2.1Identify and improve in specific practices. I have

2.1Identify possible development opportunities relevant to improving own practice I am always looking for ways in which I can improve my performance. I am always open to training and development opportunities, enrolling in courses or training plans is an invaluable way to gain the skills or knowledge you need to develop in your role and improve in specific practices. I have completed many courses to improve myself.

Last year I have completed level 1 in Functional English and Functional Math level 1 and Childcare level 1. Currently I am attending Functional English level 2, Maths level 2, Teaching assistant level 2 and employability skills courses. I have also completed health and safety level 1 with Ealing Adult Learning (have not received my certificates yet) I have attached some of the certificates at the back.

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2.2 Describe the importance of continuing professional developmentContinuing professional development is an important part of education as continuing development and training makes sure of a high level of knowledge and allows teachers and other individuals to keep their professional skills and knowledge up to date. For example, professional development needs to be used as new knowledge that may help us to deal with new or complicated situations is shared with us. It also helps with keeping up to date with the latest teaching techniques and helps us to take regular reviews of procedures and practices such as first aid, safeguarding, data protection, health and safety and many more. Continuing professional development increases the standard of the skills we have, and it allows us to always be updating skills and developing knowledge and to be successful at school. We can become more effective in the workplace.

This assists us to advance in our career and move into new positions where we can lead, manage, influence, coach and teach others.2.3 work with an appropriate person to: a) identify own strengths, and areas where practice could improve b) plan ways in practice could improvec) identify goals and targetsI would like to improve in every aspect of my life. No matter how good I am at a particular skill or task, I believe I can always get better, and would like an opportunity to gain new experiences that will help me become better at anything I do. Communication:I have worked to become a better communicator, but I still have some trouble when speaking to a large group.

I have started to go to group meetings and volunteer to speak so I can improve my communication skillsI would like to strengthen my presentation skills when I present to large audiences. I find I often speak a little too slow, especially when I begin my presentation, so I would like to improve my voice and delivery.2.

4 Take part in continuing professional development that is relevant to own goals and targetsContinuing professional development allows us to maintain our knowledge and skills related to school. It helps us stay up-to-date with new information, policies and procedures, along with new techniques, research and recommendations. To continue professional development, I have started attending many social meetings that allow me to become more confident speaking in front of a large crowd and allow me to improve my presentation goals. Both of these are my goals and targets and I am trying to fulfil both of these targets. Taking part in many different forms of professional development allow me to be able to get better at what I do and help me to improve in what I am lacking in.

This professional development can take place in courses and many other things. 3.1 Describe why team work is important in schools. Team work is very important in any work place and especially in the school environment. Every school you work in you will be part of a group of people that must work together to make sure their classroom runs smoothly. Team work also provides a good role model for their pupils, because it shows respect and communication.

Team work can be helped by holding regular meetings where ideas, information and opinions can be shared, and everyone feels that their voice is valued. In the setting where I volunteer, the classroom has a class teacher and teaching assistants, as well as me. The staffs come from different cultures, backgrounds and are different ages, but we are professionals and friendly with each other; giving each other full support and respect. Small things make a difference, so asking each other if we need any help or if anyone would like to drink of tea or coffee all makes a difference and it helps to make a supportive and friendly team No person can be good at everything and everyone has something to add to the team so working in closely together provides a great opportunity for the school staff to learn from each other’s skills and talents for the benefit for all the pupils. 3.2 Describe the purpose and objectives of the team in which they work. The purpose of creating a team is to provide a foundation that will increase the ability of employees to participate in planning, problem solving and decision making that will improve the standard in the school. Workplace targets are goals that the team in the school sets out to achieve within a certain time.

They must be measurable and realistic. For example, if my work is to support a child in group or individually, I may work with the school SENCO or a different professional who has come into the school to support the child. Together, we will need to write and record the child’s progress and agree if extra support is needed; for example, speech and language or social communication. In my primary school, the teacher assistant works very closely with the class teacher and sometimes with other adults like parents or other staff members. In secondary school, the teacher assistant is more likely to work in a certain department or subject area in which they have a strength.

In secondary school, the teacher assistant and the class teacher work together to carry out a successful class. These plans should also include information about the role and learning intentions of other adults within a year group that you are working in. It is important for all members of staff to understand their roles and how to keep an ethical relationship with other members of the team. Also, communication with others is very necessary and important part of working well within the team. 3.3 Describe own role and responsibilities and those of others in the team.

 When working in teams I always respect and value the knowledge and opinions of other practitioners. I always listen and respect what other team members have to say whether it is personal, or work related. This is because in order to have a good working relationship with them, you need to show that you have considered their opinions and experience. My role requires me to work alongside a number of adults and pupils and pass on information to each member of staff so it is essential for me to have a good relationship with each and every member of staff. Teaching assistants should always be aware of the example they are setting to the children and ensure they provide a positive learning experience for them. It is very important that staff members work together as a team. Not everyone will have the same views, so if you don’t communicate your views to each other staff members then conflict can occur.

By working together as part of a team and communicating with each other it will be less likely that conflict will occur which will mean that the atmosphere will be more pleasant not only for the staff but also for the children. It is also important that staff build good relationships with parents or guardians. If a good relationship is built then trust will develop and this will help staff and parent to work together to help the child settle in much quicker. This welcoming and secure atmosphere will help the child to settle in and relax and will make it easy for the parents to share confidential information, make comments and take an interest, enabling the child’s expectations and needs are met. By creating clear and positive communication opportunities parents are aware that they can approach staff with problems and ideas and it will be positively and promptly acted upon.Furtrhermore, I share my views and concerns about pupils’ learning and support to each other team member so that they are able to provide support to those pupils efficiently.Also most of my colleagues have had a lot more experience than myself and are therefore likely to be able to offer good advice in situations I have had no experience of.

Every member of staff within the school has a particular skill or area of expertise, so other members of staff who are not so skilled in a particular area can turn to their colleague for advice and help.When I experience positive feedback, I share it to other team members so that they are encouraged and aware of dealing with such situations. I always remain calm, non-judgemental and respect others feedback. 3.4 Describe the importance of respecting the skills and expertise of other practitionersIt is important to respect the skills and expertise of your fellow staff members to help develop a good working relationship. We need to respect each other because we can learn a lot from other people as no one person knows everything. It helps to listen to others in your team because no one is an expert at everything and we need to be able to ask others for help. If we do not respect people and are rude then no one will want to help you.

An effective team can achieve more than an individual. This is because as a team you can work together and gets the task done quicker, but on your own it takes a lot longer. Futhermore, respecting others on your team it creates a positive environment and encourages children and young people to do the same, because they look up to the staff as role models. When you respect a team members skills and expertise you can help support families and children because you can confer on any issues they may have and if you struggle then you can speak to others on your team for advice and any information they have to help with the situation.

2.6 strains of E. coli evolve through

2.6 GENOME PLASTICITY AND EVOLUTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLILike all life forms, new strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from Salmonella. E. coli K-12 and E. coli B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes.

Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world. (Futadar et al., 2005). More virulent strains, such as O157:H7, cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised.The genera Escherichia and Salmonella diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), which coincides with the divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles. (Wang et al., 2009).

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This was followed by a split of an Escherichia ancestor into five species (E. albertii, E. coli, E.

fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris). The last E.

coli ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.The long-term evolution experiments using E. coli, begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of genome evolution over more than 65,000 generations in the laboratory. For instance, E. coli typically do not have the ability to grow aerobically with citrate as a carbon source, which is used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate E. coli from other, closely, related bacteria such as Salmonella. In this experiment, one population of E. coli unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate, a major evolutionary shift with some hallmarks of microbial speciation.

2.7 INCUBATION PERIODThe time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the “incubation period”. The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average of 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.2.7.

1 DISCOVERY OF ANTIBIOTICS• History of antibiotics – 119th century:Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch• History of antibiotics – 2 Plant extracts– Quinine (against malaria)– Ipecacuanha root (emetic, e.g. in dysentery)Toxic metals– Mercury (against syphilis)– Arsenic (Atoxyl, against Trypanosoma)• Dyes– Trypan Blue (Ehrlich)– Prontosil (azo-dye, Domagk, 1936) • History of antibiotics – 3Paul Ehrlich• started science of chemotherapy• Systematic chemical modifications (“Magic Bullet”) no. 606 compound = Salvarsan (1910)• Selective toxicity. • Developed the Chemotherapeutic Index• History of antibiotics – 4Penicillin- the first antibiotic – 1928• Alexander Fleming observed the killing of staphylococci by a fungus (Penicillium notatum)• observed by others – never exploited• Florey & Chain purified it by freeze-drying (1940) – Nobel prize 1945• First used in a patient: 1942• World War II: penicillin saved 12-15% of lives• History of antibiotics – 5Selman Waksman – Streptomycin (1943), was the first scientist who discovered antibiotic active against all Gram-negatives for examples; Mycobacterium tuberculosis– Most severe infections were caused by Gram-negatives and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, extracted from Streptomyces – extracted from Streptomyces– 20 other antibiotics include.

neomycin, actinomycin2.8 CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBIOTICS According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term Antibiotics encompasses medicines (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibit the growth of or destroys microorganisms. Antibiotics are naturally occurring substances that exhibit inhibitory properties towards microbial growth at high concentrations. (Zaffiri, et al., 2012).-Antibiotics are selective in their effect on different microorganisms, being specific in their action not only against genera and species but even against strains and individual cells.

Some of these agents act mainly on gram-positive bacteria, while others inhibit only gram-negative ones. -Some antibiotics are produced by some organism, from different strains of penicillin.-Bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic which enable them to developed resistance after contact, for several periods.2.9 ROLE OF ANTIBIOTICSBased on the clinical use of antibiotics, it may appear that these compounds play a similar role as microbial weapons in nature, yet this seems unlikely due to the fact that the concentrations used in the clinical setting are significantly higher than that produced in nature (Fajardo et al., 2008). Due to experimental evidence, it makes more sense to see antibiotics as small, secreted molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication within microbial communities.

(Martinez, 2008). Diverse Studies have been conducted in which different antibiotics and antibiotic-like structures were administered to different bacterial species at levels below the compounds minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). (Fajardo et al., 2008).

that was

2.3.2. grams of synthesized bio-polyol and 2

2.3.2. Hydroxyl value The hydroxyl content of synthesized bio-polyol was measured according to ASTM D1957-86. Prepared bio-polyol first was dissolved in 5 mL pyridine/acetic anhydride mixture.

The mixture was refluxed for an hour, then ten mL water was added to system. After reaction completed mixture was cooled to room temperature and 1 mL of 1% phenolphthalein was added. Residual acetic anhydride was titrated with 0.5 N potassium hydroxide to a faint end point.

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Obtained hydroxyl value of obtained bio-polyol was 17.365 mg KOH/g sample.2.3.3.

Modification of synthesized bio-polyol molecular structure by silaneThe reaction was carried out in the 500 ml three-neck flask equipped with a thermometer, stirrer and condenser. 100 grams of synthesized bio-polyol and 2 grams tetraethyl orthosilicate were added into the flask and after charging the reaction was mixed continuously at 80 °C (see scheme 2).2.3.

4. Synthesis of ZnO NPsZnO NPs were provided by a precipitation method (Seyed Dorraji et al., 2009). 3. Results and discussion3.1. Characterization of ZnO NPsThe crystalline structure of prepared ZnO NPs were specified using X-ray diffraction.

In Fig. 1a, the diffraction peaks at 2? of 31.8o, 34.6o, 47.7o, 56.

7o, 63.4o, 66.2o, 68o and 68.9o are attributed to hexagonal crystal system of ZnO NPs (JCPDF 36-1451) 31.The cellular morphology of prepared ZnO NPs was studied by SEM (See Fig.

1b). Fig. 1b shows ZnO NPs have spherical morphology with an average size of 50 nm.

3.2. Characteristics of prepared bio-polyolThe achievement of ring opening reaction associated with the formation of hydroxyl group on the synthesized bio-polyol.

FTIR spectra of prepared bio-polyol and ESBO are compared with one another in Fig. 2 to confirm the presence of hydroxyl group on obtained bio-polyol. As Fig. 2 shows at vicinity of 821 cm-1 polyol curve is wavy but shows lower absorbance than ESBO curve.

The decrement of the band at 821 cm-1 in bio-polyol spectrum indicates that epoxy group have been consumed and the appearance of broad peak at 3469 cm-1 which isn’t seen in the spectrum of ESBO is assigned to –OH group absorption. Carbonyl group of bio-polyol gives a strong absorption at 1742 cm-1 region. The peak at 1375 is related to C-H bending of the end methyl group and the peaks at 2800-3000 cm-1 correspond to the aliphatic C-H. Fig. 3 indicates 1H NMR spectra of ESBO and synthesized bio-polyol respectively.

The resonances associated with CH-O of the ester groups and the protons of epoxy groups were appeared at 5.27–5.45 ppm and within 2.86–3.13 ppm respectively in 1H-NMR spectrum of ESBO. In 1H-NMR spectrum of bio-polyol the peaks of CH-O related to ester groups still appear but the peaks within 2.86–3.

13 ppm which are assigned to epoxy group protons don’t exist. Also, the peaks in the range of 3.4-4.0 ppm are the characteristic of methine -CH- and hydroxyl groups (HC-OH) that are absent in the 1H-NMR spectrum of the ESBO, this proves that the epoxy groups on carbon atom in the ESBO were changed to hydroxyl groups.

The bands at 4.1–4.34 ppm correspond to the protons of CH2O of ester groups appeared as same as those of ESBO.3.

3. Characteristics of modified bio-polyolFig. 4 illustrates 1H NMR spectra of tetra ethyl orto silicate and modified bio-polyol respectively.

Due to the reaction of synthesized bio-polyol and tetra ethyl orto silicate (see scheme 2) the ethoxy group of silane removes from the reaction environment as alcohol. As shown in the Fig. 4 the peak of -CH2 within 3.5-4 ppm decreased but the band of -CH3 overlapped with another peaks. Therefore, results show that modification of bio-polyol was performed by tetra ethyl orto silicate successfully.3.

4. Lap shear strength In this study assessment of influential factors were considered for factors of ZnO NPs, TEG and DBTDL catalyst. Lap shear strength was determined and experiments were considered in Table 2 testing were conducted using L9 array and after 27 sample preparing with three times repetition samples.3.4.1.

Effect of operational factors on the lap shear strength In order to specify the effects of each factor on lap shear strength in Taguchi method, ANOVA was used. Table 3 indicate ANOVA, it shows the effects of factors on the response and so the last column helps to know the most effective factors among others. ZnO NPs had the most influence assigned 62.

83% of the total contribution of all the factors. Furthermore, TEG and DBTDL concentration were placed in next places and the contribution of them were 27.203 and 2.088 respectively. Also, the effect of error was 7.

879.To preparation the bio-adhesive, the amount of TEG and ZnO NPs between factors, play a major role to control the response, which it was obviously observed in the ANOVA result.3.4.2 Effect of factors levels on lap shear strengthAt Taguchi method the optimum conditions are selected in such a way that the uncontrollable factors (noise) will have minimum effect on response.

In order to find if factors have impact on variation, the signal to noise ratios (S/N) were applied at Taguchi method. The effect of each level of ZnO NPs was illustrated in Fig. 5 (a).As diagram shows, level 2 has the most amount of S/N ratio. Hence it has the biggest effect on lap shear strength than other levels.It is possible that when ZnO NPs are loaded between PU chains gap, an interactive force may be created against PU chains.

So, when an external force is imposed on the adhesive it goes to rupture easily through the strong interaction force generated between PU chains and ZnO NPs. Furthermore, the aggregation of ZnO NPs can be happened in the dry film and leading to the decline of mechanical property.Fig. 5 (b) shows the impact of the second factor levels on the lap shear strength. The level 2 of the second factor has the greatest influence on the lap shear strength. It is observed that the amount of %1 for this factor is the best amount.It can be said that when TEG as chain extender is added to polyol because of crosslinking in adhesive matrix the lap shear strength is improved but when its amount increases because of increasing in crosslinking, plasticizing effect can happen so lap shear strength can decrease.

The effect of third factor levels is illustrated in Fig. 5 (c). As it shows all levels of the third factor have constant effect on lap shear strength. The reason can be that, due to DBTDL can cause crosslinking via OH group and improve lap shear strength but because the amount of NCO group was more than OH group so it couldn’t made crosslinked structure in adhesive matrix and it just can decrease the curing time.3.4.

3. Confirmation of experiment design For the any experiment design it would be necessary to confirm it, which is obtained by comparing the experimental and estimated results.A comparison of the estimated results with the experimental values is illustrated in Fig. 6. in Fig. 6. It can be observed that the experiment design was able to predict the lap shear strength of adhesive to a reasonable degree of accuracy. 3.

5. Optimization of formulationThe main aim of this study was the determination of optimized bio-adhesive to achieve maximum lap shear strength.After studying the different levels of each factor by the Taguchi method (Table 1 and ANOVA table), below levels were selected as optimum level of each factor:? The level 2 of the ZnO NPs (wt=0.

1%)? The level 2 of the TEG (wt=1%)? The level 1 of the DBTDL (wt=0%)3.5.1 FTIR spectra of optimum adhesiveFig.7 shows FTIR spectra of optimum adhesive. The peak at 1740 cm-1 corresponds to carbonyl stretching that confirms the presence of a urethane linkage. The characteristic of –NH stretching and bending vibrations were observed at 3362 cm-1 and at the vicinity of 1530 cm-1, respectively. The band observed at 2275 cm-1 indicates the presence of unreacted NCO due to the higher NCO/OH ratio. The C-H stretching of methylene and methyl groups in the soft segment give absorption peak at 2924 and 2854 cm-1 respectively.

On the other hand, the peaks between 1000 cm-1 and 1200 cm-1 in the finger print region correspond to the single bond CO-O-C stretching vibration. The peaks centered at around 1537 cm-1 and 1597 cm-1 are due to conjugated double bonds in the aromatic ring of the hard segment which Indicates the presence of hard segment and reaction with polyol. The formation of PU adhesive is clearly confirmed by the absence of an –OH absorption band and the presence of a –NH band. 3.5.2 SEM images of optimum adhesive The surface morphology of optimized bio-adhesive and distribution of ZnO NPs in adhesive matrix was investigated by (SEM Fig. 8). The SEM image shows a good dispersion of NPs.

3.5.3. modulus and Lap shear strength of optimum adhesive The lap shear strength of optimum adhesive was measured. The amount of lap shear strength was almost the same amount as the result that Taguchi method had predicted for optimum condition.

The Taguchi predicted amount was 7.173 MPa and the obtained lap shear amount for prepared adhesive in optimum condition was 6.478 MPa. Obtained amount is approximately in accordance with predicted amount and indicates the experimental design in this work was correct and applicable.

Modulus of optimal adhesive and blank adhesive were evaluated according to the stress–strain curves (Fig. 9) as Fig. 9 shows the modulus amount of optimum adhesive and blank adhesive are 0.

368 GPa and 0.266 GPa respectively. So, this result can be obtained that incorporation of additive improved the lap shear strength.

3.5.4. Thermal properties (TGA/DTG) analysis of optimum adhesive Thermal behavior and stability of the optimum adhesive was characterized by TGA/DTG analysis.As shown in Fig. 10 there are three main decomposition stages for optimum bio-adhesive. The initial 20% (by weight) of PU adhesives’ decomposition starts at approximately 220 ?C that can be due to the breaking of urethane bonding. The second stage of adhesives decomposition which occurred from 340 to 430 °C was due to the polyol backbone and the thermally stable isocyanurates’ hard segments decomposition.

Finally, the last stage was recorded from 440 to 550 °C and was due to the decomposition of the char that was formed in the previous decomposition steps. This analysis showed that the prepared optimum bio-adhesives was thermally stable up to about 220°C.3.5.

5. contact angleIn order to investigate the effect of additive on hydrophobicity of optimum and blank adhesive, contact angle analysis was used. According to the results shown in Table 4, the contact angle values of water on the surface of the optimum adhesive including additive is lower than the blank sample (Fig. 11).These results show that additives could enhance the wettability of the adhesive due to their higher polarity compared with blank adhesive without any additives.

4. conclusion To preparation of the PU bio-adhesive with high lap shear strength, ESBO was hydroxylated and modified using citric acid and tetra ethyl ortho silicate, respectively. Hydroxylation and modification of ESBO were confirmed by FTIR and H-NMR spectrum.

Also, to get better results, effect of ZnO NPs, TEG and DBTDL as three possible influential factors on lap shear strength were investigated. For this purpose, the Taguchi method was applied for optimization of effectual factors. Under optimized conditions (weight percentage of ZnO NPS = 0.1, TEG=1 and DBTDL=0), the lap shear strength of optimal sample was equal to 6.478 MPa.

This strength value was in good agreement with the predicted value (7.173 MPa) by Taguchi method. Among all factors ZnO NPS was determined to be the most effective factor by 62.83% contribution.It also showed good thermal resistance for synthesized bio-adhesive at optimum conditions.

2. residual moisture contents of the seed samples

2. Methodology 2.1.

Materials Jatropha seed at a storage moisture content was used for the drying experiment. The detailed materials used during the drying experiments was described in the study of the effects of temperature and pretreatment of seeds on the drying process and physical appearance of different collections of Jatropha seeds and has been presented elsewhere (Keneni and Marchetti, 2018). A bowl-shaped mortar and pestle made from stone were used for the crushing pretreatment of Jatropha seeds. Three different sieves with openings of 500µm, 1mm and 2mm woven cloth (Control Group, 15-D2245/J, 15-D2215/J and 15-D2185/J) were used to estimate the particle sizes of the crushed seeds. The seed samples were weighed on a digital balance machine having 0.01 mg accuracy (Mettler-Toledo, PG 5002 Delta Range, Switzerland). The samples were placed on pyrex glass petri plates for drying.

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The drying experiments and determination of initial and residual moisture contents of the seed samples were performed using a heating furnace (Narbetherm P300, Germany). 2.2. Seed drying experimentsThe seed drying experiments were perfumed in the Laboratory of Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Science and Technology. The initial moisture contents of the Jatropha seed samples used for this experiment has been determined prior to this experiment (Keneni and Marchetti, 2018) by drying 15g of the seed samples at 105oC for 24h (Bamgboye and Adebayo, 2012; Garnayak et al., 2008; Siqueira et al., 2012; Subroto, 2015). Accordingly, the moisture content of the seeds was found to be 6.

811%, and thus, the moisture content of the seed samples utilized for the experiment was in the range of the storage moisture content (6-10%) reported for seeds of Jatropha (Brittaine and Lutaladio, 2010).The pretreated (crushed seeds, CS) and non-pretreated (the whole seeds, WS) were used for the drying experiments. For the crushing pretreatment process of Jatropha seeds, a bowl-shaped mortar and pestle made from stone were used. After crushing, the particle sizes of the pulverized seeds were estimated by three different stainless steel sieves with openings of 500µm, 1mm and 2mm woven cloth (Control Group, 15-D2245/J, 15-D2215/J and 15-D2185/J). For every drying experiment, ca.

15g of Jatropha seeds were used and both treatments were duplicated. Thus, the crushed seeds used in the drying experiment was a mixture of four particles sizes. The average proportions (%) of the particle size of crushed seeds (PSCS): PSCS >2mm, 2mm > PSCS >1mm, 1mm > PSCS >500µm and PSCS


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