2.0 GDP Growth Rate between the United States and Mexico
US GDP GROWTH RATE
MEXICO GDP GROWTH RATE
As the main economic indicator for measuring economic output within a given country. GDP aims to quantify – for a given country and year – the total value of “wealth production” made by economic agents residing within this territory, GDP reflects the domestic economic activity of a country and the change in GDP from one period to another is supposed to measure its rate of economic growth. GDP is the most used indicator for measuring growth and making international comparisons. It even plays a particularly important role in measuring the deficits and public debts of states, which has a direct impact on the economic policies of governments and the decisions of central banks. The GDP growth rate is determined by the four components of GDP. GDP growth is personal consumption. This includes the critical area of ??retail sales. The second element is business investment, including levels of construction and inventory. Public spending is the third growth factor. Its main categories are social security benefits, defense and health insurance benefits. The government often jumps into the economy during a recession. Fourth, net trade. Exports add to GDP while imports are subtracted.
In the United States the main sector that contributes to the gross domestic production is the tertiary sector. Service providing cover 80.2% the GDP, followed by the Secondary Sector. Industrial Sector covers itself 18.9% of the GDP (GDP_ Composition by Sector of Origin. Central Intelligence Agency World Fact book, 2017).
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In Mexico, The main sector that contributes to the Gross Domestic Production is also the Services which cover 59.8% of the GDP (The World Fact Book, 2013).
In economics, a service is a transaction in which no physical good is transferred from the seller to the buyer. The benefits of such a service are demonstrated by the willingness of the buyer to proceed with the exchange. Public services are those paid by society (nation-state, fiscal union, region). With resources, skills, ingenuity and experience, service providers benefit consumers of services.
Based on the above diagram, GDP growth rate of the United States was around 2.9% in 2015 because of the Trans-Pacific Partnership which is a free trade agreement between the US and 11 other countries that border the Pacific Ocean and also the Iran Nuclear Deal who contributed also to the GDP. But the gross domestic production drops to 1.5% in 2016 because of the new government which comes with new economic policies. In 2017, the GDP growth rate is growing to 2.2% because of Trump Tax Act. There has been a clear impact on the stock market.
Mexico GDP growth Rate was around 3.3% in 2015 due to a faster growth in wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate activities, financial services, Insurance and transportation. In 2017, the GDP growth rate dropped to 2.0% because of less industrial activity linked to the United States and also by the depreciation of the Peso (Mexican Money).
2.2 Principle of direct torque control of induction motor:
In a direct torque controlled induction motor drive, it is possible to control directly the stator flux linkage (s?) or the rotor flux (r?) or the magnetizing flux (m?) and the electromagnetic torque by the selection of an optimal inverter voltage vector. The selection of the voltage vector of the voltage source inverter is made to restrict the flux and torque error within their respective flux and torque hysteresis bands and to get the fastest torque response and highest efficiency at every instant. DTC enables both quick torque response in the transient operation and reduction of the harmonic losses and acoustic noise.
The Benefits of using DTC include the following:
1 No need for motor speed or position feedback in 95% of applications. Thus, installation of costly encoders or other feedback devices can be avoided.
2DTC control is available for different types of motor including permanent magnet and synchronous reluctance motors.
3Accurate torque and speed control down to low speeds, as well as full startup torque down to zero speed.
4 Excellent torque linearity.
5 High static and dynamic speed accuracy.
6 No preset switching frequency optimal transistor switching is determined
2.2.1 Voltage Source Inverter
A six step voltage source inverter provides the variable frequency AC voltage input to the induction motor in DTC method. The DC supply to the inverter is provided either by a DC source like a battery, or a rectifier supplied from a three phase or single phase AC source. Fig. 2.2 shows a six step voltage source inverter. The inductor L is inserted to limit short circuit through fault current. A large electrolytic capacitor C is inserted to stiffen the DC link voltage.
The switching devices in the voltage source inverter bridge must be capable of being turned OFF and ON. Insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) are used because they can offer high switching speed with enough power rating. Each IGBT has an inverse parallel-connected diode. This diode provide alternate path for the motor current after the IGBT, is turned off.
Figure 2.2 Voltage Source Inverter
Each leg of the inverter has two switches one connected to the high side (+) of the DC link and the other to the low side (-); only one of the two can be ON at any moment. When the high side gate signal is ON the phase is assigned the binary number 1, and assigned the binary number 0 when the low side gate signal is ON. Considering the combinations of status of phases a, b and c the inverter has eight switching modes(Va,Vb,Vc=000-111) V2 (000) are zero voltage vectors V0 (000) and V7 (111) where the motor terminals are short circuited and the others are nonzero voltage vectors V1 to V6
The six nonzero voltages space vectors will have the orientation, and also shows the possible dynamic locus of the stator flux, and its different variation depending on the VSI states chosen. The possible global locus is divided into six different sectors signaled by the discontinuous line. Each vector lies in the center of a sector of width named S1 to S6 according to the voltage vector it contains.
It can be seen that the inverter voltage directly force the stator flux, the required stator flux locus will be obtained by choosing the appropriate inverter switching state. Thus the stator flux linkage move in space in the direction of the stator voltage space vector at a speed that is proportional to the magnitude of the stator voltage space vector. By selecting one after another the appropriate stator voltage vector, is then possible to change the stator flux in the required method. If an increase of the torque is required then the torque is controlled by applying voltage vectors that advance the
same sector depending on the stator flux position.
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2.3. Recommended procedures
A 0.1 g of OOBAR was mixed with adjust concentration of molybdenum solution, H2SO4, ascorbic acid, and NH4SCN then diluted to 25 mL and shaken 60 min at room temperature. The remaining concentrations of Mo(V) were determined using spectrophotometrically (?max 485 nm) 41. The sorption percentage of Mo(V) and sorption capacity of OOBAR (Q, mmol/g) were calculated.
By using a dynamic technique, 10 g of OOBAR was packed through glass column which has 35 cm long and 1.5 cm in diameter with a bed height at L= 15 cm. A series of 25 mL of tap water, liver mice tissue or vitamins solutions (n = 5) were passed through the OOBAR columns at different flow rate 0.2-1.7 mL/min. The effluent solutions were collected and analyzed spectrophotometrically. Mo(V) was eluted from OOBAR columns with NH4OH (0.05 mol/L) as eluent at a flow rate of 3 mL/min then determined spectrophotometrically.