1. medicines since ancient time. Among these

1.      There are great  number of molecules of herbal plants whichare used as medicines since ancient time. Among these silymarin an extract ofsilybum marianum has great benefits. Silybum marianum or milk thistle plant hasmedicinal biological effect. In Bible milk thistle is called “Lebanon cardus”.

Extract of silybum marianum is called silymarin.  Silymarin consists of 7 flavonogligans and aflavonoid . The major component of of silymarin is silybin about 70%. It hasantioxidant  and anti-inflammatory powerwhich reduce free radicals.

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Silymarin is used in different liver diseases suchas cirrhosis and chronic liver diseases. virus damage liver and produce freeradicals and cause infalammation Silymarin reduce the liver damage due to itsantioxidant and ani-infalammatory power and helps immune system to workproperly and overcome virus damage. Intravenous adminstration of silymarin reduce the hepatitusc virus infection.

Silybin turn off pro-inflammatory signals which is due tothe activation of nuclear factor- Kb. Ferenci et al demonstrated that viralreplication is inhibited by silybin hence it disturb life cycle of HCV. Itinhibit RNA polymerase function of HCV . silymarin blocks entry the entry ofHCV and fusion of HCV with liposomes. Silymarin has great role in alcohlic andnon alcohlic liver dseases. Excessive use of alcohol damage liver. Alcoholabuses cause other liver damage such as HCV. Alcohol liver damage alternate theredox reactions of body because of alcohol metabolism.

Alcohol dehydrogenaseand aldehyde dehydrogenase reduce the NAD/NADH ratio which reduce themitochondrial capacity to metabolize lipids. Secondary metabolites of ethanolmetabolism cause oxidative stress and high quantity of lipds leads lipidlypoperoxidation.Then mitochondrial membrane function lost and consequentlydeath of cell occur. Silybin phosphatidylcholine complex has great role inprotecting the cell. It increase the vitality of cell. It reduce the oxidativestress and lipid per oxidaton measured by Malonaldehyde (oxidative marker). Songet al demonstrated the effect of silybin on induced damaged lver of mice . theytook mice and give ethanol according to their body weight after every 12 hours.

alcohol increase their value of ALT . administration of silybin to mice decreasethe value of damage liver mice to normal range. Another study on mice highlightthe role of silybin on damage liver . 250mg/kg silymarine given to mice,silymarine reduce the value of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances ,superoxide dismutase and catalase.

Non alcohlic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) is adsease n which lipid is accumulated in hepatocytes. NAFLD is a commonexponantional increased disease in westren countries . NAFLD is the second mostcommon reason of liver transplantation.

NAFLD is a complex systemic syndrome inwhich on set insulin resistence occur. Different experiments have conducted todemonstrate  the effect of silymarine onNAFLD . silymarin may be insulin sensitizer. Silybin has an important role indecreas the fat in liver by activation of lipolysis in liver .

a group of micewas taken and high fat diet was given with silymarin . silymarin activate thelipolysis and control the fat value in mice . cirrohsis and hepatocellularcarcinoma are the end stage of liver . silymarin has great medicinal role inthese disease as it decrease the oxidative stress.