1. IntroductionPublic Policy is one of the broadest and most commonly used concepts in politics and in the academic circles. Its application in different contexts, always, brings about confusion to many people.
For this reason, there is no any consensus in most discussions on the definition of the term. The most difficult confusion arises from the failure of many people to distinguish between public policy as being affairs of the state and public policy as being an academic field of study. This paper argues that the meaning of the term, ‘public Policy’ cannot be explained from a single perspective or dimension. Therefore, the paper seeks to generate different understandings and explanations for the meaning of the term from a number of scholars. 2. DefinitionsTo begin with, the meaning of Public Policy cannot be understood without firstly understanding the meaning of the word, ‘Policy’ and Public Policy itself.
In trying to define a Policy, Anderson (1975) has suggested that a policy is a “purposive course of action followed by an actor or set of actors”. Apart from that, a different definition can be borrowed from Ripley & Franklin cited in Cahn (2012:30) who has defined policy as ‘what the government says and does about perceived problems.’ This definition, though, restricts the meaning of policy only to those actions carried out by the government, a policy can be public or private. Public policy, on the other hand as adopted from Dye (1976: 1) means, answer to the question what the government does, why it does exactly what it does and what consequences this brings. A similar definition can be borrowed from Hayes, (2001) which stresses that, Public policy is a purposive and consistent course of action produced as a response to a perceived problem of a constituency, formulated by a specific political process, and adopted, implemented, and enforced by a public agency. Cochran and Malone, (2014) defines Public policy as the overall framework within which government actions are undertaken to achieve public goals, This is similar to what Charles has advance where Public policy is a system of laws, regulatory measures, courses of action, and funding priorities concerning a given topic promulgated by a governmental entity or its representatives (Serban, M, 2015)3.
Explanation for the Meaning of Public policyFrom the above definitions, public policy can firstly, be characterized as something that involves behavior and intentions. Just as seen in Dye (1992, p. 4), public policy simply involves what governments choose to do or not to do. Dye’s view of a public policy rests on the actions taken by the government and the purpose that govern such action. In simple terms, public policies are not just only whatever behaviors but also the goals that are set to govern such behaviors. Hogwood and Gunn, (1984: 14-15) have attributed public policy to as desired state-of-the-art in certain area or expressed desire of the government to follow certain way of development in specific area.
This notion is inclined on the idea that public policies are goal oriented. Public policies are made and implemented in order to achieve the objectives which the government has in view for the ultimate benefit of the masses in general. These policies clearly spell out the programmes of government. Public policy is also characterized by being less readily distinguishable from ‘administration. Public policy is what the government actually decides or chooses to do.
It is the relationship of the government units to the specific field of political environment in a given administrative system. It can take a variety of forms like law, ordinances, court decisions, executive orders, decisions etc. Hogwood and Gunn (1984: 15) has noted that that public policy is in fact always more than just simple act of governing institution’s decisions. After public policy is formally adopted / confirmed, gives legal power to competent institutions to implement certain activities.
(Hogwood, Gunn, 1984: 16).Policy have outcomes which may or may not have been foreseen. Public policy involves an accumulation of outcome of many operational decisions or responses to problems first perceived at relatively low levels of the organization by administrators. Public policy is the outcome of the government’s collective actions. It means that it is a pattern or course of activity or’ the governmental officials and actors in a collective sense than being term as their discrete and segregated decisions. Apart from that, Public Policy can also be seen to be separate from a mare decision. Policy is more than decision. Public policy is positive in the sense that it depicts the concern of the government ‘and involves its action to a particular problem on which the policy is made.
It has the sanction of law and authority behind it. Negatively, it involves a decisions by the governmental officials regarding not taking any action on a particular issue. Hogwood and Gunn (1984: 15) has noted that that public policy is in fact always more than just simple act of governing institution’s decisions. After public policy is formally adopted / confirmed, gives legal power to competent institutions to implement certain activities. (Hogwood, Gunn, 1984: 16).
Another way to extract the meaning of Public Policy from the above mentioned definitions is to understand that policy involves inaction as well as action. The ‘actions’ we are concerned with in this case are government decisions to act, or not to act, to change or maintain some aspect of the status quo (Birkland, 2001: ch. 1).
Public policies, in this case, focuses on what Easton (1953, p. 129) has been attributed to as “the authoritative allocation of values for the whole society. That’s why Lineberry (1977, p. 2), stresses that public policy “is what governments do and fail to do – to and for their citizens.” This understanding places government at the centre as being responsible for administrating. One can understand public policies as set of accepted activities or measures, which shall, provide these societal activities, which would result in what is expected to be public interest, according to the belief of public sector.
Public policy involves a key but not exclusive role for public agencies. One can understand public policies as set of accepted activities or measures, which shall, provide these societal activities, which would result in what is expected to be public interest, according to the belief of public sector.4. ConclusionIn a nutshell, it is clear that public policies are governmental decisions, and are actually the result of activities which the government undertakes in pursuance of certain goals and objectives.
It can also be said that public policy formulation and implementation involves a well-planned pattern or course of activity. It requires a thoroughly close knit relation and interaction between the important governmental agencies viz., the political executive, legislature, bureaucracy and judiciary.