lean
concrete for the pile caps and the ground floor. We use crushed concrete from the demolition
resources. This also will reduce the costing of the material for the new building.

3.3.1 The comparison of concrete and steel.
Concrete Steel
Relatively heavy Relatively lightweight.
Shallower depths. Greater depths.
For modest spans, reinforced flat
slabs give minimum depths. Minimum depth solutions inefficient.
Can be efficient on rectangular and square
grids.
Good for longer spans but depth
requirement simply combined structure and
services zone.
Holes and fixings can be accommodated
but strategy must be considered early.
Holes should avoid pre-stressing tensions.
More efficient on rectangular grids than on
square grids.
Mass provides good inherent response to
footfall vibration.
Inherently good for holes and fixings
(into soffit).
Fire protection is inherent. Depth and weight may be governed by
footfall dynamics.
No need for intumescent paints which can
be harmful to the environment. Fire protection is an additional trade.
Exposed concrete soffit can allow the
omission of ceilings and improve the
thermal performance of the building.
Framing of holes and openings
straightforward.
Table 1: Comparison of concrete and steel

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3.3.2 The advantages and disadvantages of using tube system
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
Allows greater flexibility in planning
interior design
Reduce the size of the building opening.
Less construction time as the regularity
of the column schedule allows off-site
fabrication and welding.
The view of the world outside is obstructed
when we go higher in the building.
Wind resisting system. Shear lag effect.
Maximum advantage is taken of the total
width of the building to resist overturning
moment.

Identical framing for floor.
Table 2 : Advantages and Disadvantages of Tube System

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3.2 METHODE OF CONSTRUCTION

INTRODUCTION
Construction methods are the procedures and techniques that are used during the
building process. Concrete is often used in commercial buildings and civil engineering
projects, but much less commonly used in residential home construction. The strength of
concrete (a mix of cement and water plus an aggregate such as sand or stone) means it can
support a great deal of weight, especially when reinforced through embedded steel bars
known as rebar.
There are many type of construction method which are:
? Slip form construction
? Jump form constructon
? Table form/flying form
? Syatem column formwork
? Vertical panel system
? Tunnel form

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JUMP FORM METHODE.

Generally, jump form systems comprise the formwork and working platforms for
cleaning/fixing of the formwork, steel fixing and concreting. Jump form, often described as
climbing form. It is suitable for construction of multi-storey vertical concrete elements in high-
rise structures. It is a highly productive system designed to increase speed and efficiency while
minimizing labour and time. Generally jump form systems (taken to include systems often
described as ‘climbing form’) comprise the formwork and working platforms for cleaning and
fixing the formwork, steel fixing and concreting. The formwork supports itself on the concrete
cast earlier so does not rely on support or access from other parts of the building. Jump form
systems are suitable for construction of vertical concrete elements in high-rise structures. This
systems are normally modular and can be joined to form long lengths to suit varying
construction geometries.
Three types of jump form are in general use:
1. Normal jump or climbing form units are individually lifted off the structure and relocated
at the next construction level using a crane. Jump form systems are typically used on
buildings of five storeys or more; fully self-climbing are generally used on structures
with more than 20 floors. However, a combination of crane-handled and self-climbing
systems can be viable on lower structures.
2. Guided-climbing jump form units also use a crane but often provide greater safety and
control during lifting as the units remain anchored to or are guided by the structure.

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3. Self-climbing jump form systems do not require a crane as they climb up rails on the
building by means of hydraulic jacks, or by jacking the platforms off recesses in the
structure. It is possible to lift multiple units in a single operation. Working platforms,
guard rails and ladders are generally built into the completed formwork systems, along
with complete wind-shield protection when necessary.

JUMP FORM CONSTRUCTION
Jump forms are one method for the construction of the cores (that house the lifts,
staircases etc.) for high-rise buildings and similar structures. The structure is cast in a series
of vertical sections called ´lifts´. After the concrete has gained sufficient strength the formwork
is moved back and then ‘jumped’ to the next level above.
The formwork is generally part of a complete system consisting of three or more levels.
1. The upper level is for storage and concreting,
2. The main platform is for fixing the reinforcement and setting the shutters and
3. The lower level gives access to the finished concrete surface, to allow any remedial
work and for attaching fixings to cast-in sockets and plates.

For most structures a crane is used to lift the complete assembly to the higher level.
However, for larger structures this may be impracticable, requiring the use of self-
climbing systems that have built-in hydraulic lifting jacks.
Fast construction can be achieved by careful planning of the construction process. Crane
availability is critical for normal jump form. Self-climbing formwork cuts down the requirement
for crane time considerably. By allowing the crane to be used for other construction work this
may reduce the total number of cranes needed on site. The formwork is independently
supported, so the shear walls and core walls can be completed ahead of the rest of the main
building structure. This can help to provide stability to the main structure during its construction
and can have the beneficial effect of taking the jump form core off the project critical path.
SAFETY.
Working platforms, guard rails, and ladders are built into the completed units of market-leading
formwork systems. Complete wind-shield protection on platform edges is also possible. Self-
climbing formwork systems are provided with integral free-fall braking devices. The completed
formwork assembly is robust and provides a stable working platform. The reduced use of

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scaffolding and temporary work platforms results in less congestion on site. The setting rate
of concrete in those parts of the structure supporting the form is critical in determining the rate
at which construction can safely proceed. The repetitive nature of the work means that site
operatives can quickly become familiar with health and safety aspects of their job. Formwork
suppliers provide materials and resources to help train the labour force.
SUSTAINABILITY FEATURES
The formwork system is easy to clean and reuse with little formwork waste generated
compared to traditional formwork. Climbing formwork systems offer simplicity, safety and cost
effectiveness for certain high-rise building structures. The repetitive nature of the work,
combined with the engineered nature of the formwork, allows fine tuning of the construction
operations, which in turn leads to minimal concrete wastage.
Many repeated uses of formwork are possible before maintenance or replacement is needed,
the number of uses depending on the quality of the surface finish of concrete specified
It is an economical, rapid and accurate method of constructing reinforced concrete, or post-
tensioned concrete structures. At its most basic level, slipforming is a type of movable
formwork which is slowly raised, allowing the continuous extrusion of concrete.
3.3 Pilling Works
A foundation is the lowest part of the building structure (Kingston, 2016), can be
classified into shallow foundation and deep foundation. Shallow foundations are pad
foundation, raft foundation and strip foundation while deep foundation is pilling foundation. At
least 20% of the overall cost will be spent on constructing a reliable and durable foundation,
thus a proper geotechnical survey must take consideration in deciding the settlement of the
foundation.

Importance of foundation Factors affecting the choice of foundations
1. Strength of building.
Foundation hold the structure above
it and keep it upright. It support the
load of the entire of building. (Park,
2016)
1. Foundation loads.
All the possible loads have to calculate
thoroughly prior before constructing
work started. (Themes, 2018)
2. Withstand nature wreak havoc.
It keep the occupants of the building
safe during calamities such as
2. Groundwater level.
To determine groundwater level of the
construction site, at least 4 wells must

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earthquake, floods, strong winds and
so on. (Park, 2016)
be drilled. Laboratory analyses on
sample of soil must be conducted.
(Themes, 2018)
3. Prevent moisture penetration.
It avoid the moisture of ground from
infiltrating in and damaging the
structure. (Park, 2016)
3. Soil frost line.
Depth of soil frost line have to
determine to ensure foundation built
would not below of it. Non-swelling soil
can be used to fill the free space inside
the foundation. (Themes, 2018)
4. The purpose and design of the
house.
Different foundation cater the different
design of houses, must choose the
most suitable one. (Themes, 2018)
Table 1: Importance and factors affecting the choice of foundations.

The new building that are going to be built after demolition works are a 35-storey
building. Shallow foundations are no longer fit to endure all the dead, superimpose and wind
loads. The foundation been chosen is piling foundation. Piles is used to anchor down building,
control the settlements. (Den, 2018) It transfer the loads regardless if the load is inclined or
vertical to a deeper strata in the ground where can be carried. It give a sufficient strength and
stability to sustain the loading.
Various materials can made the piles such as timber, concrete, steel and composite.
Meanwhile, load transfer of piles can be end-bearing piles, friction piles as well as end-bearing
cum friction piles. There are two types of construction method for piles, which are cast-in-situ
and pre-cast. Replacement piles and displacement piles are the installation method for piles
foundation. For the 35-storey new building, cast-in-situ concrete piles which transfer loads
through end-bearing cum friction are used. It is installed through replacement method (figure
1). The reason why used cast-in-situ piles is the congested urban sites making it difficult to
manoeuvre the long pre-cast pile.

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Figure 1: Replacement method cast-in-situ concrete piles.
The type of replacement piles applied is bored piles. It is known as auger-injected piles.
There are 3 patterns of mechanical method for piles formed. Small diameter pile is formed by
using boring rig and drill, medium diameter pile is formed with sing bucket barrel while large
diameter of pile is formed by reserve circulation drill.

Boring Methods Elaboration
1. Manual-dug method

? It is used for piles foundation that has
3m and above sizes.
? Workers excavate using simple
powered tools inside the caisson
shaft.
? Due to high accident rate, it has been
banned, unless special approval is
obtained.
2. Continuous Flight Auger (CFA)
(Dickson, 2017)
? Auger fitted with protective cap on
the outlet at the base of the central
tube.
? Highly workable concrete is pumped
through the hollow stem of the auger,
protective cap is detached.

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? Rotation of the auger and flow of
concrete is matched to avoid
collapse of sides of the holes, which
will lead to voids in filled with soil in
concrete.
? Effective on soft ground and it must
be self-supporting free from tree
roots, cobbles, and boulders.
3. Drilled Shafts

? Known as caissons.
? It is a typically cast-in-place deep
foundation constructed using an
auger.
? Drilled pier is a deep foundation
system that is constructed by placing
fresh concrete and reinforcing steel
into a drilled shaft.
? Drilled shafts can sustain high axial
and lateral loads, diameter range
from 18 to 144 inches.
Table 2: Boring Methods for non-displacement piles.

3.3.1 Construction Process
For the construction of bored piles, Drilled Shaft Piles boring method is employed.
Temporary or permanent steel casings is used to maintain the sides of the drilled excavation.
It is to prevent the caving soils or water infiltration. (Tommy, 2015) A crane mounted auger
moved to the planned shaft position and started his job. The drilled shaft is constructed by
rotary methods using crane mounted auger. To achieve the desired bearing stratum, the hole
is advanced through soil or rock. Ground removed by auger. As auger is removed, steel cage
is dropped into the drilled shaft and welding of steel cage may needed to attain the full length
of reinforcement bars. Next, concrete is poured into the holes.
3.3.2 Pile Load Test
The finished foundation element have to resist compressive, uplift, and lateral loads.
On the other words, pile testing is needed to make sure it can withstand the required loads
and reduce the risk of building collapse. A pile load test (figure 2) is to determine the ultimate
geotechnical capacity of a pile. Dynamic load testing is a fast and reliable way to evaluate the

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bearing capacity of a pile as well as provide information about structural integrity, driving
stresses and hammer efficiency. A static load test used to identify the pile behaviour under a
static load being carry on once the dynamic load test has been passed. (Kantesaria, 2018)

Figure 2: Pile load test with concrete blocks.

3.3.3 Justifications
Drilled shaft boring method is proposed to construct the bored piles because it is the
most convenience boring method compared to manual-dug method and continuous flight
auger (CFA). It takes lesser time to complete the piling works than manual-dug method and
safer. With it, time run for the construction project can be reduce. It is a more efficient and
budget save method. Even though the continuous flight auger is a faster installation for
conventional bored piles and produces much less noise and vibration, it is more risky than
drilled shaft due to the rotation of the auger and flow of concrete have to synchronize in order
to avoid collapse of sides of the holes. It will lead to voids in filled with soil in concrete and
eventually affect the loading sustain of the piles. Besides that, drilled shaft boring method are
having the steel casing to prevent the surrounding soil from collapse while continuous flight
auger must be self-supporting. Cast-in-situ piles are proposed due to restriction of construction
site and the congested urban limit the shifting of long pre-cast piles from prefabricated factory
to construction site.

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3.4 Pile Cap
A pile cap is a thick concrete mat that rests on the concrete piles. It provide a more
stable foundation, typically used for a multi-storey building, structure or support base for heavy
equipment. Each piles under the same pile cap will evenly allocate the building loads.
The shapes of pile caps can be divided into three which are triangular, hexagonal and
rectangular. For triangular pile cap, it made up for 3 piles; 6 to 7 piles are under hexagonal
pile cap; rectangular piles are available to all other number of piles. (Jonathan, 2018)
As it is very difficult to bore the piles vertical exactly, the pile cap should be able to
accommodate some deviation in the final position of the pile heads. Otherwise, the pile tops
may be trimmed to obtain same height for all piles. There are 5 factors that determine the
depth of pile cap: the shear capacity of the pile cap, shrinkage and swelling of the ground, pile
anchorage, ground’s water table and the possibility of frost attack. The concrete undergo a
chemical change as it hardens and a lot of heat been released. Pipes carrying refrigerant
coolant are used in the mass to assist the setting process to prevent the cracking of concrete.
For the new building, the rectangular piles are proposed to be used, each of them
contains 4 piles. Pile cap overhang the outer piles with a distance of 150mm on all sides.

3.4.1 Construction Process
Steps Elaboration
1. Earthwork.

The top 1 meter ground portion of every piles
has to be removed. Earthwork must carry
out carefully to prevent hitting of concrete
piles. This process took more than 1 week.
(Mayam, 2017)
2. Pile Breaking The top portion of the piles has to be broken
down using chisel. This step require effort
and skill to avoid any piles crack. At least 28
days is needed for pile to gain its full strength
before this step took place. (Mayam, 2017)

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3. Plain cement concrete (PCC)
casting for pile caps.

100mm of PCC casting poured and act as
the connector between the ground and the
pile caps. A thick polythene are placed
below the PCC to prevent damping. PCC
and the top of each piles must on the same
horizontal level by doing proper
measurement. From the top portion of the
piles, 50mm of concrete is casted and top
portion of the rods was bent into an L-shape.
(Mayam, 2017)
4. Pile cap reinforcements.

Extreme precision must follow based on the
structural drawing such as quantity of steel
bars to make the reinforcement for pile cap.
A great number of labors is needed for this
procedure and it consumed a major time.
This tighten the reinforcement bars process
so called shuttering for pile caps.
(Mayam, 2017)
5. Concrete casting of pile caps.

The total duration for construction of pile
caps was 2 months, with 5 days reserved for
concrete casting. Water the concrete
continuously is needed until sand-filling was
completed. (Mayam, 2017)

27
3.5 FRAME
3.5.1 INTRODUCTION
Frame comprises of a network of columns and connecting beams which forms the
structural ‘skeleton’ of a building. Beams are horizontal members while columns are vertical
members of this frame. Humans walk on a flat planes of concrete known as slabs. Retrieved
from Understanding Building Construction. Accessed on 6 April 2018
Table Importance and Factors Affecting the Choice of Frame
IMPORTANCE OF FRAME FACTORS AFFECTING THE CHOICE OF
FRAME
? Primary load-carrying element

The function of columns is to transmit the
loads from ceiling, slabs or including weight
of itself to the foundation deep in the soil.
The beam fixes and holds fitly the columns
in order to stabilize it. In addition, it also acts
to bear all the loads come from the wall
which constructed parallel with the beam
(liwei, 2012) Accessed on 10 April 2018
? Durability

Reinforced concrete columns and beams
have reinforcement bars within the concrete
to improve the strength. Concrete is durable
as it resists weathering, erosion and natural
disasters. It needs few repairs and little
maintenance. (Masterbuilder,
2013)Accessed on 10 April 2018
? Provide external strength

The frame prevents building from collapsing.
The frame has to be constructed very strong
to withstand various loads such as wind
loads, dead loads and live loads imposed.
(Wilson, 2016) Accessed on 10 April 2018

? Duration of completion

Concrete takes longer time to harden,
around 7-28 days. Steel can be totally pre-
fabricated and easy to install. The
construction of steel structure consumes
shorter time as it does not need to wait to be
hardened. (Masterbuilder, 2013) Accessed
on 10 April 2018
? Support suspended slab

A column is a vertical member that supports
the beam carrying the slab. Without the
frame, load cannot be transferred and it
? Cost

Concrete is economical and cost effective.
Concrete is invulnerable to rot unlike wood.
Thus, concrete has a longer lifespan.

28
cannot be supported. (Soules, 2017)
Accessed on 19 April 2018
(Masterbuilder, 2013) Accessed on 10 April
2018

29
Figure Wood Frame
Figure Steel Frame
Figure Concrete Frame
Table Types of Frame
TYPES OF FRAME EXPLANATIONS

? Wood frame

Wood frame is light, and thus allows quick
construction with no heavy tools or
equipment. Every component can easily be
carried by hand. However, it is not strong
enough to resist major wind events such as
tornadoes and hurricanes. Retrieved from
Understanding Building Construction.
Accessed on 10 April 2018

? Steel frame

The most significant feature of steel framing
is its flexibility. It can bend without cracking,
as a steel building can flex when it is pushed
to one side by say, wind, or an earthquake.
But its disadvantage is that, steel lose its
strength in a fire. Retrieved from
Understanding Building Construction.
Accessed on 10 April 2018

? Concrete frame

Concrete frame is a structural member
designed to carry compressive loads.
Basically, it is the concrete with an
embedded steel frame to provide
reinforcement. Retrieved from
Understanding Building Construction.
Accessed on 10 April 2018

30
3.5.2 CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE OF FRAME
In the construction of frame, the materials used include cement, course aggregates, fine
aggregates, steel bars and water. The construction process can basically divide into 5 stages
which is layout work, reinforcement work, formwork, pouring concrete and removal of
formwork respectively. (Biswas, 2017) Accessed on 3 April 2018.

STEPS AND ELABORATIONS
1. Layout Work
The position and location of column is determined. Rope is lay according to the grids shown
in the drawing. The location of columns related to rope is marked. In drawing, column
locations are shown related to grid-line with dimension. However, rope is assumed as grid
line in the field. So, columns related to rope-line is placed by measuring dimension shown
in the drawing. (Biswas, 2013) Accessed on 3 April 2018.

2. Placing Reinforcement bars
After the location of column has marked, reinforcement is
placed as instructed in the structural drawing. The
reinforcement is fixed to the starter bar from column stump.
Merely placing the bars on supports is not enough. Links are
tied to the vertical main bars using wire ties. (Staff, 2005)
Accessed on 3 April 2018.
3. Formwork Installation
Formwork is positioned to cover all sides of the column.
Formwork for beam needs to consist of two sides of beam
and soffit. This wooden structure is to ensure that the
mixture does not spread and will give the concrete in the
column its shape while the concrete solidifies. (Brennan,
2011) Accessed on 3 April 2018.
Figure Reinforcement bars
Figure Formwork

31
Figure Curing
STEPS AND ELABORATIONS
4. Slump Test
Slump test is carried out to access the consistency of fresh
concrete. The slump test involves taking a sample of
concrete from the truck and placing it in a cone-shaped
form; the form is then inverted over a flat surface, allowing
the concrete to flow out into what is called a “slump” the
height of the resultant pile. This height is then measured;
three to four inches are considered ideal, but a shorter
slump may indicate too much water in the mix, which can
weaken the concrete. Samples of fresh concrete taken from
the chute of the delivery truck will be used to fill at least three
cardboard or plastic cylinders. These three cylinders will be allowed to cure at a testing
laboratory, where they will be subjected to a compression (crushing) test to determine if
they meet design strength. Retrieved from Civil Engineer. Accessed on 3 April 2018.
5. Pouring of concrete
All formwork and reinforcement should be clean and free from
standing water before pouring concrete. When the workability of
concrete is determined, concrete is then poured using concrete
pump. The concrete is compacted using mechanical vibration.
Vibration shall be appiled continuously during the placing of each
batch of concrete until the expulsion of air has practically ceased.
Continue pouring concrete until the forms are filled to the
finished grade of the slab. (Zakaria, 2017)
6. Curing
Curing and protection shall start immediately after the
compaction of concrete. After that, the concrete is wrapped
in plastic to prevent it from drying out while it cures.
(Beaulieu, 2017) Accessed on 3 April 2018.
7. Removal of formwork

Figure Slump Test
Figure Pouring Concrete

32
Once it’s “cured” completely, the plastic and formwork is removed carefully, and the
construction crew can move onto the next phase of the project. (Brennan, 2011) Accessed
on 3 April 2018.

33

3.5.3 JUSTIFICATION
ADVANTAGES OF CONCRETE FRAME
? Concrete is economical
Concrete it is inexpensive and the production cost of cement concrete is very low. The major
ingredients of concrete such as cement, water and aggregates are readily available. (Paul,
2016) Accessed on 3 April 2018.

? Ability to be cast into shape
Fresh concrete is in liquid state and hence can be poured into various formworks or shuttering
configurations to form desired shapes and sizes at construction site. It can be cast into
complex shapes and configurations by adjusting the mix. (Paul, 2016) Accessed on 3 April
2018.

? High-temperature resistance
Concrete can resist high temperatures better than wood and steel. Concrete is a bad
conductor of heat and it can store considerable amount of heat from the environment. (Paul,
2016) Accessed on 3 April 2018.

? Less maintenance required
Concrete structures do not require coating or painting for regular applications as protection for
weathering compared to steel or wooden structures. The maintenance cost for concrete is
much lower than that for steel or wood. (Paul, 2016) Accessed on 3 April 2018.

? Water resistance
Concrete can withstand water without serious deterioration. Due to its water impermeable
property, it is ideal to underwater and submerged applications like for building structures,
pipelines, dams, canals, linings and waterfront structures. (Paul, 2016) Accessed on 3 April
2018.

34

DISADVANTAGES OF CONCRETE FRAME
? Long curing time
Concrete attains specified compressive strength in 28-days after casting and curing. Proper
ambient temperature controlled over a month time is required for full strength development.
(Marten, 2011) Accessed on 3 April 2018.

? Low tensile strength
Reinforced concrete has a low rate of compressive strength when compared to steel. The ratio
is about 1:10 for reinforced concrete compared to steel. Low rate of compressive strength may
cause cracks to develop. Fibre and other polymers are introduced to increase its tensile
capacity. (Marten, 2011) Accessed on 3 April 2018.

? Contains soluble salts.
Concrete may contain soluble salts. If soluble salt is present
in concrete, then it may lead to efflorescence when comes
in contact with moisture. (Suryakanta, 2015) Accessed on
3 April 2018.

? Cracking of concrete
Drying shrinkage and moisture expansion can result in the
cracking of concrete. Therefore, construction joints are
needed to avoid these types of cracks. (Suryakanta, 2015)
Accessed on 3 April 2018.

Figure Efflorescence of Concrete Slab
Figure Cracking of Concrete

35

3.6 Slab
Slab is a piece of concrete that always used as walking surface. It also can serve as
load bearing device as in slab homes. Concrete slab is a common structural element of a
building.
Table 3: Importance and factors affecting the choice of slab
Importance of slab Factors affecting the choice of slab
? Provide a flat surface
Slab provide a flat surface for walking.
? Strength and stability
It depends on the strength and stability of
the building.

? Support load
It also acts as a load bearing device.
? Exclusion of dampness from
inside the building

? Sound and heat insulator
It acts as sound and heat barrier to prevent
spread of fire and noise.
? Thermal insulation

? Act as divider
It acts as divider to provide privacy to
users.
? Resistance to fire
Slab construct depends on the resistance
of building to fire.
? Upper slab become ceiling
Upper slab become ceiling for the storey
below.
? Provision of a uniform and level
surface

? Space
Space between ceiling and floor is used to
place building facilities.

Upper Floor
Precast concrete floor
Advantages of precast concrete floor is it do not need formwork. It takes a shorter time
as the time taken for the concrete to cure in formwork can be eliminated. It has a better quality
control than others. It is a fast completion of construction process. Long spans can reduce the
number of secondary beam required and maximize the column free space (Trego, 2012).
There are few factors of affecting the choice of precast concrete floor which is the maximum

36

span of slab, weight and thickness of units, nature of support, fire resistance and others
(Trego, 2012).
Table 1: Types of precast concrete floor
Types of
precast
concrete
floor
Precast hollow floors

Composite floors
More economic compared to in-situ
floor as it reduces the volume of
concrete, weight of reinforcement and
size of foundation (Trego, 2012).
It is the combination of precast
units and in-situ concrete.
It is cheaper than composite floors as
in-situ concrete in not needed.
Precast units are added with
reinforcement bars to increase
the strength of the floor.
It does not need temporary support as
the units are all self-centering. (Trego,
2012)
It will act same as in-situ floor and
be designed for more complex
loadings. (Trego, 2012)
It only takes a short construction period.

Figure 1: Precast hollow floors Figure 2: Composite floors

37

Types of Reinforced concrete slab
Table 4: Types of reinforced concrete slab
Types of reinforced concrete slab Elaborations
1. Flat slab

Flat slab able to reduce the
displacement of slab. It also
increases the slab shear
resistance and it also provides a
flat ceiling which will recduce the
finishing cost. It only can support
low storey height as it only has a
shallow floor. It has medium span
with light load bearing.
2. Flat plate slab

Flat plate slab is a simple
construction. It can minimize the
storey height of the building. It
only can support low storey
height as it only has a shallow
floor (Trego, 2012). It has flat
ceilings and can reduce finishing
cost. It involved the simplest
formwork. It reduces the building
weight and able to withstand
winds loads. It only can apply to
light load bearing structure and
for short and medium spans only.
Figure 3: Flat slab
Figure 4: Flat plate slab

38

3. Waffle Slab

Waffle slab is used as alternative
to an in-site slab or a beam and
slab suspended floor (Trego,
2012). It is a saving cost method
of slab as it only requires less
concrete and reinforcements.
This will cause the reduce in
number of columns and beams.
Moulds of waffle slab are very
strong, lightweight and capable to
support all the normal loads
encountered in building works
(Trego, 2012).

Construction process of solid floor
Solid floor is constructed using concrete normally. It does not use timber. Therefore, it
will no decay. Solid floor need finishes.
Table 5: Construction process of solid floor
Steps Elaborations
1. Site clearing

Clear the construction area
by removing all the trees.
(Johny, 2012)
Figure 6: Site clearing
Figure 5: Waffle slab

39

2. Remove topsoil

Remove all the topsoil and
unsuitable materials.
(Johny, 2012)
3. Compact and level the soil

Compact and level the soil
by flattening the sloped
area.
4. Place hardcore

Hardcore is placed and
compacted. Hardcore is
used to fill in any small holes
that formed during previous
excavation. (Johny, 2012)
This is done to provide a firm
base to place concrete bed
ad help to spread the load
supported over a larger
area.
Figure 7: Remove topsoil
Figure 8: Level soil

40

5. Place Damp Proof Membrane

Damp Proof
Membrane(DPM) is placed
to prevent moisture
transmission from the
ground.
6. Prepare formwork

Formwork is prepared
before pouring concrete.
7. Prepare lean concrete

50mm-75mm lean concrete
is prepared to ensure the
reinforcement will not touch
the ground.
Figure 9: Place Damp Proof Membrane
Figure 10: Formwork
Figure 11: Prepare lean concrete

41

8. Place reinforcement bar

Reinforcement bars are
placed to increase the
strength of the slab.
9. Pour concrete

Concrete (cement: sand:
aggregate: 1:2:4) with
thickness of 150mm is
poured and levelled.

Type of flat slab construction
Table 6: Types of flat slab construction
Figure 12:Reinforcement bars
Figure 13:Pour concrete

42

Types of flat slab construction Elaborations
1. Simple flat slab

Simple flat slab is the reinforced concrete
slab supported directly by the concrete
column without using beams (Jack, 2012).
2. Flat slab with drop panels

This slab increases shear strength of slab.
It also increases the negative moment
capacity of slab (Marott, 2014). Drop
panels can reduce deflection of slab by
stiffen the slab (Marott, 2014).
3. Flab slab with column heads

Column heads increases the shear
strength of slab. It also reduces the
moments in slab by reducing the effective
span (Marott, 2014).
Figure 14: Simple flat slab
Figure 15: Flat slab with drop panels
Figure 16: Flat slab with column heads

43

Justification
Table 7: Advantages and disadvantages of flat slab
Advantages Disadvantages
Flat slab ? Flexibility
It shows flexibility in room
as partition walls can be
placed at anywhere.
? Span length
It’s span length is medium
and impossible to have
large span (Jack, 2012).
? Reinforcement
placement
Reinforcement placement
is easier as process of
installing of flat slab is
simple.
? Thick
The thickness of flat slab is
thicker compared to other
slab.
? Less time
consuming
It reduces the construction
time.
? Not suitable for
masonry partitions.
It cannot support masonry
partitions (Jack, 2012).
? Reduce building
height

4. Flat slab with both drop panels and
column heads

It has the strongest shear strength.
Figure 17:Flat slab with both drop panels and
column heads

44

Building height can be
reduced as no beam is
used.
? Ease of framework
installation
Big table of flat slab can be
used so that the installing
process can be simplify.

45

Roof
Roof is a covering at the uppermost parts of a building. (H.M.A, 2009) Roof provides
protection for the building and its contents from the effects of climate changes. Roof protects
a building against rain, heat, sunlight and wind.
Table 8: Importance and factors affecting the choice of roofs
Importance of roof Factors affecting the choice of roof
1. Protects building from climate
changes.
It protects the building from heat, sunlight,
wind, rain and others.
1. Roof Design (COOK, 2016)
The design of the roof determines the
roofing system used.
2. Drainage
It helps to keep out water to prevent
accumulation of water.
2. Durability of the System (COOK,
2016)
The resilience of roofing system depends
on the durability of roofing materials used.
3. Climate
The roof need to withstand the climate
changes such as rainfall, wind, heat and
others.
4. Availability and Cost of Roofing
Material (COOK, 2016)
The material chosen must be eco-friendly
and have low maintenance.

Types of roofs

46

Table 9: Types of roofs
Types of roofs Elaborations
1. Flat roof

Flat roofs are most common roof in
buildings. Flat roofs are the simple roof to
build because they have little pitch only.
2. Gable Roof

The gable roof style looks like an inverted
down V. It is simple to build.
3. Hip Roof

Hip roofs are more difficult to construct
when compared to flat roofs as they have
a more complicated truss and rafter
structure. A hip roof style roof has four
sloping sides with zero vertical roof walls.
Hip roofs can be square or rectangular.
(Allen, 2010)
Figure 18: Flat roof
Figure 19: Gable roof
Figure 20: Hip roof

47

4. Butterfly Roof

Butterfly roof provides plenty of light
penetration and ventilation but it is not
effective in water drainage.
5. Shed Roof

A shed roof is basically a flat roof with a
slightly greater angle to allow greater run
off. It is usually used in home extensions
rooms and porches.
6. Gambrel Roof

Gambrel roof provides a good amount of
space in the attic. It provides extra space
that it is often turned into bedrooms or
other living areas.
Figure 21: Butterfly roof
Figure 22: Shed roof
Figure 23: Gambrel roof

48

7. Dutch Hip Roof

Dutch hip roof is basically a hip roof with a
small gable at either end. The gables can
be used as ventilation.

Components of flat roof
Figure 24:Dutch hip roof

49

Table
10:
Components and functions of roof

Roof decking construction
A flat base is required to lay the roof covering on. The base used must be
minimum 18mm thick. Insulation layer could be required to construct a ‘warm roof’ build-up.
The sheets of plywood are fixed to the joists to make a flat base. (Lake, 2016) This is flat roof.
The panels are laid with the longer edges across the joists and staggered to offer a more
Components Functions
1. Gutter Collects rainwater from the roof and
conveys them to the rainwater pipe.
2. Rainwater pipe Conveys the discharged rainwater to the
drains.
3. Verge Verge is the non-drained edge of a roof.
4. Flashing to weather Joint between roof and parapet.
5. Parapet Support wall projecting above roof level.
6. Fascia Closing member of roof construction.
Figure 25: Components of flat roof

50

stable surface. (Lake, 2016) To improve the strength of roof, timber noggins are always used
between the joists. Some systems require an expansion gap between the decking boards.
Preventing leaks at abutments and parapets
The most common source of leaks when it comes to flat roofs is where the flat roof
meets the house or parapet walls. Turning the roof covering up the wall to form a skirting is
the commonly applied method of ensuring a water-tight seal. (Lake, 2016)

Construction process of flat roof
Table 11: Construction process of flat roof
Steps Elaborations
1. Frame the roof

Every flat roof has a gentle
rise and fall created by
frame that enable water to
run off the roof. When
framing a flat roof, a slight
incline must be created.
2. Add the plywood After framing, add a layer of
5/8-inch plywood sheathing.
Make sure that there is at
least a 1/8-inch gap at all the
joints to allow for
contraction, expansion and
the natural movement of the
roof. (Well, 2017)
Figure 26: Frame the roof
Figure 27: Add plywood

51

3. Add the underlayment

Underlayment is to create a
soft, protective base for the
rubber. Iso board is used,
which is a piece of 1/2-inch-
thick rigid foam with a
special fiberglass backing
(Well, 2017). Secure it to the
plywood sheathing with
screws and steel washers
(Well, 2017). Make sure that
all the pieces fit snugly
against each other. It is very
important for the installation.
4. Create the corners

When install, make sure that
no water is accumulate at
any corners of the roof,
especially parapet. To
prevent this, 2x4s is cut into
proper size and is screwed
into the joints between wall
and roof to create gradual
transition.
Figure 28: Add underlayment
Figure 29: Corner of roof

52

5. Complete the dry-fit process

Make sure there are no
debris on the roof. After
taking the rubber, cut the
rubber rolls with utility knife
and into sizes that big
enough to cover the roof or
additional 9 inches to the
sides of roofs (Well, 2017).
Then, spread the rubber
rolls carefully on the roof. If
there is overlap, take the
sides and fold back to itself.
6. Secure the rubber with glue

Glue the folded rubber and
the Iso board together.
Spread the glue with a paint
roller on both sides. When
the glue seems to be almost
dry, finish the spreading
process so there are no
wrinkles. Make sure there is
no air bubbles and the extra
edges can be glue to the
wall (Well, 2017).
7. Finish off any edges At any vertical corners, cut
and overlap the rubber and
glue it tightly. To prevent
vertical section from peeling
off from the wall, screw them
to the metal brackets which
called termination stops
(Well, 2017).
Figure 30: Rubber roll
Figure 31: Spread the glue over the roof
Figure 32: Edges of the roof

53

8. Add a copper flashing

Nail down a lead-coated
copper flashing over the
front edges of the roof (Well,
2017). Glue a 12-inch strip
of uncured rubber over the
flashing’s top nail edge.

Justifications
Table 12: Advantages and disadvantages of flat roof
Advantages Disadvantages
Figure 33: Copper flashing

54

Flat roof ? Save space
There is no dead space as
there is no space lost below
the roof (P., 2014).
? Drainage
There is always problem of
accumulation of water as it
has no drains.
? Less materials
Less materials used to
build a flat roof.
? Short life span
It only has short life span
which is 10-15 years (P.,
2014)..
? Pleasant looks
It has a more pleasant
looks.
? High maintenance
High maintenance is
needed for flat roof as there
is always leaking problems.
? More accessible
Cleaning, installing and
repairing process is more
easier and cheaper (P.,
2014) .

? Have many
function
It can be used to make a
garden, terrace or other
purpose (P., 2014).

? Cheap materials
The materials needed to
construct a flat roof is
cheap.

Contents
1.0 SITE INFORMATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
2.0 DEMOLITION WORKS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
2.1 Technique for Demolition ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
2.1.1 Progressive Demolition ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
2.1.2 Mechanism of Control Demolition …………………………………………………………………………….. 3
2.1.3 De construction or Top Down …………………………………………………………………………………… 4

55

2.2 Problems May Arise While Carrying Out the Building Demolition ……………………………………….. 4
2.3 Safety of Demolition ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5
2.3.1 Precautions regarding equipment …………………………………………………………………………….. 5
Precautions regarding Scaffolding …………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
Precautions regarding Public Safety ………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
Precautions regarding Worker Safety ………………………………………………………………………………… 5
2.4 Preparation on Site during Demolition …………………………………………………………………………….. 6
2.5 Machinery Involves ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
2.5.1 Excavator ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
2.5.2 Wheel loader ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
2.5.3 Bulldozer. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9
2.5.4 Crusher Bucket ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
2.5.5 Hand drill ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
3.0 CONSTRUCTION WORKS ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
3.1 Structure Design ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
3.2 Types of Structure. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14