1. Problem Statement:
Presently Quetta city is bereaved from the designed Architectural remains of 1935, the purpose of this research is to examine the reasons of reshaping or transforming Quetta’s Architectural identities. The research will further explore the reason that why the architectural remains were not restored and rebuilt in their original form. Quetta city had attained an exclusive character with its British architecture and indo-Saracenic architectural style. In the wake of 1935 the structures were demolished and once rebuilt after decades where their vocabulary had been changed or transformed, Prior to 1935 earthquake the city was transformed by Britishers by giving it a specific identity.
The Quetta city suffered devastation on 31 May 1935 between 2:33 am and 3:40 am. The earthquake had a magnitude of 7.7 Mw and anywhere between 30,000 and 60,000 people died from the impact. This seismic tremor ranked as the deadliest earthquake that hit South Asia until the 2005 Kashmir earthquake. Quetta and its neighboring towns lie in the most active seismic region of Pakistan which includes the Chaman and Chiltan faults. Initial dispatch drafts issued by the Government evaluated an aggregate of 20,000 individuals covered under the rubble, 10,000 survivors and 4,000 injured. The city was severely damaged and was immediately sealed under the military monitor with medical advice. All the villages between Quetta and Kalat were destroyed and demolished. It is the historical and instrumentally recorded data since 1905. Between 1851 and 1935 about 15 severe earthquakes have occurred in Baluchistan which has caused damage to the structures. Many destructive earthquakes have been related to known as active faults. On the basis of studies, Quetta area has been divided into two seismic zones which are the high seismic risk zone and very high seismic risk zone. Generally, about 5km strip parallel to the fault traces has been considered with in very high seismic risk zone.
Fig:01: The Quetta Earthquake 1935, Government of India press. Simla 1935.
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The study of identities prior to 1935 in south western post which were completely destroyed and rebuilt in different style or in new fashion. Buildings now are projecting different identities which are divided by time and natural disaster and in its result Quetta has lost its British colonial landscape prior to 1935. The case study includes:
Sr. no Building Year of construction Year of Rebuilt
1 Quetta Club 1895 Reconstructed after 1935
2 Railway station of Quetta 1896 1938
3 Civil Hospital 1877 1935
4 Sandeman hall 1890-1935 Not constructed again
5 Roman catholic church 1898 1970
6 Balochistan Governors House 1911 Reconstructed after 1935
7 DC office Anscomb road office 1939
8 Mutton Market 1930-1935 Rebuilt
9 Monument of sphinx 1880 Destroyed in 1992
10 High court Quetta 1930 1993
Fig:02 Picture source is Memories of Quetta (before earth quake 1935) by Abdul Hameed Baloch and picture Relief: Photographic archive from the Jean s. and Frederic A. sharf collection at wolfsonian- FIU library.
Fig:03 Photograph Albums British Raj in North-West Frontier Province Balochistan and Sindh
Pre -Independence Pakistan 1925
This thesis seeks to create an environment that encourages the heritage value and emotional attachment with the spaces. The author wants to describe the relationship of Architectural styles and ideas of Quetta prior to 1935 with their present states. The heritage values worth preserving instead of molding a new form or shape of a building or to encourage the movement of eclecticism instead. A town or a city region represents the ethnicity, history, religion and social status while primary focus of architecture is its satisfaction through its appealing views and the design which is based on the history, religion, culture, social values and the elements.
• To study the British contributions to Quetta’s architectural legacy for example Addition of indo-saracenic and European styles.
• To demonstrate that Quetta has clearly defined different eras of Architectural Activities.
• To explore British ideologies and identities as expressed in Architecture produced before 1935.
• To examine the transformation in Architectural landscape of Quetta after 1935 earthquake.
• To formally analyze the selected case studies in their original state prior to 1935 and compare it to their present reconstructed state.
• To find the reasons behind the change in style.
3. Literature Survey (Brief survey of past work done on the topic and any related work with reference, developing need for present study).
• Memories of Quetta (Before Earthquake 1935) by Abdul Hameed Baloch:
Abdul Hameed Baloch, a craftsman from Kalat, has executed 35 artistic creations in oils on Quetta scene and design that existed before the earth-Quake of 1935, which claimed 30,000 lives within 30 seconds. Mr. Hameed with meticulous endeavors some way or another assembled all the disintegrating stuff from daily papers, old reports and different sources. The vast majority of the pictures were excessively ambiguous and detached, making it impossible to be replicated detail by detail. So, Hameed needed to recreate them utilizing his very own creative energy. Thus, with a diligent work of 5 years he has painted the sketches of verifiable critical both for the analysts and workmanship. These artistic creations were inaugurated on the 71st commemoration of Quetta Earth Quake (Abid Husain Qureshi, Asst. Prof. Expressive arts, University of Balochistan).
Living countries keep in mind their tragedies however learn exercises to get by on the world guide. Craftsman Abdul Hameed yet of 40 years set out to reproduce in his oil compositions the greatness of Quetta and what it looked preferred before 1935. It will be a compensating knowledge for individuals to take a look at his works
• Baluchistan Architecture craft and religious symbolism by Mohsen kelany:
This exploration work investigates the living custom of Baluchistan and gives a more profound comprehension of its religo-cultural aspects. The architectural and artistic traditions are well archived in this book. The material exhibited on prayer rugs, tents, and aspects of the nomadic and semi-nomadic architecture is entirely unique. The examination initially focuses on the social condition of Baluchistan, in order to comprehend the contribution of neighborhood culture and tribo-religious impacts and influences of local architecture. The Baluchi way of life is investigated on a wide plane, considering native Architecture including mosques and representative minarets as key components, together with their designs, characteristics, social contextualization and techniques for production.
• Making Lahore modern by William J Grover:
In Making Lahore Modern, William J. Glover researches the customs that formed provincial Lahore. Specifically, he centers around the conviction that both British and Indian on-screen characters who actualized urbanization came to share: that the material texture of the city could prompt social and good change. This confidence in the intensity of the physical condition to shape individual and aggregate assumptions, he contends, joins the pioneer history of Lahore to nineteenth-century urbanization around the globe.
Glover highlights three features of Lahore’s history that demonstrate this procedure unfolding. At first, he looks at the ideas through which the British comprehended the Indian city and imagined its change and transformation. Second, through a thorough investigation of new structures and the adaptation of existing structures, he investigates the role of planning, designing, and of reuse. At last, he investigates the transformations in urban imagination as proved in Indian writings on the city in this period. Over all, Glover emphasize that colonial urbanism was not just forced or imposed; but it was a done with a collaboration between Indian citizens and the British.
• Ideologies of Raj by Thomas medcalf:
Thomas Metcalf’s investigation examines the traditions and ways the British wanted to legitimate their rule over India. He demonstrates that the standards and principles the British devised incorporated opposing the dreams of India, yet together they made the expert of the Raj lawful. Ideologies of the Raj is constantly clear and flutent’,
Metcalf emphases on two areas in his study of British rule in India: the resemblances and transformations in Britain and India as seen by the British.
Metcalf claims that Britishers used ideologies to convince themselves of their right to govern India. The similarities and differences between the Britain’s self-perceptions and India’s characteristics, counting India’s supposed despotism, the cultures, and India’s social hierarchy system contrasted with the dominant social system in which Britain was familiar, all information gave Britishers plenty of examples to use the growth of empire and their conviction to rule India. The differences became the lasting over a long period of legacy.
• Master plan for Quetta (QDA) by CRP, U.E.T Lahore:
• Heritage Trail Peshawar Latest Completion || Special Report on Peshawar Heritage Trail Project (ghanta ghar, ghor kachi, mahala sethiyan, bazar e kalaan, chowk yadgar façade lifting and renovation of old city of Peshawar started in Dec 2017.)
o Human psychology regarding exterior and interior environment.
o Quetta Gazetteers
o Quetta Bylaws
o Cantonment Bylaws
The method going to be used will be field survey that is used to gather initial information, the use of pre-1935 images of colonial buildings. The study will be based on Thomas medcalf scholarship as departure point for the study of architectural identity prior to 1935.
The research will be conducted through reconnaissance survey and analysis of the collected data. The old and new philosophies and architectural styles will be documented and collected in pictures and report or book format.
• Collection of Primary Data:
Primary data will be collected from all the relevant sources which includes:
o The data will be collected from the authority QDA (Quetta development Authority), and old reports and maps will be studied.
o Plans and photographs of the buildings.
o Will draw the maps of buildings.
o Survey of the buildings.
o Get maps from the architects.
o To carry out the research work, a thorough literature review will be conducted on the buildings of Quetta which relates to structures before 1935 earth quake and its surrounding ; its historical background.
• Collection of Secondary Data:
Secondary data will be collected from all the relevant sources which includes:
o The relevant books.
o The relevant thesis reports.
o Articles, journals and from internet.
o Information through internet Libraries.
o Information through interviews.
o Discussion with the historian, planners and architects
a) Brief description of how research will be conducted:
It is important to document the existing buildings in order to identify their architectural style and construction. An inventory will be developed to collect the data of existing heritage buildings in Quetta. Most of the existing structures were built during British period and can be related with architectural styles and movements of that time such as Raj Architecture, Colonial Architecture etc. Similar buildings were constructed in many other cities of Pakistan, this will be helpful to understand the styles, patterns and construction details. Building plans/ will be drawn as per the existing situation and actual plans (if possible). Pictures will be taken for documentary evidence. Literature review will be done from such practices and related studies and results will be concluded with recommendation for future adoption of architectural styles and design patterns
The study is based on field survey and literature review.
c) Experimental set up:
As mentioned in (a).
d) Theoretical Studies:
As mentioned in (a) study of architectural styles, patterns of ideas which are mainly related to colonial architecture and indo-Saracenic architecture. This study reflects upon the transformation of colonial architecture to local architecture. The heritage of the city is vanished and had been converted into local and modern architecture. Post 1935 era activity regarding Architecture and reconstruction of the same structures in different ways and how it relates with the architectural style of 1935 which are departed from initial structure and if few are constructed then their typology has been changed totally. The major concern in this research will be the representation of elements of architectural styles and study of architectural ideas and concepts used in Baluchistan before 1935 and after the disaster which includes the study of Eclecticism in Architecture (A mixture of elements from previous historical styles to create something that is new and original). This research is done as the citizens are discovering that older buildings and neighborhoods and are important ingredients of the identity and special character of a city.
e) Results expected and method of the Analysis:
The study will provide a unique inventory and details of heritage buildings, architectural design and styles of buildings before and after 1935. It will be first of its kind to document such heritage buildings. The study will further help in order to revive the historical architectural heritage and styles of Quetta’s past and create better urban design plan for future which emphasize on past design and practices.
5. Utilization of research results:
The objective of the research is to explore the heritage of Baluchistan and the formations, the planning, the destruction and then the transformation and development of the city of Quetta with reference to the architecture and the social character of the city. The study tries to explore the architectural characteristic, the elements, the philosophies before the destruction and the understanding about the pattern of planning and design after the earthquake that is from 1935 to date.