1 service provider. Working from Anywhere The

1 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 CLOUD COMPUTING The cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient on demand, network access to shared pool of resources (network, server, storage, application). The technology of distributed data processing in which some scalable information resources and capacities are provided as a service to multiple external customer through internet.

The main aim of cloud computing is move to desktop computer to service oriented platform. The cloud computing application, data and resources are provide to users as a services over the web. The service provided may be based on low in cost, massively scalable, on demand based. Figure1: Basic Cloud Storage Model2 1.2 REASON FOR ADAPTING CLOUD COMPUTING On Demand Service A consumer can have a provision of computer capabilities, such as a server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service provider.

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Working from Anywhere The cloud computing is a model driven methodology that provides configurable computing resources over the internet service. The cloud resources can be accessed from anywhere in the world. Rapid Elasticity and Cost Saving The cloud capabilities can rapidly scale in and out the resource quickly.

The main goal of cloud can eliminate the capital and operational cost. Because it provides various pooling of resource. 1.3 USAGE OF CLOUD IN THE HOSPITAL The hospital environment, have multiple computers that can be used in medical rooms. Each room needs proper network accessibility, hardware and software which is used to upload, store and retrieve the patient information or other medical data. The electronic patient health record contains the overall history of a patient. Scalability Real time health records are generated.

Each hospital must keep the medical records for at least 15 years. Mobility Cloud can increasing the demand of physicians time. The physicians are needed to access the patient record in a remote way. So that doctors can access the patient record easily and verify the patient situation.3 Sharing Cloud computing can provide the better relationship between the patient and doctor. The healthcare service provider can access the complete patient information easily through online.

The electronic medical record in used to reduce the repeat diagnostic tests, saving time, memory, and patient stress. Many organizations now using daily updatable or changeable data. For keeping data both security and usability cloud computing provide the environment to store data on different cluster. Various organizations (e.g., Hospital authorities, industries and government organizations etc) freeing person specific data, which called as private sensitive information. They provide information of privacy of persons.

The preserving privacy is protecting for individual’s sensitive information on a public platform. Unluckily de-identification of persons even by neglecting denotative identity like name, SSN, Voter Id number and license number. Data anonymization is the best way to preserve privacy over the personal privacy sensitive information. The data anonymization approach is very efficient technique but if the scalability of the data set like private sensitive information is increased the anonymization technique fails to preserve privacy. So scalable big data privacy preservation in cloud can be provided. The purpose of this project is to develop an environment to provide privacy over the personable sensitive data. The Major aim of the work is to develop a tool for patients to give medical care providers more insight into your personal health information. Main aim of privacy is provide secure data and for external knowledge.

This application can helps to view the patient’s health records only for authorized persons.4 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 INTRODUCTION In this literature review journals related to Privacy preservation and file encryption techniques are revised to get an idea to carry out the process of this project. The revised survey papers are listed.

2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW J. Xu, W. Wang, J. Pei, X. Wang, B.

Shi, and A.W.C.

Fu, “Utilitybased Anonymization using Local Recording”. This paper explained the clustering techniques has been improved or enhanced to achieve a privacy preservation in localrecoding anonymization. From the utility privacy preservation perspective the local-recoding anonymization has been studied. It also uses the top-down counterpart and a bottom-up greedy approach are together pit-forth based on the cluster size, the agglomerative clustering technique and divisive clustering techniques get enhanced.

B. C. M. Fung, K. Wang, R. Chen, and P.

S. Yu, “Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing: A Survey of Recent Developments”. In this paper Data privacy preservation has been investigated extensively, existing approaches for local-recoding anonymization and models for privacy are reviewed briefly. Also, the research for scalability issues in existing anonymization approaches are surveyed shortly. To address the local-recoding anonymization as the k member clustering problem where the cluster size should not be less than k in order to achieve k-anonymity, For that the simple greedy algorithm are used. Xu. Zha , D.

Won, Chi .Yang, Jini .Chan, “Proximity Aware Local Recording Anonymization with Map Reduce for Scalable Bigdata Preservation in Cloud”.

In this paper local recording for big data anonymization against proximity privacy sensitive information is discussed. In proximity preservation used the two pharse clustering approach of t-ancestor algorithm. This method used to improve the scalability and time efficiency. Xuyun Zhang, Chi Yang, Surya Nepal, Chang Liu, Wanchun Dou, Jinjun Chen, “A MapReduce Based Approach of Scalable Multidimensional Anonymization for Big Data Privacy Preservation on Cloud”, Xuyun Zhang investigated the scalability issue of5 multidimensional anonymization over big data on cloud. The main issues of bigdata is scalability to finding the median of multidimensional partitioning, But ensuring privacy preservation of large scale data sets still needs extensive investigation, it is integrated into scalable and cost effective privacy preserving framework based on mapreduce method. R. Sreedhar, Dm.

Uma, “Bigdata Processing with Privacy Map Reduce Cloud”, According to the author the privacy preservation techniques use k- anonmity approach. This paper introduces the map reduce framework to anonymize large scale of dataset using two pharse top down algorithm. In map reduce framework of optimum balanced scheduling method is used to improve the privacy of sensitive dataset.

In privacy preservation map reduce method it use the TP-TDS approach to improve the scalability of individual dataset in sensitive field. D.Chha, H.A.Girija, K.

K. Raja, “Data Anonymization Technique for Privacy Preservation on Map Reduce Framework”. Describe the author of data anonymization technique to hide sensitive data in the cloud to avoid risk. The existing review paper of privacy preservation used the k-anonymity approach with two pharse top down algorithm. In additional use the method of I diversity is used to access the data conveniently in the cloud. N. Ken, Y. Masa , S.

Hisa , S. Yoshi , “Privacy Preservation Analysis Technique for Secure, Cloud Based Bigdata Analysis”. In this paper describe the privacy preservation in the cloud based on statistical analysis and some secure mechanism.

Hitachi has describe a privacy preserving analysis technique . In this technique is used to analyze data based on sequence steps for privacy preserving analysis. Encryption technique is used in the common key searchable method. It provide the efficient access between the user and cloud provider. S. S. Bhanu, D.

Sakthi , “A Review of Privacy Preservation Data Publishing the Health Care”. In this paper describe the privacy preservation data publishing of electronic medical record system are used. They are used two different techniques are anonymization and encryption approach.

The healthcare data uses some anonymization approach namely single anonymization and multiple anonymization technique. P.Ashi, S.Tejas, J.

Srini, D.Sun, “Medical Application of Privacy Preservation by Bigdata Analysis using Hadoop Map Reduce Framework”. In this paper describe the large scale of data analysis at optimum response time. The author implement the privacy terms at medical application by using hadoop frame work.

The proposed system is divided into two major6 components sensitive disclosure flag and sensitive weight. Classification algorithm is used to indicate the efficiency of work. K.

Priyanka, P. Sneha, “Securing Personal Health Records in Cloud Using Attribute Based Encryption”. According to the author his aim is secure access of personal health records based on attribute based encryption. In PHR scenario there are multiple security mechanism, particularly CD-ABE and MA-ABE approach are used. The security mechanism is used to transmit the personal health records securely.

Zhang X, Liu C, Nepal S, Pandey S, Chen J. ” A Privacy Leakage Upper Bound Constraint-Based Approach for Cost-Effective Privacy Preserving of Intermediate Data sets in Cloud”. In this paper, proposed an approach that identifies which part is intermediate of datasets. And its needs to be encrypted.

Generate a tree structure based on relationship between the intermediate datasets to analyze privacy propagation among datasets. Main problem of existing system is analyze the intermediate dataset. Because it is need the intensive investigation. Contributions of this paper, planning to investigate privacy.

Efficient scheduling of intermediate datasets in cloud take privacy preserving. Optimized balanced scheduling strategies are expected to developed highly efficient privacy aware dataset scheduling. G. Aggarwal, R. Panigrahy, T.

Feder, D. Thomas, K. Kenthapadi, S.

Khuller, and A. Zhu published paper on “Achieving Anonymity via Clustering”. This paper explained Existing clustering approach for local-recoding anonymization mainly concentrate on record linkage attacks mainly under the k-anonymity privacy model, without any importance to privacy breaches incurred by sensitive attribute linkage. Relatively propose a constant factor approximation algorithm for two clustering based anonymization problem, ie, r-GATHER and r- CELLULAR CLUSTERING, here the centers for clusters are published without generalization or suppression. 2.

3 SUMMARY Literature survey is most important part of the thesis that helps to improve the analysis and it provides many statistic and strategies were followed by various research persons. It gives multiple angles for a specified technique to analyze the research topic. In this literate review the concepts are revised and it gives clarity to apply the technique on this research.

7 3. PROBLEM DEFINITION In cloud computing, all the user data are stored in the cloud resources. The results are distributed to the user through the network when they needed. Most of the industrial data stored in cloud computing, but cannot predict all stored data must have secured, hence most of cloud data are encrypted. Even more encryption algorithm invented, sensitive information can leak if that one key is leaked so, less secure.

Most of the encryption key is managed by cloud providers, so providers may break all information. This can bring considerable economic loss or severe social reputation impairment to data owners. As such, sharing or releasing privacy-sensitive data sets to third-parties in cloud will bring about potential privacy concerns, and therefore requires strong privacy preservation. The problems identified from the existing approaches are analyzed for privacy preserving and scalability. Some importance will gave to the local recoding technique for the record linkage attacks over the data sets.8 4. METHODOLOGY This system is mainly concentrated on anonymization method with is used to provide privacy to the dataset so that the attacker will not gain any sensitive information about the individuals.

Anonymization is the best method to provide privacy when compared to the other methods like randomization, perturbation etc. Anonymization can be done in many ways, there are several tools available to perform anonymization. Health care and financial data are very sensitive. There are many methods to provide privacy to the dataset. The objective of this system is to run the k-anonymity method. A hospital dataset which contains the patient’s information with attributes of Patient id, Patient Name, Age, Sex and disease as shown in table 1. In this table, Name attribute is the personal identification, Disease is the sensitive attribute.

If suppose we want to provide the privacy of the data set, the patient consultancy field of a table is removed and it will be modified to another table as follows. Name Patient Id Age Sex Disease Alice 47677 29 M Ovarian Cancer Boby 47678 22 M Ovarian Cancer Peter 47602 27 M Prostate Cancer Emelee 47909 43 M Flu Holdon 47905 32 F Heart Disease Cloyce 47906 47 M Heart Disease Table 1: Patient dataset.9 Zipcode Age Sex Disease 47677 29 M Ovarian Cancer 47678 22 M Ovarian Cancer 47602 27 M Prostate Cancer 47909 43 M Flu 47905 32 F Heart Disease 47906 47 M Heart Disease Table 2: Patient dataset after removing Name attribute So removing the personal identification information will not provide complete privacy to the data. To provide privacy to the dataset first we have to remove the personal Identification information and then we have to anonymize the quasi identifiers.

The sensitive attributes should always be released directly because researcher’s want this information. Different privacy preserving methods have been proposed. To anonymize the quasi-identifiers, K-anonymity. 4.

1 K-ANONYMITY This approach is as follows: The information for each person contained in the released dataset cannot be distinguished from at least k-1 individuals whose information also appears in the data. For example: if an attacker with the only information of birthdates and gender is trying to identify a person in the released dataset. There are k persons in the table with the same birth date and gender. In k anonymity any quasi-identifier present in the released table must appear in at least k records. The goal of K-anonymity is to make each record indistinguishable from at least k-1 other records. These K records form an equivalence class.

10 K-anonymity uses generalization and suppression. Using generalization, k anonymity replaces specific quasi-identifiers with less specific values until it gets K identical values. And it uses suppression when generalization causes too much information loss, which is referred as outliers. Form the table 1 we have 3 quasi-identifiers which can be generalized as shown in the figure 1 Figure 1: Generalization on Quasi-identifiers like patient id, age and sex By applying k=2 anonymity and quasi-identifier { patient id , Age, sex} on table 2 we will get the new table 3. Now if we compare table 2 and table 3 it is difficult for an outsider to find the sensitive information because there are three people with generalized patient id and age. In table 3 first three records form one equivalence class and last two records are another equivalence class. Table 3: k-anonymity on table 2 Zipcode Age Sex Disease 476** 2* M OvarianCancer 476** 2* M OvarianCancer 476** 2* M ProstateCancer 479** 3* F HeartDisease 479** 4* M Flu 479** 4* M HeartDisease11 Any records which has not come into any equivalence class should be suppressed. In this table record 4 will not fall into any of the equivalence class so it should be suppressed.

By applying the generalization and suppression to all fields on table 3 it results to another Table 5. table 4 : Generalization and suppression The problem with the k-anonymity is, it will not provide privacy if sensitive values in an equivalence class lack diversity and also if the attacker has background knowledge. Consider Table 4 the first 3 records which form an equivalence class have the same sensitive attribute values where there is no privacy and attacker can direct to gain the information. And last three records if attacker has some background knowledge about the person (ex. The person father is a heart patient) then this information may be useful for the attacker to gain the sensitive information. 4.2 Triple DES Algorithm Triple DES is another mode of DES operation. It takes three 64-bit keys, for an overall key length of 192 bits.

In Stealth, you simply type in the entire 192-bit (24 character) key rather than entering each of the three keys individually. The Triple DES DLL then breaks the user-provided key into three sub keys, padding the keys if necessary so they are each 64 bits long. Zipcode Age Sex Disease 476** 2* M OvarianCancer 476** 2* M OvarianCancer 476** 2* M ProstateCancer * * * * 479** 4* M Flu 479** 4* M Heart Disease Equivalence Class Equivalence Class Suppressed Record12 The procedure for encryption is exactly the same as regular DES, but it is repeated three times, hence the name Triple DES. The data is encrypted with the first key, decrypted with the second key, and finally encrypted again with the third key. Triple DES runs three times slower than DES, but is much more secure if used properly. The procedure for decrypting something is the same as the procedure for encryption, except it is executed in reverse. Like DES, data is encrypted and decrypted in 64-bit chunks. Although the input key for DES is 64 bits long, the actual key used by DES is only 56 bits in length.

The least significant (right-most) bit in each byte is a parity bit, and should be set so that there are always an odd number of 1s in every byte. These parity bits are ignored, so only the seven most significant bits of each byte are used, resulting in a key length of 56 bits. This means that the effective key strength for Triple DES is actually 168 bits because each of the three keys contains 8 parity bits that are not used during the encryption process. The process of encryption is as follows – 1. Encrypt the data using DES Algorithm with the help of first key.

2. Now, decrypt the output generated from the first step using DES Algorithm with the help of second key. 3. Finally, encrypt the output of second step using DES Algorithm with the help of third key. The decryption process of any cipher text that was encrypted using Triple DES Algorithm is the reverse of the encryption process i.e., 1. Decrypt the cipher text using DES Algorithm with the help of third key.

2. Now, encrypt the output generated from the first step using the DES Algorithm with the help of second key. 3. Finally, decrypt the output of the second step using DES Algorithm with the help of first key.

The process of encrypt – decrypt – encrypt help complexing things and securing the data. The three keys can also be same or two of them can be same. But it is recommended to use all the three keys different.13 4.

3 SYSTEM SPECIFICATION Hardware Specification Processor : Intel Pentium i3. RAM : 4GB Hard drive : 500 GB Monitor : 17″ Flat L.G color SVGA Keyboard : Multimedia keyboard Mouse : Optical scroll mouse Software Specification Operating System : Windows XP and Above Front-End : ASP.

Net 2010 Database Server : Microsoft SQL Server Application Server : IIS14 4.4 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION ASP.NET ASP.NET is more than the next version of Active Server Pages (ASP), it is a unified web development platform that provides the services necessary for developers to build enterprise-class web applications. While ASP.NET is largely syntax compatible with ASP, it also provides a new programming model and infrastructure for more secure, scalable, and stable applications. User can feel free to augment user existing ASP applications by incrementally adding ASP.NET functionality to them.

ASP.NET is a compiled, NET-based environment; user can author applications in any .NET compatible language, including Visual Basic .NET, C#, and JScript .NET.

Additionally, the entire .NET Framework is available to any ASP.NET application runtime environment, type safety, inheritance, and so on. ASP.NET has been designed to work seamlessly with WYSIWYG (What you see is what you get) HTML editors and other programming tools, including Microsoft Visual Studio .NET. Not only does this make web development easier, but it also provides all the benefits that these tools have to offer, including a GUI that developers can use to drop server controls onto a web page and fully integrated debugging support.

Developers can choose from the following two features when creating an ASP.NET application, web Forms and web services, or combine these in any way they see fit. Each is supported by the same infrastructure that allows user to use authentication schemes, cache frequently used data, or customize user application’s configuration, to name only a few possibilities.15 ADO.NET ADO.

NET provides consistent access to data sources such as Microsoft Access, as well as data sources exposed via OLEDB. Data sharing consumer applications can use ADO.NET to connect to these data sources and retrieve, manipulate and update data. ADO.NET cleanly factors data access from data manipulation into discrete component that can be separately or in random. ADO.NET includes .NET data providers for connecting to the database, executing commands, and retrieving results.

Features of ASP.NET ? Web forms allows user to build powerful forms based web pages. When building these pages, user can use ASP.NET server controls to create common GUI elements and program them for common tasks. ? Using web services, business can expose programmatic interfaces to their data or business logic which in turn can be obtained and manipulated by client-server or server-server scenarios. ? If users have ASP development skills, the ASP.NET programming model will be seem very familiar to user however the ASP.NET object model has changed significantly from ASP, making it more structured and object-oriented.

? ASP.NET provides easy-to-use application and session – state facilities that are familiar to ASP developers. ? ASP.NET code is compiled, rather than interpreted, which allow early binding, strong typing and just-in-time (JIT) compilation to native code to name only a few of its benefits.16 SQL Server Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database server, developed by Microsoft. It is a software product whose primary function is to store and retrieve data as requested by other software applications, be it those on the same computer or those running on another computer across a network (including the Internet). There are at least a dozen different editions of Microsoft SQL Server aimed at different audiences and for different workloads (ranging from small applications that store and retrieve data on the same computer, to millions of users and computers that access huge amounts of data from the Internet at the same time).

Microsoft SQL Server is an application used to create computer databases for the Microsoft Windows family of server operating systems. Microsoft SQL Server provides an environment used to generate databases that can be accessed from workstations, the Internet, or other media such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). Whenever a query is submitted to SQL Server, the SQL engine must make decisions about how to go about retrieving the data for the user. Inside the SQL Server query processing engine, there is a section of code called the query optimizer whose function is to find the most efficient means of retrieving data at that particular time. This query optimizer compares different possible methods of retrieving the data (called execution plans) and then chooses one.

Once this is done, the query engine goes about using this plan to retrieve the data requested by the query. In any database system, returning data to the client must be done as efficiently and quickly as possible to minimize contention. If the database server spends an inordinate amount of time processing one query, the performance of other queries will suffer. In order for the server to find the most efficient method of satisfying the query, it must spend resources examining the query and comparing different methods of retrieving the data. This overhead, however, is often returned to the user in overall time savings when the most efficient method of satisfying the query is chosen.

This is similar to climbing an unfamiliar mountain. There are different types of query optimizers used in various relational database management systems. Microsoft SQL Server uses a “cost-based” query optimizer in determining which of the various methods of retrieving data it will pick and send to the query engine. A cost-based optimizer assigns a cost to each method of retrieving data based on the resources required17 to process the query. Processor time, disk I/O, etc. are all assigned costs based on the number of rows that must be examined in a particular operation. Once the optimizer has assigned the costs, it sums up the total cost for each execution plan that was investigated.

Based on the design of the system, the query optimizer chooses an execution plan, which is then sent to the query engine for processing. SQL Server does not always choose the execution plan with the lowest total resource cost as one might expect. Instead, SQL Server is designed to pick the execution plan that is reasonably close to the theoretical minimum and will return results to the client as quickly as possible with a reasonable cost. The definition of reasonable will change as conditions within the SQL Server and the load changes.

This results in a dynamic, efficient query optimizer that delivers some of the best performance in the industry.18 5. STRUCTURAL DESIGN 5.1 INPUT DESIGN The input to the system was designed So that the required information can be collected and corrected quickly.

The data collected are entered into the system through input screens, when a data is to be entered the description of the data is displayed at the bottom of the screen. Input design is given through selection-based links. The input design is the process of converting an external user oriented description of the input to a system in to a machine-oriented format.

Data processing involves the usage of accurate data. Errors entered by the data entry operation can be controlled by the input design. The goal of designing input data is to make data entry an easy operation. An efficient input designing will avoid the frequent occurrence of errors. ? To provide a cost effective method of input. ? To achieve the highest possible level of accuracy.

? To ensure that the input is acceptable to and understood by the user. In this system following input screens are designed to get user’s information. ? Authentication ? Patient Details ? Staff details ? Privacy details ? Staff registration ? Patient Registration Authentication Authentication screen provide the security to the system. It get username and password from the users. Patient Details Patient details screen is used to get the patient details and it includes the details of patient id, name, address, contact, email.

Admin can enter the details of the patient and admin only have permission to add, edit and delete permissions.19 Staff Details Staff details screen is used to get the staff details and it includes the details of staff id, name, address, contact, email and department. Admin can enter the details of the staff and admin only have permission to add, edit and delete permissions. Privacy Details Privacy details screen get sensitive information from the admin.

In this screen admin can enter privacy data of the patient. This screen includes the details of the patient id, consultation date and medical history. These details are encrypted on this screen.

Staff Registration Staff registration screen allow staff to register on this site. In this screen staff can enter staff id, it will show staff name and it get the username and password from the staff. Patient Registration Patient registration screen allow Patient to register on this site. In this screen patient can enter patient id, it will show patient name and it get the username and password from the patient. 5.2 OUTPUT DESIGN The ultimate goal of the development of the system is to produce effective outputs.

In output design, it is determined how the information is to be displayed for immediate need. It is the most important and direct source of information to the user. Efficient and intelligent output design improves the system’s relationships with the user and help in decision making. This system produces following reports.

? Patient Details ? Privacy Details Patient Details Patient details screen is used to display the patient details and it includes the details of patient id, name, address, contact, email. All users can see this report. Privacy Details Privacy details screen shows the sensitive information. In this screen admin and user can view privacy data and their medical history.

These details are decrypted and download by the patient.20 5.3 DATABASE DESIGN Database design is the process of producing a detailed data model of a database. This data model contains all the needed logical and physical design choices and physical storage parameters needed to generate a design in a data definition language, which can then be used to create a database.

A fully attributed data model contains detailed attributes for each entity. The term database design can be used to describe many different parts of the design of an overall database system. Principally, and most correctly, it can be thought of as the logical design of the base data structures used to store the data. In the relational model these are the tables and views. In an object database the entities and relationships map directly to object classes and named relationships. However, the term database design could also be used to apply to the overall process of designing, not just the base data structures, but also the forms and queries used as part of the overall database application within the database management system (DBMS).

The process of doing database design generally consists of a number of steps which will be carried out by the database designer. Usually, the designer must: ? Determine the data to be stored in the database. ? Determine the relationships between the different data elements. ? Superimpose a logical structure upon the data on the basis of these relationships.

Table Name : Doctor Primary Key : Dcode Field Name Data Type Size Description Dcode Varchar 5 Doctor Code Dname Varchar 30 Doctor name Special Varchar 50 Specialization Cont Varchar 15 Contact Email Varchar 30 Email21 Table Name : Patient Primary Key : Patid Field Name Data Type Size Description Patid Varchar 5 Patient Id Pname Varchar 30 Patient name Dob DateTime 8 Date of Birth Gender Varchar 7 Gender Cont Varchar 15 Contact Addr Varchar 150 Address Email Varchar 30 Email Id Table Name : Staff Primary Key : staffed Field Name Data Type Width Description StaffId Varchar 5 Staff Id Sname Varchar 30 Staff name Desi Varchar 30 Designation Cont Varchar 15 Contact Email Varchar 30 Email Id Table Name : regtable Field Name Data Type Width Description Uname Varchar 30 Username Pwd Varchar 30 Password Utype Varchar 30 User Type(Staff or patient) Uid Varchar 5 User Id22 Table Name : metadata Reference Key : Patid Field Name Data Type Width Description Patid Varchar 5 Patient Id Condate DateTime 8 Consulting date Dcode Varchar 5 Doctor code Condet Varchar 300 Consultation details 5.4 Entity Relationship Diagram Patient PatientId pname Doctor Dcode Dname metadata PatientId Dcode Admin Dcode23 5.5 Data Flow Diagram Product Maintenance Stores Admin Meta Data User Registration Stores Patient Register Doctor View24 6.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A triple DES algorithm is followed in the proposed system. Since a three level security mechanism is used to encrypt the patient diagnostics file. The encrypted file is uploaded successfully to the cloud. From the cloud, patient receiver can download the data which is the form of cipher text. Each patient then decrypts the cipher text to the original data.

Any number of patient, doctor and staff can be registered first. Then all the register details are stored in the cloud. Once the user registered, each time they can access the details based on id. Only the registered users can access the file, otherwise they are not allowed to access site. K-anonymity algorithm is used to protect the privacy information. Fig 6.1 Upload Privacy File25 Fig 6.2 Download Privacy File26 7.

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK Privacy is very important to protect the sensitive data from the attacker. To provide privacy to the data anonymization methods can be used. In this system is done by using K-anonymity method and Triple DES algorithm using .net. These techniques are applied in the hospital domain and its works efficiently and secure patient data are shared with in the hospital environment.

In Future the system will add advance security techniques to used patient details.27 8. REFERENCES 1 Dr.

Kumar saurah, “cloud computing”, Wiley india pvt Ltd,First Edition. 2 J. Xu, W. Wang, J.

Pei, X. Wang, B. Shi, and A. W. C. Fu, “Utility based Anonymization using Local Recoding” KDD’06,Aug 2006 3 B. C. M.

Fung, K. Wang, R. Chen, and P. S. Yu, “Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing: A Survey of Recent Developments”, ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 42, No.

4, Article 14, Publication date: June 2010. 4 Xu. Zha , D. Won, Chi .Yang, Jini .

Chan, “Proximity Aware Local Recording Anonymization with Map Reduce for Scalable Bigdata Preservation in Cloud”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERS, TC-2013-12-0869 5 Xuyun Zhang, Chi Yang, Surya Nepal, Chang Liu, Wanchun Dou, Jinjun Chen, “A Map Reduce Based Approach of Scalable Multidimensional Anonymization for Big Data Privacy Preservation on Cloud”, IEEEE TRANSACTIONS CGC 2013 6 R. Sreedhar, Dm. Uma, “Big data Processing with Privacy Map Reduce Cloud”, IJIRS Volume 3, Special Issue 1, February 2014. 7 D.Chha, H.

A.Girija, K. K. Raja, “Data Anonymization Technique for Privacy Preservation on Map Reduce Framework”, ISSN Volume -3, Issue-1 2015 8 N. Ken, Y. Masa , S. Hisa , S.

Yoshi , “Privacy Preservation Analysis Technique for Secure, Cloud Based Bigdata Analysis” Review Vol. 63 (2014), No. 9.

9 S. S. Bhanu, D.

Sakthi , table “A Review of Privacy Preservation Data Publishing the Health Care”, Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2016 Oct ; 7(4).28 10 P.Ashi, S.Tejas, J.

Srini, D.Sun, ” Medical Application of Privacy Preservation by Bigdata Analysis using Hadoop Map Reduce Framework”, ISSN (Print): 2319-2526, Volume -4, Issue -4, 2015 11 K. Priyanka, P. Sneha, “Securing Personal Health Records in Cloud Using Attribute Based Encryption” ISSN: 2249 – 8958, Volume-2, Issue-4, April 2013.

12 Zhang X, Liu C, Nepal S, Pandey S, Chen J. ” A Privacy Leakage Upper Bound Constraint-Based Approach for Cost-Effective Privacy Preserving of Intermediate Data sets in Cloud”, IEEE VOL. 24, NO.

6, JUNE 2013 13 G. Aggarwal, R. Panigrahy, T.

Feder, D. Thomas, K. Kenthapadi, S. Khuller, and A. Zhu, “Achieving Anonymity via Clustering”, ACM Transactions on Algorithms June 2010 DOI:10.

1145 14 Abraham Silbarschatz, “Database System Concepts”, Tata MC-Graw Hill Companies, Third Edition. 15 Chutney Heber, “ASP.Net”, Addison Wesley Publications, January 1996. 16 Donfox, “Pure ASP.

Net”, BPB Publications, First Edition. 17 David Soloman, “Sams Teach Yourself Asp.Net in 21 days”, Crimpson Publications, Second Edition March 2001. 18 William Stallings, “Cryptography and Network Security”, Pearson Publication, Fourth Edition, 19 Elias. M.

Award, “System Analysis and Design”, Golgatia Publications, Second Edition. Websites ? www.msdn.microsoft.com ? www.w3schools.com29

1 unplanned. Demolition work in public areas should

1 1.0 SITE INFORMATION Figure 1: Site location Figure 2: Site vew2 Place : Seksyen 9, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor. Area (m2) : 4,200m² (120m x 35m) Existing building : 5-Storey Shop Lot / Office Age existing building : 30 years Proposed new building : 35-storey office including 5 storey parking lot Benefit surrounding area : Near to schools, shopping mall and residential area3 2.0 DEMOLITION WORKS Demolition is the tearing-down of buildings and other structures. Demolition contrasts with deconstruction, which involves taking a building apart while carefully preserving valuable elements for re-use. The demolition should be implemented in the right way and does not affect the stability of the structure and adjacent structures as it may cause the building to collapse unplanned. Demolition work in public areas should be done outside peak hours and does not affect public safety.

Demolition methods can vary depending on the area where it will be held on, time available, the building material, the purpose of the demolition and the way that debris is going to be disposed. Times saving methods are more expensive than the slower ones. 2.1 Technique for Demolition Techniques for Structure Demolition Three types of structure demolition. i. Progressive Demolition ii. Mechanism of Control Demolition iii. De construction or Top Down 2.

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1.1 Progressive Demolition Progressive demolition is a technique to demolish, wrecking or taking out of any load-supporting structural member part by part before the building completely fall (fully or partially demolish) at the same time considered the structure stability so the building will not collapse simultaneously. It is commonly adapted to high rate of catch area and commonly practices using heavy machinery and equipment’s.

The heavy machinery or equipment includes large motorized vehicles such as bulldozers with rakes, backhoes, hydraulic excavators, and other similar machinery used for transporting, moving of materials at a demolition site. Cranes equipped with wrecking balls, clamshells, or buckets are also considered heavy machinery. 2.1.2 Mechanism of Control Demolition Control demolition is a technique to demolish, wrecking or taking out of the main structural member or element before the building completely fall, fully or partially demolish. Equal to progressive demolition; it is commonly adapted to big catch area4 condition and usually practiced using explosion/implosion and wire rope pulling methods or any other suitable method. 2.

1.3 De construction or Top Down Deconstruction or Top down method is the technique that proceeds from the roof to ground in a general trend, there are particular sequences of demolition which may vary, depending on site conditions and structural elements to be demolished, It is the process of dismantling a building in order to salvage the structural members for material reuse and recovery and commonly practices by machinery and hand demolition methods, lop down method is applicable for most sites, particularly for those situated in busy urban areas. 2.2 Problems May Arise While Carrying Out the Building Demolition ? Accidents due to persons falling from high, unprotected workplaces and through openings. ? Accidents due to persons being struck by falling objects. ? The building collapsing suddenly may cause death. ? Injury to workers due to difficulty of accessing into or working inside a building. ? Collapsing of unstable structure due to original structure being disturbed.

? Collapse of heavy demolition equipment due to inadequate support of the partially demolished structure.5 2.3 Safety of Demolition 2.3.1 Precautions regarding equipment All the equipment should be operated by trained persons.

The equipment should be used and maintained while using. Lifting equipment should be thoroughly examined by persons in-charged at least 12months once for safety of workers. 2.3.2 Precautions regarding Scaffolding Scaffolds above 4m in height should be installed by a professional contractor.

Working platforms should be free from debris. Workers should be careful to prevent damage to scaffolding components falling debris. 2.3.3 Precautions regarding Public Safety Demolition site should be placed with appreciate warning signs. Unauthorized entry should be permitted in the demolition site.

When demolition of roofs and exterior walls, catch platforms should be provided. Movement of machinery from floor to floor should be considered in demolition process. 2.3.4 Precautions regarding Worker Safety Workers involved in demolition works must be provided with professional trainings and instructions when carrying out demolition work. Only those workers who had received training and instructions are allow to carry out demolition work to make sure safety of workers. All workers must wear safety helmets and boots.

When necessary, workers should wear personal protective equipment such as goggles, hearing protection devices, gloves and others.6 2.4 Preparation on Site during Demolition Site clearing is the first step of site preparation. The site should be cleared to remove any obstacles that might affect the construction process or hinder the project to be done. This process involves the removal of trees, stumps, brush, stones and the removal of any old underground infrastructure. By doing so, heavy machinery and construction plant is accessible to the site. Hoarding is a temporary structure of solid construction, erected around the perimeter of construction sites to shield them from view and restrict the unauthorised access of public.

It is an essential component in ensuring health and safety for site workers, visitors and the general public. It is a part of a site security system as the hoarding can reduce the chances of costly machinery and materials theft or vandalism. Besides that, construction signage is displaced.

Construction notice are useful for effectively communicating safety information for both operatives and visitors onsite. The function is to display health and safety information such as site safety rules and locations of important places or people. Besides, the notice also includes the information such as the type of project carry out, name of the construction company, date of commence, contact and so forth. A planning permission is obtained from local authority before the construction process is started.

Planning permission is the legal process of determining whether proposed developments should be permitted. As soon the local authority has approved, the construction work may start.7 2.5 Machinery Involves 2.5.1 Excavator Excavator is a machine that commonly used in demolition works.

The function of excavator are digging trenches, holes and pit for foundation, material handling on site and demolishing building. Excavator consists of boom, dipper, bucket, and cab on rotating system which also called house. Movement of the excavator will use hydraulic fluid, hydraulic cylinder and hydraulic motor. This type of system used are totally differ from cable-operated excavator which use winches and rope. The advantage of using hydraulic system is the capability of the machine will improve than using steam or cable-operated excavator. The model we use for our excavation is CAT 336D2 L.

This excavator has operating weight of 37086.0 kg. The maximum travel speed for the excavator is 4.6km/h.

Some advantages while using this excavator are it has LCD monitor that clearly display critical information needed to operate efficiently and effectively. The engine system used automatic engine speed control which activated during no-load or light load conditions to reduce engine speed. This will help to minimize fuel consumption. The engine also run quietly with limited vibration that increase the comfortability of the user. Independent pilot system used in the machine will enables smooth, precise control for the front linkage, swing, and travel operation.

This machine also uses two hydraulic pump which increase the productivity of the work by faster the implement speed and stronger pivot turns Figure3: Excavator8 2.5.2 Wheel loader The function of wheel loader is to move aside or load material and transfer it from one place to another. Most of the machine will implement the hydraulic system and transmission component for it movement. Some example of hydraulic component that used in the machine are pumps, motor and valves.

For the transmission components used are gearbox, axles, pump and motor. The wheel loader itself consists of backhoe, loader, tractor, cab, bucket, boom, and stabilizer legs. The wheel loader model was 908M from CAT. This model has operating weight of 14032.

0 lb. The approximated bucket capacity is 0.9m³-1.5m³. The machine is fitted with heavy duty axles, with outboard planetary reduction gears.

The material used for the machine is high quality solid plastics and well-fitted moldings which can ensure long life of the components. The machine is easy to use as it complete with easy access to vital machine information, with light and ECO mode switches. This ECO mode save fuel. This machine also consists of soft touch keypad on the right hand console contain new electric functions and setting, LCD that show the travel speed, engine speed, speed range selection, hydraulic oil temperature, service hour meter, engine coolant temperature, and fuel level. It also completes with indicator for engine, electrical and hydraulic. Figure 4: Wheel loader9 2.

5.3 Bulldozer. Bulldozer is a machine that consists of blade and ripper, a part of the machine that look like a claw. The main function of the machine is to push large quantity of soil, sand, rubble, or other material. The bulldozer also consists of a wide track that help it to maintain the stability and distribute the weight over a large area. This will prevent it from sinking in sandy and muddy ground. The tracks known as swamp tracks or low ground pressure tracks.

The system used are transmission system to take advantages of track system. They preferred automatic transmission instead of manual. The blade and ripper will use hydraulic system for their movement which will enable application of down force.

The function of blade are push object and shove sand, soil, debris, and snow. The ripper will break the ground surface rock or pavement into smaller rubble. The model we use for our demolition process is D7R CAT.

This model has operating weight of 24962.0 kg. The capacity of the blade is 3.89 m³.

For the ripper, the maximum clearance raised is 757.0 mm and the maximum penetration force is 85.0kN and have 3 no of pockets. The advantages of this model are isolation-mounted, pressurized cab that reduce the noise and vibration.

The control of all parts are ergonomically for low-effort and ease operation. This use hydraulic system which present a precise control. The operator will use a single handle control to perform all the direction and gear selection which will make his or her work easier. This model also has load sensing hydraulic that adjust the hydraulic power automatically to maximize work tool efficiency.

Figure 5: Bulldozer10 2.5.4 Crusher Bucket This machine usually attached with hydraulic excavator. The function of the bucket is to reduce large rock into smaller rock, gravel or rock dust. The system use is hydraulic relief system. This machine can pulverize concrete and cutting reinforcement rods and small steel profiles.

It can withstand from soft to very hard rock. It has no abrasion limit. This machine also can crush dry, wet and sticky material. The reduction ratio of the crusher bucket is 3/1 to 5/1. Figure 6: Crusher bucket11 2.5.

5 Hand drill Most of hand drill fitted with cutting tool or driving tool. The main function of hand drill is crushing and removing piece of work piece in this demolition process. However, other function of hand drill is making holes and to combine the DIY component that use screw. Some type of hand drill is pistol grip drill and hammer drill.

This drill usually uses electricity and battery for cordless type. Figure 7: Hand drill12 3.0 CONSTRUCTION WORKS 3.1 Structure Design High rise building is generally a tall building. Many bodies have their own definition of high rise building. High rise building define as any structure where the height can have a serious impact on evacuation. This definition is from The International Conference on Fire Safety. There are several types of structure we can choose to build a high rise building.

High rise demand increase gradually as our world grows toward a modern world. This is due to the scarcity of land in urban area. So, they need to build a building that maximise the space usage. Other reason for high rise demand increases are: ? Concept of city skyline. ? Human aspiration to build higher. ? Respected by other country or races. As structure is one of the most important element to build high rise, so the designer need to choose wisely. There are some factors that influences the structure selection of high rise building: ? Loadings Load consist of live load and dead load.

Live load is the load that change according to time and condition like human load and wind load. While the dead load is the load that fixed on the building like the weight of the structure and material used. ? Frame and materials There are many materials we usually used in the construction. Concrete and steel are the common material used to build commercial building. But for residential we also can use timber. Timber may give nice preference to the building but they cannot withstand such bigger load and easy to burn.

? Flexibility and future adaptability Flexibility must be considered as the building should be adaptive to new changes such as small load change and the weather of the places. The building also can be adapting to new renovation on the building such as the new building services to be added like piping and lift.13 ? Deflection and tolerances. A clear set of interface requirements between the structure and those connecting elements which require specific movement or tolerance criteria should be identified.

These are likely to cover elements such as lift equipment and maintenance. Deflection may occur as we choose the design carelessly. ? Vibration Vibration factor also need to be considered. The building tends to get the vibration from footfall vibration from the occupants itself and the movement of the transportation like train and cars. ? Robustness.

The robustness of the building can be connected with the effort to make the building minimum in collapse risk in the future. ? Sustainability The building should be built to be sustainable. This will decrease the usage of the new material and we can decrease the usage of natural resources that unrenewable or took a long time to recover. The building itself must be eco-friendly. ? Structural fire stating. The building be complied with the fire protection regulation prepared by the country.

This will make sure that the building is safe.14 3.2 Types of Structure. Type of structure we use for our building is tube system. This structure system is categorised in the exterior structure system which the major part of the lateral load is at the building perimeter.

They provide structural support and support the entire building by acting as a skeletal support. (Voice of Volta Green, 2017). The tube system is a system that can withstand lateral load from the wind, and seismic pressure. It acts like hollow cylinder, cantilevered perpendicular to the ground. The tube system concept is closely-spaced column are tied together with deep spandrel beam through moment connections as part of the external perimeter of the building. This will result in a dense and strong structural tube around the exterior.

Since, the lateral load supported by the exterior part of the building, the interior column can be reduced and the space can be fully used. The interior part can simply be framed for the gravity loads. The tube system itself is divided into 4 tube systems which are framed tube system, trussed tube system, bundled tube system, and tube-in-tube system. We choose to use the framed tube system. Framed tube system is the simplest tube system used. The column spaced usually 2-4 meter between centre, which is closely build.

The tube can use both steel and concrete. Due to costing and commonly use in Malaysia, our team choose to use the reinforced concrete. The floor also not restricted only for rectangular shape, but it works on circular and triangle shape. But the shape of our building is rectangular shape as it will maximise the space use. Some example of the current building that use the framed tube system are the World Trade Centre Towers. Figure 8: Top view of frame tube system Figure 9: World Trade Centre Tower15 3.3 Type of Materials Used. The type of material used for the 35 storey office building are concrete and recycled material.

The main reason to use concrete is it the common material use in Malaysia which will make it easier to find the supplier and have many choice of company with quality we want. The recycled material used because of the sustainability reason. The use of recycle material will decrease the usage of the natural resources. We will use the demolished material from the previous building. Some examples of the recycled materials and it usage is at the lean concrete for the pile caps and the ground floor. We use crushed concrete from the demolition resources. This also will reduce the costing of the material for the new building. 3.

3.1 The comparison of concrete and steel. Concrete Steel Relatively heavy Relatively lightweight. Shallower depths. Greater depths.

For modest spans, reinforced flat slabs give minimum depths. Minimum depth solutions inefficient. Can be efficient on rectangular and square grids. Good for longer spans but depth requirement simply combined structure and services zone. Holes and fixings can be accommodated but strategy must be considered early. Holes should avoid pre-stressing tensions.

More efficient on rectangular grids than on square grids. Mass provides good inherent response to footfall vibration. Inherently good for holes and fixings (into soffit). Fire protection is inherent. Depth and weight may be governed by footfall dynamics. No need for intumescent paints which can be harmful to the environment. Fire protection is an additional trade. Exposed concrete soffit can allow the omission of ceilings and improve the thermal performance of the building.

Framing of holes and openings straightforward. Table 1: Comparison of concrete and steel16 3.3.2 The advantages and disadvantages of using tube system ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Allows greater flexibility in planning interior design Reduce the size of the building opening.

Less construction time as the regularity of the column schedule allows off-site fabrication and welding. The view of the world outside is obstructed when we go higher in the building. Wind resisting system.

Shear lag effect. Maximum advantage is taken of the total width of the building to resist overturning moment. Identical framing for floor. Table 2 : Advantages and Disadvantages of Tube System17 3.2 METHODE OF CONSTRUCTION INTRODUCTION Construction methods are the procedures and techniques that are used during the building process. Concrete is often used in commercial buildings and civil engineering projects, but much less commonly used in residential home construction.

The strength of concrete (a mix of cement and water plus an aggregate such as sand or stone) means it can support a great deal of weight, especially when reinforced through embedded steel bars known as rebar. There are many type of construction method which are: ? Slip form construction ? Jump form constructon ? Table form/flying form ? Syatem column formwork ? Vertical panel system ? Tunnel form18 JUMP FORM METHODE. Generally, jump form systems comprise the formwork and working platforms for cleaning/fixing of the formwork, steel fixing and concreting. Jump form, often described as climbing form.

It is suitable for construction of multi-storey vertical concrete elements in high-rise structures. It is a highly productive system designed to increase speed and efficiency while minimizing labour and time. Generally jump form systems (taken to include systems often described as ‘climbing form’) comprise the formwork and working platforms for cleaning and fixing the formwork, steel fixing and concreting. The formwork supports itself on the concrete cast earlier so does not rely on support or access from other parts of the building. Jump form systems are suitable for construction of vertical concrete elements in high-rise structures.

This systems are normally modular and can be joined to form long lengths to suit varying construction geometries. Three types of jump form are in general use: 1. Normal jump or climbing form units are individually lifted off the structure and relocated at the next construction level using a crane. Jump form systems are typically used on buildings of five storeys or more; fully self-climbing are generally used on structures with more than 20 floors.

However, a combination of crane-handled and self-climbing systems can be viable on lower structures. 2. Guided-climbing jump form units also use a crane but often provide greater safety and control during lifting as the units remain anchored to or are guided by the structure.19 3. Self-climbing jump form systems do not require a crane as they climb up rails on the building by means of hydraulic jacks, or by jacking the platforms off recesses in the structure.

It is possible to lift multiple units in a single operation. Working platforms, guard rails and ladders are generally built into the completed formwork systems, along with complete wind-shield protection when necessary. JUMP FORM CONSTRUCTION Jump forms are one method for the construction of the cores (that house the lifts, staircases etc.

) for high-rise buildings and similar structures. The structure is cast in a series of vertical sections called ´lifts´. After the concrete has gained sufficient strength the formwork is moved back and then ‘jumped’ to the next level above. The formwork is generally part of a complete system consisting of three or more levels. 1. The upper level is for storage and concreting, 2. The main platform is for fixing the reinforcement and setting the shutters and 3.

The lower level gives access to the finished concrete surface, to allow any remedial work and for attaching fixings to cast-in sockets and plates. For most structures a crane is used to lift the complete assembly to the higher level. However, for larger structures this may be impracticable, requiring the use of self-climbing systems that have built-in hydraulic lifting jacks.

Fast construction can be achieved by careful planning of the construction process. Crane availability is critical for normal jump form. Self-climbing formwork cuts down the requirement for crane time considerably. By allowing the crane to be used for other construction work this may reduce the total number of cranes needed on site. The formwork is independently supported, so the shear walls and core walls can be completed ahead of the rest of the main building structure. This can help to provide stability to the main structure during its construction and can have the beneficial effect of taking the jump form core off the project critical path. SAFETY.

Working platforms, guard rails, and ladders are built into the completed units of market-leading formwork systems. Complete wind-shield protection on platform edges is also possible. Self-climbing formwork systems are provided with integral free-fall braking devices. The completed formwork assembly is robust and provides a stable working platform. The reduced use of20 scaffolding and temporary work platforms results in less congestion on site. The setting rate of concrete in those parts of the structure supporting the form is critical in determining the rate at which construction can safely proceed. The repetitive nature of the work means that site operatives can quickly become familiar with health and safety aspects of their job. Formwork suppliers provide materials and resources to help train the labour force.

SUSTAINABILITY FEATURES The formwork system is easy to clean and reuse with little formwork waste generated compared to traditional formwork. Climbing formwork systems offer simplicity, safety and cost effectiveness for certain high-rise building structures. The repetitive nature of the work, combined with the engineered nature of the formwork, allows fine tuning of the construction operations, which in turn leads to minimal concrete wastage. Many repeated uses of formwork are possible before maintenance or replacement is needed, the number of uses depending on the quality of the surface finish of concrete specified It is an economical, rapid and accurate method of constructing reinforced concrete, or post-tensioned concrete structures. At its most basic level, slipforming is a type of movable formwork which is slowly raised, allowing the continuous extrusion of concrete. 3.

3 Pilling Works A foundation is the lowest part of the building structure (Kingston, 2016), can be classified into shallow foundation and deep foundation. Shallow foundations are pad foundation, raft foundation and strip foundation while deep foundation is pilling foundation. At least 20% of the overall cost will be spent on constructing a reliable and durable foundation, thus a proper geotechnical survey must take consideration in deciding the settlement of the foundation. Importance of foundation Factors affecting the choice of foundations 1. Strength of building. Foundation hold the structure above it and keep it upright. It support the load of the entire of building. (Park, 2016) 1.

Foundation loads. All the possible loads have to calculate thoroughly prior before constructing work started. (Themes, 2018) 2. Withstand nature wreak havoc. It keep the occupants of the building safe during calamities such as 2.

Groundwater level. To determine groundwater level of the construction site, at least 4 wells must21 earthquake, floods, strong winds and so on. (Park, 2016) be drilled. Laboratory analyses on sample of soil must be conducted. (Themes, 2018) 3.

Prevent moisture penetration. It avoid the moisture of ground from infiltrating in and damaging the structure. (Park, 2016) 3. Soil frost line.

Depth of soil frost line have to determine to ensure foundation built would not below of it. Non-swelling soil can be used to fill the free space inside the foundation. (Themes, 2018) 4. The purpose and design of the house. Different foundation cater the different design of houses, must choose the most suitable one. (Themes, 2018) Table 1: Importance and factors affecting the choice of foundations. The new building that are going to be built after demolition works are a 35-storey building. Shallow foundations are no longer fit to endure all the dead, superimpose and wind loads.

The foundation been chosen is piling foundation. Piles is used to anchor down building, control the settlements. (Den, 2018) It transfer the loads regardless if the load is inclined or vertical to a deeper strata in the ground where can be carried.

It give a sufficient strength and stability to sustain the loading. Various materials can made the piles such as timber, concrete, steel and composite. Meanwhile, load transfer of piles can be end-bearing piles, friction piles as well as end-bearing cum friction piles. There are two types of construction method for piles, which are cast-in-situ and pre-cast.

Replacement piles and displacement piles are the installation method for piles foundation. For the 35-storey new building, cast-in-situ concrete piles which transfer loads through end-bearing cum friction are used. It is installed through replacement method (figure 1). The reason why used cast-in-situ piles is the congested urban sites making it difficult to manoeuvre the long pre-cast pile.22 Figure 1: Replacement method cast-in-situ concrete piles.

The type of replacement piles applied is bored piles. It is known as auger-injected piles. There are 3 patterns of mechanical method for piles formed. Small diameter pile is formed by using boring rig and drill, medium diameter pile is formed with sing bucket barrel while large diameter of pile is formed by reserve circulation drill.

Boring Methods Elaboration 1. Manual-dug method ? It is used for piles foundation that has 3m and above sizes. ? Workers excavate using simple powered tools inside the caisson shaft. ? Due to high accident rate, it has been banned, unless special approval is obtained. 2. Continuous Flight Auger (CFA) (Dickson, 2017) ? Auger fitted with protective cap on the outlet at the base of the central tube.

? Highly workable concrete is pumped through the hollow stem of the auger, protective cap is detached.23 ? Rotation of the auger and flow of concrete is matched to avoid collapse of sides of the holes, which will lead to voids in filled with soil in concrete. ? Effective on soft ground and it must be self-supporting free from tree roots, cobbles, and boulders. 3.

Drilled Shafts ? Known as caissons. ? It is a typically cast-in-place deep foundation constructed using an auger. ? Drilled pier is a deep foundation system that is constructed by placing fresh concrete and reinforcing steel into a drilled shaft. ? Drilled shafts can sustain high axial and lateral loads, diameter range from 18 to 144 inches. Table 2: Boring Methods for non-displacement piles. 3.3.

1 Construction Process For the construction of bored piles, Drilled Shaft Piles boring method is employed. Temporary or permanent steel casings is used to maintain the sides of the drilled excavation. It is to prevent the caving soils or water infiltration. (Tommy, 2015) A crane mounted auger moved to the planned shaft position and started his job. The drilled shaft is constructed by rotary methods using crane mounted auger. To achieve the desired bearing stratum, the hole is advanced through soil or rock.

Ground removed by auger. As auger is removed, steel cage is dropped into the drilled shaft and welding of steel cage may needed to attain the full length of reinforcement bars. Next, concrete is poured into the holes. 3.3.2 Pile Load Test The finished foundation element have to resist compressive, uplift, and lateral loads. On the other words, pile testing is needed to make sure it can withstand the required loads and reduce the risk of building collapse.

A pile load test (figure 2) is to determine the ultimate geotechnical capacity of a pile. Dynamic load testing is a fast and reliable way to evaluate the24 bearing capacity of a pile as well as provide information about structural integrity, driving stresses and hammer efficiency. A static load test used to identify the pile behaviour under a static load being carry on once the dynamic load test has been passed.

(Kantesaria, 2018) Figure 2: Pile load test with concrete blocks. 3.3.3 Justifications Drilled shaft boring method is proposed to construct the bored piles because it is the most convenience boring method compared to manual-dug method and continuous flight auger (CFA). It takes lesser time to complete the piling works than manual-dug method and safer.

With it, time run for the construction project can be reduce. It is a more efficient and budget save method. Even though the continuous flight auger is a faster installation for conventional bored piles and produces much less noise and vibration, it is more risky than drilled shaft due to the rotation of the auger and flow of concrete have to synchronize in order to avoid collapse of sides of the holes. It will lead to voids in filled with soil in concrete and eventually affect the loading sustain of the piles.

Besides that, drilled shaft boring method are having the steel casing to prevent the surrounding soil from collapse while continuous flight auger must be self-supporting. Cast-in-situ piles are proposed due to restriction of construction site and the congested urban limit the shifting of long pre-cast piles from prefabricated factory to construction site.25 3.4 Pile Cap A pile cap is a thick concrete mat that rests on the concrete piles.

It provide a more stable foundation, typically used for a multi-storey building, structure or support base for heavy equipment. Each piles under the same pile cap will evenly allocate the building loads. The shapes of pile caps can be divided into three which are triangular, hexagonal and rectangular. For triangular pile cap, it made up for 3 piles; 6 to 7 piles are under hexagonal pile cap; rectangular piles are available to all other number of piles. (Jonathan, 2018) As it is very difficult to bore the piles vertical exactly, the pile cap should be able to accommodate some deviation in the final position of the pile heads.

Otherwise, the pile tops may be trimmed to obtain same height for all piles. There are 5 factors that determine the depth of pile cap: the shear capacity of the pile cap, shrinkage and swelling of the ground, pile anchorage, ground’s water table and the possibility of frost attack. The concrete undergo a chemical change as it hardens and a lot of heat been released. Pipes carrying refrigerant coolant are used in the mass to assist the setting process to prevent the cracking of concrete. For the new building, the rectangular piles are proposed to be used, each of them contains 4 piles.

Pile cap overhang the outer piles with a distance of 150mm on all sides. 3.4.1 Construction Process Steps Elaboration 1. Earthwork. The top 1 meter ground portion of every piles has to be removed. Earthwork must carry out carefully to prevent hitting of concrete piles.

This process took more than 1 week. (Mayam, 2017) 2. Pile Breaking The top portion of the piles has to be broken down using chisel. This step require effort and skill to avoid any piles crack. At least 28 days is needed for pile to gain its full strength before this step took place. (Mayam, 2017)26 3.

Plain cement concrete (PCC) casting for pile caps. 100mm of PCC casting poured and act as the connector between the ground and the pile caps. A thick polythene are placed below the PCC to prevent damping. PCC and the top of each piles must on the same horizontal level by doing proper measurement.

From the top portion of the piles, 50mm of concrete is casted and top portion of the rods was bent into an L-shape. (Mayam, 2017) 4. Pile cap reinforcements. Extreme precision must follow based on the structural drawing such as quantity of steel bars to make the reinforcement for pile cap. A great number of labors is needed for this procedure and it consumed a major time. This tighten the reinforcement bars process so called shuttering for pile caps.

(Mayam, 2017) 5. Concrete casting of pile caps. The total duration for construction of pile caps was 2 months, with 5 days reserved for concrete casting. Water the concrete continuously is needed until sand-filling was completed. (Mayam, 2017)27 3.5 FRAME 3.5.1 INTRODUCTION Frame comprises of a network of columns and connecting beams which forms the structural ‘skeleton’ of a building.

Beams are horizontal members while columns are vertical members of this frame. Humans walk on a flat planes of concrete known as slabs. Retrieved from Understanding Building Construction. Accessed on 6 April 2018 Table Importance and Factors Affecting the Choice of Frame IMPORTANCE OF FRAME FACTORS AFFECTING THE CHOICE OF FRAME ? Primary load-carrying element The function of columns is to transmit the loads from ceiling, slabs or including weight of itself to the foundation deep in the soil. The beam fixes and holds fitly the columns in order to stabilize it.

In addition, it also acts to bear all the loads come from the wall which constructed parallel with the beam (liwei, 2012) Accessed on 10 April 2018 ? Durability Reinforced concrete columns and beams have reinforcement bars within the concrete to improve the strength. Concrete is durable as it resists weathering, erosion and natural disasters. It needs few repairs and little maintenance. (Masterbuilder, 2013)Accessed on 10 April 2018 ? Provide external strength The frame prevents building from collapsing. The frame has to be constructed very strong to withstand various loads such as wind loads, dead loads and live loads imposed. (Wilson, 2016) Accessed on 10 April 2018 ? Duration of completion Concrete takes longer time to harden, around 7-28 days. Steel can be totally pre-fabricated and easy to install. The construction of steel structure consumes shorter time as it does not need to wait to be hardened.

(Masterbuilder, 2013) Accessed on 10 April 2018 ? Support suspended slab A column is a vertical member that supports the beam carrying the slab. Without the frame, load cannot be transferred and it ? Cost Concrete is economical and cost effective. Concrete is invulnerable to rot unlike wood. Thus, concrete has a longer lifespan.28 cannot be supported.

(Soules, 2017) Accessed on 19 April 2018 (Masterbuilder, 2013) Accessed on 10 April 201829 Figure Wood Frame Figure Steel Frame Figure Concrete Frame Table Types of Frame TYPES OF FRAME EXPLANATIONS ? Wood frame Wood frame is light, and thus allows quick construction with no heavy tools or equipment. Every component can easily be carried by hand. However, it is not strong enough to resist major wind events such as tornadoes and hurricanes. Retrieved from Understanding Building Construction. Accessed on 10 April 2018 ? Steel frame The most significant feature of steel framing is its flexibility. It can bend without cracking, as a steel building can flex when it is pushed to one side by say, wind, or an earthquake.

But its disadvantage is that, steel lose its strength in a fire. Retrieved from Understanding Building Construction. Accessed on 10 April 2018 ? Concrete frame Concrete frame is a structural member designed to carry compressive loads. Basically, it is the concrete with an embedded steel frame to provide reinforcement. Retrieved from Understanding Building Construction. Accessed on 10 April 201830 3.5.

2 CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE OF FRAME In the construction of frame, the materials used include cement, course aggregates, fine aggregates, steel bars and water. The construction process can basically divide into 5 stages which is layout work, reinforcement work, formwork, pouring concrete and removal of formwork respectively. (Biswas, 2017) Accessed on 3 April 2018.

STEPS AND ELABORATIONS 1. Layout Work The position and location of column is determined. Rope is lay according to the grids shown in the drawing. The location of columns related to rope is marked.

In drawing, column locations are shown related to grid-line with dimension. However, rope is assumed as grid line in the field. So, columns related to rope-line is placed by measuring dimension shown in the drawing. (Biswas, 2013) Accessed on 3 April 2018.

2. Placing Reinforcement bars After the location of column has marked, reinforcement is placed as instructed in the structural drawing. The reinforcement is fixed to the starter bar from column stump.

Merely placing the bars on supports is not enough. Links are tied to the vertical main bars using wire ties. (Staff, 2005) Accessed on 3 April 2018. 3. Formwork Installation Formwork is positioned to cover all sides of the column. Formwork for beam needs to consist of two sides of beam and soffit.

This wooden structure is to ensure that the mixture does not spread and will give the concrete in the column its shape while the concrete solidifies. (Brennan, 2011) Accessed on 3 April 2018. Figure Reinforcement bars Figure Formwork31 Figure Curing STEPS AND ELABORATIONS 4. Slump Test Slump test is carried out to access the consistency of fresh concrete. The slump test involves taking a sample of concrete from the truck and placing it in a cone-shaped form; the form is then inverted over a flat surface, allowing the concrete to flow out into what is called a “slump” the height of the resultant pile. This height is then measured; three to four inches are considered ideal, but a shorter slump may indicate too much water in the mix, which can weaken the concrete.

Samples of fresh concrete taken from the chute of the delivery truck will be used to fill at least three cardboard or plastic cylinders. These three cylinders will be allowed to cure at a testing laboratory, where they will be subjected to a compression (crushing) test to determine if they meet design strength. Retrieved from Civil Engineer. Accessed on 3 April 2018. 5.

Pouring of concrete All formwork and reinforcement should be clean and free from standing water before pouring concrete. When the workability of concrete is determined, concrete is then poured using concrete pump. The concrete is compacted using mechanical vibration. Vibration shall be appiled continuously during the placing of each batch of concrete until the expulsion of air has practically ceased. Continue pouring concrete until the forms are filled to the finished grade of the slab. (Zakaria, 2017) 6.

Curing Curing and protection shall start immediately after the compaction of concrete. After that, the concrete is wrapped in plastic to prevent it from drying out while it cures. (Beaulieu, 2017) Accessed on 3 April 2018. 7. Removal of formwork Figure Slump Test Figure Pouring Concrete32 Once it’s “cured” completely, the plastic and formwork is removed carefully, and the construction crew can move onto the next phase of the project. (Brennan, 2011) Accessed on 3 April 2018.33 3.5.

3 JUSTIFICATION ADVANTAGES OF CONCRETE FRAME ? Concrete is economical Concrete it is inexpensive and the production cost of cement concrete is very low. The major ingredients of concrete such as cement, water and aggregates are readily available. (Paul, 2016) Accessed on 3 April 2018. ? Ability to be cast into shape Fresh concrete is in liquid state and hence can be poured into various formworks or shuttering configurations to form desired shapes and sizes at construction site. It can be cast into complex shapes and configurations by adjusting the mix. (Paul, 2016) Accessed on 3 April 2018. ? High-temperature resistance Concrete can resist high temperatures better than wood and steel. Concrete is a bad conductor of heat and it can store considerable amount of heat from the environment.

(Paul, 2016) Accessed on 3 April 2018. ? Less maintenance required Concrete structures do not require coating or painting for regular applications as protection for weathering compared to steel or wooden structures. The maintenance cost for concrete is much lower than that for steel or wood. (Paul, 2016) Accessed on 3 April 2018. ? Water resistance Concrete can withstand water without serious deterioration. Due to its water impermeable property, it is ideal to underwater and submerged applications like for building structures, pipelines, dams, canals, linings and waterfront structures. (Paul, 2016) Accessed on 3 April 2018.

34 DISADVANTAGES OF CONCRETE FRAME ? Long curing time Concrete attains specified compressive strength in 28-days after casting and curing. Proper ambient temperature controlled over a month time is required for full strength development. (Marten, 2011) Accessed on 3 April 2018. ? Low tensile strength Reinforced concrete has a low rate of compressive strength when compared to steel. The ratio is about 1:10 for reinforced concrete compared to steel. Low rate of compressive strength may cause cracks to develop. Fibre and other polymers are introduced to increase its tensile capacity.

(Marten, 2011) Accessed on 3 April 2018. ? Contains soluble salts. Concrete may contain soluble salts. If soluble salt is present in concrete, then it may lead to efflorescence when comes in contact with moisture.

(Suryakanta, 2015) Accessed on 3 April 2018. ? Cracking of concrete Drying shrinkage and moisture expansion can result in the cracking of concrete. Therefore, construction joints are needed to avoid these types of cracks. (Suryakanta, 2015) Accessed on 3 April 2018. Figure Efflorescence of Concrete Slab Figure Cracking of Concrete35 3.6 Slab Slab is a piece of concrete that always used as walking surface. It also can serve as load bearing device as in slab homes. Concrete slab is a common structural element of a building. Table 3: Importance and factors affecting the choice of slab Importance of slab Factors affecting the choice of slab ? Provide a flat surface Slab provide a flat surface for walking. ? Strength and stability It depends on the strength and stability of the building. ? Support load It also acts as a load bearing device. ? Exclusion of dampness from inside the building ? Sound and heat insulator It acts as sound and heat barrier to prevent spread of fire and noise. ? Thermal insulation ? Act as divider It acts as divider to provide privacy to users. ? Resistance to fire Slab construct depends on the resistance of building to fire. ? Upper slab become ceiling Upper slab become ceiling for the storey below. ? Provision of a uniform and level surface ? Space Space between ceiling and floor is used to place building facilities. Upper Floor Precast concrete floor Advantages of precast concrete floor is it do not need formwork. It takes a shorter time as the time taken for the concrete to cure in formwork can be eliminated. It has a better quality control than others. It is a fast completion of construction process. Long spans can reduce the number of secondary beam required and maximize the column free space (Trego, 2012). There are few factors of affecting the choice of precast concrete floor which is the maximum36 span of slab, weight and thickness of units, nature of support, fire resistance and others (Trego, 2012). Table 1: Types of precast concrete floor Types of precast concrete floor Precast hollow floors Composite floors More economic compared to in-situ floor as it reduces the volume of concrete, weight of reinforcement and size of foundation (Trego, 2012). It is the combination of precast units and in-situ concrete. It is cheaper than composite floors as in-situ concrete in not needed. Precast units are added with reinforcement bars to increase the strength of the floor. It does not need temporary support as the units are all self-centering. (Trego, 2012) It will act same as in-situ floor and be designed for more complex loadings. (Trego, 2012) It only takes a short construction period. Figure 1: Precast hollow floors Figure 2: Composite floors37 Types of Reinforced concrete slab Table 4: Types of reinforced concrete slab Types of reinforced concrete slab Elaborations 1. Flat slab Flat slab able to reduce the displacement of slab. It also increases the slab shear resistance and it also provides a flat ceiling which will recduce the finishing cost. It only can support low storey height as it only has a shallow floor. It has medium span with light load bearing. 2. Flat plate slab Flat plate slab is a simple construction. It can minimize the storey height of the building. It only can support low storey height as it only has a shallow floor (Trego, 2012). It has flat ceilings and can reduce finishing cost. It involved the simplest formwork. It reduces the building weight and able to withstand winds loads. It only can apply to light load bearing structure and for short and medium spans only. Figure 3: Flat slab Figure 4: Flat plate slab38 3. Waffle Slab Waffle slab is used as alternative to an in-site slab or a beam and slab suspended floor (Trego, 2012). It is a saving cost method of slab as it only requires less concrete and reinforcements. This will cause the reduce in number of columns and beams. Moulds of waffle slab are very strong, lightweight and capable to support all the normal loads encountered in building works (Trego, 2012). Construction process of solid floor Solid floor is constructed using concrete normally. It does not use timber. Therefore, it will no decay. Solid floor need finishes. Table 5: Construction process of solid floor Steps Elaborations 1. Site clearing Clear the construction area by removing all the trees. (Johny, 2012) Figure 6: Site clearing Figure 5: Waffle slab39 2. Remove topsoil Remove all the topsoil and unsuitable materials. (Johny, 2012) 3. Compact and level the soil Compact and level the soil by flattening the sloped area. 4. Place hardcore Hardcore is placed and compacted. Hardcore is used to fill in any small holes that formed during previous excavation. (Johny, 2012) This is done to provide a firm base to place concrete bed ad help to spread the load supported over a larger area. Figure 7: Remove topsoil Figure 8: Level soil40 5. Place Damp Proof Membrane Damp Proof Membrane(DPM) is placed to prevent moisture transmission from the ground. 6. Prepare formwork Formwork is prepared before pouring concrete. 7. Prepare lean concrete 50mm-75mm lean concrete is prepared to ensure the reinforcement will not touch the ground. Figure 9: Place Damp Proof Membrane Figure 10: Formwork Figure 11: Prepare lean concrete41 8. Place reinforcement bar Reinforcement bars are placed to increase the strength of the slab. 9. Pour concrete Concrete (cement: sand: aggregate: 1:2:4) with thickness of 150mm is poured and levelled. Type of flat slab construction Table 6: Types of flat slab construction Figure 12:Reinforcement bars Figure 13:Pour concrete42 Types of flat slab construction Elaborations 1. Simple flat slab Simple flat slab is the reinforced concrete slab supported directly by the concrete column without using beams (Jack, 2012). 2. Flat slab with drop panels This slab increases shear strength of slab. It also increases the negative moment capacity of slab (Marott, 2014). Drop panels can reduce deflection of slab by stiffen the slab (Marott, 2014). 3. Flab slab with column heads Column heads increases the shear strength of slab. It also reduces the moments in slab by reducing the effective span (Marott, 2014). Figure 14: Simple flat slab Figure 15: Flat slab with drop panels Figure 16: Flat slab with column heads43 Justification Table 7: Advantages and disadvantages of flat slab Advantages Disadvantages Flat slab ? Flexibility It shows flexibility in room as partition walls can be placed at anywhere. ? Span length It’s span length is medium and impossible to have large span (Jack, 2012). ? Reinforcement placement Reinforcement placement is easier as process of installing of flat slab is simple. ? Thick The thickness of flat slab is thicker compared to other slab. ? Less time consuming It reduces the construction time. ? Not suitable for masonry partitions. It cannot support masonry partitions (Jack, 2012). ? Reduce building height 4. Flat slab with both drop panels and column heads It has the strongest shear strength. Figure 17:Flat slab with both drop panels and column heads44 Building height can be reduced as no beam is used. ? Ease of framework installation Big table of flat slab can be used so that the installing process can be simplify.45 Roof Roof is a covering at the uppermost parts of a building. (H.M.A, 2009) Roof provides protection for the building and its contents from the effects of climate changes. Roof protects a building against rain, heat, sunlight and wind. Table 8: Importance and factors affecting the choice of roofs Importance of roof Factors affecting the choice of roof 1. Protects building from climate changes. It protects the building from heat, sunlight, wind, rain and others. 1. Roof Design (COOK, 2016) The design of the roof determines the roofing system used. 2. Drainage It helps to keep out water to prevent accumulation of water. 2. Durability of the System (COOK, 2016) The resilience of roofing system depends on the durability of roofing materials used. 3. Climate The roof need to withstand the climate changes such as rainfall, wind, heat and others. 4. Availability and Cost of Roofing Material (COOK, 2016) The material chosen must be eco-friendly and have low maintenance. Types of roofs46 Table 9: Types of roofs Types of roofs Elaborations 1. Flat roof Flat roofs are most common roof in buildings. Flat roofs are the simple roof to build because they have little pitch only. 2. Gable Roof The gable roof style looks like an inverted down V. It is simple to build. 3. Hip Roof Hip roofs are more difficult to construct when compared to flat roofs as they have a more complicated truss and rafter structure. A hip roof style roof has four sloping sides with zero vertical roof walls. Hip roofs can be square or rectangular. (Allen, 2010) Figure 18: Flat roof Figure 19: Gable roof Figure 20: Hip roof47 4. Butterfly Roof Butterfly roof provides plenty of light penetration and ventilation but it is not effective in water drainage. 5. Shed Roof A shed roof is basically a flat roof with a slightly greater angle to allow greater run off. It is usually used in home extensions rooms and porches. 6. Gambrel Roof Gambrel roof provides a good amount of space in the attic. It provides extra space that it is often turned into bedrooms or other living areas. Figure 21: Butterfly roof Figure 22: Shed roof Figure 23: Gambrel roof48 7. Dutch Hip Roof Dutch hip roof is basically a hip roof with a small gable at either end. The gables can be used as ventilation. Components of flat roof Figure 24:Dutch hip roof49 Table 10: Components and functions of roof Roof decking construction A flat base is required to lay the roof covering on. The base used must be minimum 18mm thick. Insulation layer could be required to construct a ‘warm roof’ build-up. The sheets of plywood are fixed to the joists to make a flat base. (Lake, 2016) This is flat roof. The panels are laid with the longer edges across the joists and staggered to offer a more Components Functions 1. Gutter Collects rainwater from the roof and conveys them to the rainwater pipe. 2. Rainwater pipe Conveys the discharged rainwater to the drains. 3. Verge Verge is the non-drained edge of a roof. 4. Flashing to weather Joint between roof and parapet. 5. Parapet Support wall projecting above roof level. 6. Fascia Closing member of roof construction. Figure 25: Components of flat roof50 stable surface. (Lake, 2016) To improve the strength of roof, timber noggins are always used between the joists. Some systems require an expansion gap between the decking boards. Preventing leaks at abutments and parapets The most common source of leaks when it comes to flat roofs is where the flat roof meets the house or parapet walls. Turning the roof covering up the wall to form a skirting is the commonly applied method of ensuring a water-tight seal. (Lake, 2016) Construction process of flat roof Table 11: Construction process of flat roof Steps Elaborations 1. Frame the roof Every flat roof has a gentle rise and fall created by frame that enable water to run off the roof. When framing a flat roof, a slight incline must be created. 2. Add the plywood After framing, add a layer of 5/8-inch plywood sheathing. Make sure that there is at least a 1/8-inch gap at all the joints to allow for contraction, expansion and the natural movement of the roof. (Well, 2017) Figure 26: Frame the roof Figure 27: Add plywood51 3. Add the underlayment Underlayment is to create a soft, protective base for the rubber. Iso board is used, which is a piece of 1/2-inch-thick rigid foam with a special fiberglass backing (Well, 2017). Secure it to the plywood sheathing with screws and steel washers (Well, 2017). Make sure that all the pieces fit snugly against each other. It is very important for the installation. 4. Create the corners When install, make sure that no water is accumulate at any corners of the roof, especially parapet. To prevent this, 2x4s is cut into proper size and is screwed into the joints between wall and roof to create gradual transition. Figure 28: Add underlayment Figure 29: Corner of roof52 5. Complete the dry-fit process Make sure there are no debris on the roof. After taking the rubber, cut the rubber rolls with utility knife and into sizes that big enough to cover the roof or additional 9 inches to the sides of roofs (Well, 2017). Then, spread the rubber rolls carefully on the roof. If there is overlap, take the sides and fold back to itself. 6. Secure the rubber with glue Glue the folded rubber and the Iso board together. Spread the glue with a paint roller on both sides. When the glue seems to be almost dry, finish the spreading process so there are no wrinkles. Make sure there is no air bubbles and the extra edges can be glue to the wall (Well, 2017). 7. Finish off any edges At any vertical corners, cut and overlap the rubber and glue it tightly. To prevent vertical section from peeling off from the wall, screw them to the metal brackets which called termination stops (Well, 2017). Figure 30: Rubber roll Figure 31: Spread the glue over the roof Figure 32: Edges of the roof53 8. Add a copper flashing Nail down a lead-coated copper flashing over the front edges of the roof (Well, 2017). Glue a 12-inch strip of uncured rubber over the flashing’s top nail edge. Justifications Table 12: Advantages and disadvantages of flat roof Advantages Disadvantages Figure 33: Copper flashing54 Flat roof ? Save space There is no dead space as there is no space lost below the roof (P., 2014). ? Drainage There is always problem of accumulation of water as it has no drains. ? Less materials Less materials used to build a flat roof. ? Short life span It only has short life span which is 10-15 years (P., 2014).. ? Pleasant looks It has a more pleasant looks. ? High maintenance High maintenance is needed for flat roof as there is always leaking problems. ? More accessible Cleaning, installing and repairing process is more easier and cheaper (P., 2014) . ? Have many function It can be used to make a garden, terrace or other purpose (P., 2014). ? Cheap materials The materials needed to construct a flat roof is cheap. Contents 1.0 SITE INFORMATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 2.0 DEMOLITION WORKS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3 2.1 Technique for Demolition ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3 2.1.1 Progressive Demolition ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 3 2.1.2 Mechanism of Control Demolition …………………………………………………………………………….. 3 2.1.3 De construction or Top Down …………………………………………………………………………………… 455 2.2 Problems May Arise While Carrying Out the Building Demolition ……………………………………….. 4 2.3 Safety of Demolition ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 2.3.1 Precautions regarding equipment …………………………………………………………………………….. 5 Precautions regarding Scaffolding …………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 Precautions regarding Public Safety ………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 Precautions regarding Worker Safety ………………………………………………………………………………… 5 2.4 Preparation on Site during Demolition …………………………………………………………………………….. 6 2.5 Machinery Involves ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7 2.5.1 Excavator ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7 2.5.2 Wheel loader ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8 2.5.3 Bulldozer. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 2.5.4 Crusher Bucket ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10 2.5.5 Hand drill ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11 3.0 CONSTRUCTION WORKS ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12 3.1 Structure Design ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12 3.2 Types of Structure. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14


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