2.5. or deception; Transportation; within a country or

2.5.

Components of trafficking and forced labourAccording to International Labour Organization (2011), Trafficking in Persons Overseas for Labour Purposes state trafficking in persons consists of three essential components ;recruitment by force or deception; Transportation; within a country or across borders legally or illegally, and Exploitation; traffickers financially benefit through the use or sale of the victim. 2.5.

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1. RecruitmentResearch Conducted by Play Therapy Africa Ltd (2011), state on how people enter the process of trafficking through recruitment by other people as follow: According to them, most are lured into the process by a false promise of an opportunity, deceived by misinformation or lies, or pushed by need or desperation. In some cases, victims are aware that they are to be employed in a given activity but do not know the conditions in which they were working.

In other situations, victims were coerced, in extreme cases abducted. The recruitment also made by families, relatives, friends, neighbors, brokers, or recruitment agencies.

2. products field. A comparative example could

2. Opportunites and Threats faced by UNIQLO The SWOT analysis matrix is used to identify the strength, weakness, opportunities and the threat of Uniqlo to exploit the opportunities, build on the strength, counter threats and eradicate threats however it does not necessarily offer solutions. Before deciding to conduct SWOT analysis, one should be aware that there are also limitations.Now let’s analyse the opportunities, and threats faced by Uniqlo with the help of SWOT analysis matrix.

Opportunities for UNIQLONew technology is an opportunity to UNIQLO to practice differentiated pricing strategy in the new market. The company can keep its loyal customers with its exceptional service and attract new customers through other value-oriented propositions. Decreasing fees for shipment because lower shipping cost lower down the cost of UNIQLO’s products thus providing an opportunity to the company – to increase its income or give the benefits to the consumers to increase its share in the market.Government’s Green initiatives also open an opportunity for attainment of UNIQLO products by the state as well as federal government contractors.

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Constitution ‘s core group competencies can be a success in similar other products field. A comparative example could be – GE healthcare research helped in development better Oil drilling automobileMarket Development the lead to dilution of competitor’s advantage and enable UNIQLO to increment its fight compare to the other competitors. The openings of new markets because of government agreement – the acceptance of new technology standard and government free trade agreement has provided UNIQLO with a chance to enter a newly advancing markets.Stable, cash flow provides opportunities to invest in adjacent product segments. With more cash on hand, firms can invest in new technological advancement and in new products segments, which should open a window of opportunity for UNIQLO in other product categories.A Lower inflation rate – Lower inflation rate brings more constancy in the market, enable borrowings at a reduced interest rate to the customers of UNIQLO. Threats of UNIQLOIncrease in raw material cost can pose a danger to the UNIQLO profitability.Imitation or counterfeit and low-quality product is also a threat to UNIQLO’s Products, especially in the emerging markets and low-income markets.

Liability laws in different countries are different. Therefore UNIQLO may be exposed to numerous liability claims given change in policies in those markets.Growing strengths of local distributors also present a threat in some markets asthe competition is paying higher profits to the local distributors.

No regular supply of innovative product – Over the years the company has developednumerous products, but those are often due to exploitation by its competitors. Top of FormRising pay level especially movements such as $15 an hour and increasing prices in China can lead to severe pressure on the profitability of UNIQLOTough competition – Stable profitability has improved the number of competitors inthe market over last two years which not only put pressure on the profitability but also on the overall sales of the company.Tadashi Yanai’s insightsTadashi Yanai is Japan’s richest man, the chairman, president and Chief executive officer of Uniqlo who wrote “23 Management Principles” which were printed on pocket size plastic cards and carried around by its employees. These principles were written by him over the years one by one.

Yanai called these principals as “soul” of his company. Yanai was a billionaire, and the most talked about a leader often featured on various television shows. Uniqlo sells clothes for all walks of life, but their brand is not leading fashion.

Their clothes are wearable and affordable. Yanai was one of the hundred most influential person. His insights closely paralleled embracing change and the ability to put in hard work and play as a team. He believed that capabilities are essential for public relations and managing the brand name. Public Relations went through a gradual change in the two areas of video and mobile.

Yanai chose to invest to quip his Public Relation team with expertise and equipment to help clients in embracing the world of video, live content and mobile. If remained obsolete, 2013 onwards would have been challenging. His exploration and insights to technology paid off. Yanai always believed that everyone should embrace change. Yanai’s vision is to make Fast Retailing the number one retail outlet in the world by 2020.He believes that they have the abilities and are on track to achieve this vision. He moved away from formal clothing to casual wears which were able to make a high sales revenue.

The daily wears did not only attract the young and old in Japan but also across the world. Even the wealthy were attracted to the wears. Though Japan’s retail industry has a supply of designers, producers and distributors, Yanai inspired by Gap, took control of the end to end process from design, production to distribution to bring the lowest price to customers. During the economic downturn, he outsourced his production to factories in China to bring costs down to shoppers who had low spending powers during the economic downturn. He had a well-managed supply chain which meant Yanai could control price and quality at the same time.

Though in the beginning to expand his business he opened three outlets in the USA, which failed as the brand was unknown, he later opened an outlet in a prime area. This time with highly visible advertisements campaign with movie artist ensured that the brand is no longer unknown. Now it has seven outlets in the USA and aims to have 200 outlets by the year 2020. Yanai deviates from traditional management practices as he thinks it is a bottleneck. Yanai controls the direction of the firm and even hands-on design and marketing. He also drops by Uniqlo outlets to personally look at the display and services provided. Yanai’s extraordinary long-term vision is focused on global expansion and advancement where other fashion brands were focused on winning the old game of fashion.

Yanai’ thinks that the fashion industry is not about process improvement and making a perfect piece of garment, but about chasing after trends.ReferencingQldgovau. 2018.

Qldgovau. Online. 26 May 2018. Available from: https://www.business.

qld.gov.au/starting-business/planning/market-customer-research/swot-analysis/benefits-limitationsBlogspotcom. 2018. Blogspotcom. Online.

26 May 2018. Available from: http://uniqloanalysis.blogspot.

com/2013/05/swot-analysis.htmlWiredcom. 2018. WIRED. Online. 26 May 2018. Available from: https://www.wired.

com/2012/10/uniqlos-ceo-future-of-retail/Fastretailingcom. 2018. Fastretailingcom. Online. 26 May 2018. Available from: http://www.fastretailing.

com/eng/group/strategy/tactics.htmlhttps://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2018/02/05/business/corporate-business/fast-retailing-co-president-tadashi-yanai-says-asia-key-making-firm-global-industry-leader/Marketing91com. 2018.

Marketing91. Online. 26 May 2018. Available from: https://www.marketing91.com/swot-analysis-of-uniqlo/

2.5.2 to poor water. In Ethiopia, water

2.5.2 Water supply and convenienceEverybody wants water as close as possible to his home, simply because it is more convenient. Thus, convenience is an important consideration as health benefits. In some societies and situations, convenience is also related to the security of women, which is water supply closer to home can minimize the risk of abduction, rape and assault. Besides, when girls are forced to carry heavy loads of water over long distances, there is a danger of lasting spinal column and pelvis injury and deformations. Thus, closer water sources minimize these problems (UNICEF,1999).

2.5.3 Water supply and energy savedStudies have shown that women who walk long distances to collect water can burn as much as 600 calories of energy or more per day, which may be one third of their nutritional intake. Closer sources of water can thus improve the nutritional status of women and children and this in turn improves their health and wellbeing. The time saved is used for other productive economic and social activities. (UNICEF, 1999).

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2.6 Impacts of water supply inaccessibilityAlthough water is the primary needs of human being, unimproved water services have many negative impacts on people livelihood. Among which; health, socio-economic, environmental degradation and poor educational performance are the major.2.6.1. Health impactsThe improvement of water in developing countries is largely driven by the need to reduce the incidence and prevalence of infectious disease caused by pathogenic micro organisms. The majority of pathogens that affect humans are derived from faeces and transmitted by the faecal-oral route.

Pathogen transmission may occur through a variety of routes including food, water, poor personal hygiene and flies (Ahmed and Nalubega, 2001).According to USAID/E Statement of Work (SOW) for the Millennium Water Alliance (MWA) Water, Sanitation & Hygiene (WASH) program evaluation, “approximately 3.1% of deaths worldwide are attributed to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene practices. Africa carries the heaviest burden, with 4 to 8% of all disease in Africa being related to poor water. In Ethiopia, water related diarrhea accounts for approximately 20% of all deaths in children under the age of five, taking the lives of close to 100,000 children annually USAID/E (2008).2.6.

2. Socio-economic impactsPoor access to water supply limits opportunities to escape poverty and exacerbates the problems of vulnerable and marginalized groups especially those affected by HIV/AIDS and other diseases (Alaci and Alehegn, 2009).According to Ethiopian Ministry of Health (2005), the well known negative synergy of diarrhoeal disease, malnutrition and opportunistic infections are known to have short-term health impacts and long term debilitating effects. In the long term, child development is impaired resulting in growth retardation and diminished learning abilities. It is estimated that 4 in 10 children will not realise their educational potential which ultimately inhibits socio-economic development. In addition there is a potential productive time lost to illness caring for the sick and attending clinics. There are also the financial costs of treatment for medicines and clinic attendance.

2.6.3. Environmental degradation impactsBesides being pollutants of surface waters (necessitating higher treatment costs), faeces and urine are a potential (under-exploited) source of compost and fertilizer which could help address decreasing soil fertility and reduce the high cost (both financial and environmental) of chemical fertilizers. They can also be used to produce biogas (a renewable energy source) which as well as safely containing excreta could contribute to reducing deforestation which is a key environmental issue. Biogas digesters can also be ‘fed’ with organic solid waste in urban areas as an efficient treatment and use of ‘waste’ (MoH, 2005).2.7 Urban water supply and distribution in Ethiopia The water supply and sanitation sector in Ethiopia is one of the developing countries and is mostly characterized by service deficiency of physical infrastructure as well as by inadequate management capacity to handle policy and regulatory issue and to plan, operate, and maintain the service.

Ethiopia has one of the highest urbanization growth rates in the developing countries. According to data obtained from the Central Statistical Agency, the country’s urban population was growing at 4.8 per cent per annum between the 1995 and 2000.

The urban population in Ethiopia in 1984, the first census period, was 4.3 million forming 11 per cent of the total population. In 1994, the second census period, the urban population was 7.4 million. Total urban population had increased by 12per cent from that of 1984. In terms of urban centers, in 1984, Ethiopia had 312 urban centers with population of over 2000. In 1994, the second census period, the urban centers in the country grew to 534 registering an increase of 71 per cent over that of 1984 though the definitions of the two censuses are not the same (Tegegne, 2000).

The rapid growth of urban population has placed tremendous pressure on the management capacity of municipalities for service delivery and local economic development. This phenomenal growth has also burdened many municipalities with the problems of inadequate housing, poverty and unemployment, inadequate water and electricity supply, and poor sanitation systems. Available data also indicate that in the next 25 years (1994-2020), nearly 30 % of Ethiopia population will live in cities. Regarding this, rapid urban population growth will inevitably call for huge investments in housing, urban infrastructure, water and electricity supply, sanitation systems and environmental protection programs and programs to alleviate poverty and unemployment in the cities.

This implies that the challenge will require well trained municipal management and resource capacity, responsive urban governance and well trained and motivated personnel and sustaining services such as water, electricity supply, local revenue collection and administration to meet the ever growing demand for better and more quality services and infrastructures of Urban Population Projection for Ethiopia1995-2020 (Tegegne, 2000). In addition to this, the World Bank Group (2005) mentioned that the demand for differentiated technologies-piped water supply the core, alternative technologies in the fringe areas- and the often rapid unpredictable water demand and spatial growth require planning, design, and management skills that exceed community based management approaches. But unlike larger towns or cities, these smaller towns often lack the financial and human resources to independently plan, finance, manage and operate their WSS systems. This implies that a key challenge for town WSS is to allocate limited government resources amongst a large number of dispersed towns. There are also variations across urban areas.

The aforementioned information indicates that as a result of low level of development a significant proportion of the total urban population of Ethiopia in particular and total population of Ethiopia in general have no access to safe and adequate potable water supply. They still restrict themselves to use what nature has provided them with in the form of springs, rivers, lakes, ponds, traditional hand dug wells and rain water which are often unsafe, cause health hazards and are at considerable distance from households. Among the main reasons given for the slow pace of progress in water supply services in Ethiopia, the following are net worthy: lack of comprehensive legislation; inadequate investment resources; lack of a national water tariff policy and the absence of beneficiary participation and community management (Dessalegn, 1999). In relation to this, MoWR (2002) stated that issues of poor sector capacity and low level of expenditures for WSS are interlinked and lead to a vicious circle – as low level of investments create low demand for technical and manpower inputs in WSS sector, the capacity remains underdeveloped. The resulting low sector capacity, means low allocations and expenditures are curtailed.

The sustainability of water supply facilities mainly depends on a timely and regular maintenance and operation of the system. However, in most developing countries, including Ethiopia, it has been found out that operation and maintenance (O;M) of water supply facilities is in a poor state of condition and the sustainability of the scheme is at stake. Regarding this, MoWR (2002) identified the following underlying problems: • Inappropriate tariff setting without emphasis on full cost recovery; • Lack of clear guidelines for urban tariff setting including issues related to fairness, and financial sustainability; • Inappropriate or lack of institutional incentives for urban WSPs to achieve financial viability and improved operational performance; • Poor technical and financial capacity among the urban service providers that leads to high levels of Unaccounted For Water (UFW); and • Poor or non- existent consumer services and grievance handling system that leads to a lack of willing to pay user charges.

2.6 children in the developing world. (Futadar

2.

6 GENOME PLASTICITY AND EVOLUTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLILike all life forms, new strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological processes of mutation, gene duplication, and horizontal gene transfer; in particular, 18% of the genome of the laboratory strain MG1655 was horizontally acquired since the divergence from Salmonella. E. coli K-12 and E. coli B strains are the most frequently used varieties for laboratory purposes. Some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. These virulent strains typically cause a bout of diarrhea that is often self-limiting in healthy adults but is frequently lethal to children in the developing world.

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(Futadar et al., 2005). More virulent strains, such as O157:H7, cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young, or the immunocompromised.The genera Escherichia and Salmonella diverged around 102 million years ago (credibility interval: 57–176 mya), which coincides with the divergence of their hosts: the former being found in mammals and the latter in birds and reptiles. (Wang et al., 2009). This was followed by a split of an Escherichia ancestor into five species (E.

albertii, E. coli, E. fergusonii, E. hermannii, and E. vulneris).

The last E. coli ancestor split between 20 and 30 million years ago.The long-term evolution experiments using E.

coli, begun by Richard Lenski in 1988, have allowed direct observation of genome evolution over more than 65,000 generations in the laboratory. For instance, E. coli typically do not have the ability to grow aerobically with citrate as a carbon source, which is used as a diagnostic criterion with which to differentiate E. coli from other, closely, related bacteria such as Salmonella. In this experiment, one population of E. coli unexpectedly evolved the ability to aerobically metabolize citrate, a major evolutionary shift with some hallmarks of microbial speciation.2.

7 INCUBATION PERIODThe time between ingesting the STEC bacteria and feeling sick is called the “incubation period”. The incubation period is usually 3–4 days after the exposure, but may be as short as 1 day or as long as 10 days. The symptoms often begin slowly with mild belly pain or non-bloody diarrhea that worsens over several days. HUS, if it occurs, develops an average of 7 days after the first symptoms, when the diarrhea is improving.2.7.1 DISCOVERY OF ANTIBIOTICS• History of antibiotics – 119th century:Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch• History of antibiotics – 2 Plant extracts– Quinine (against malaria)– Ipecacuanha root (emetic, e.

g. in dysentery)Toxic metals– Mercury (against syphilis)– Arsenic (Atoxyl, against Trypanosoma)• Dyes– Trypan Blue (Ehrlich)– Prontosil (azo-dye, Domagk, 1936) • History of antibiotics – 3Paul Ehrlich• started science of chemotherapy• Systematic chemical modifications (“Magic Bullet”) no. 606 compound = Salvarsan (1910)• Selective toxicity. • Developed the Chemotherapeutic Index• History of antibiotics – 4Penicillin- the first antibiotic – 1928• Alexander Fleming observed the killing of staphylococci by a fungus (Penicillium notatum)• observed by others – never exploited• Florey & Chain purified it by freeze-drying (1940) – Nobel prize 1945• First used in a patient: 1942• World War II: penicillin saved 12-15% of lives• History of antibiotics – 5Selman Waksman – Streptomycin (1943), was the first scientist who discovered antibiotic active against all Gram-negatives for examples; Mycobacterium tuberculosis– Most severe infections were caused by Gram-negatives and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, extracted from Streptomyces – extracted from Streptomyces– 20 other antibiotics include. neomycin, actinomycin2.

8 CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIBIOTICS According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term Antibiotics encompasses medicines (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibit the growth of or destroys microorganisms. Antibiotics are naturally occurring substances that exhibit inhibitory properties towards microbial growth at high concentrations. (Zaffiri, et al., 2012).-Antibiotics are selective in their effect on different microorganisms, being specific in their action not only against genera and species but even against strains and individual cells. Some of these agents act mainly on gram-positive bacteria, while others inhibit only gram-negative ones.

-Some antibiotics are produced by some organism, from different strains of penicillin.-Bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic which enable them to developed resistance after contact, for several periods.2.9 ROLE OF ANTIBIOTICSBased on the clinical use of antibiotics, it may appear that these compounds play a similar role as microbial weapons in nature, yet this seems unlikely due to the fact that the concentrations used in the clinical setting are significantly higher than that produced in nature (Fajardo et al.

, 2008). Due to experimental evidence, it makes more sense to see antibiotics as small, secreted molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication within microbial communities. (Martinez, 2008).

Diverse Studies have been conducted in which different antibiotics and antibiotic-like structures were administered to different bacterial species at levels below the compounds minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). (Fajardo et al., 2008). that was

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