4.2.6 Final 2,6-DCP Concentration (Ct) in mg/L and

4.2.6 Adsorption Kinetic Models In this study, three (3) different models were applied to evaluate the experimental data of the adsorption kinetic of 2,6-DCP onto MTCNS namely: Lagergren’s Pseudo-first-order and Pseudo-second-order, and Webber-Moris intra-particle diffusion models.

The pseudo-first order equation of the kinetic model describes the adsorption rate is directly proportional to the number of unoccupied sites by solutes (Lagergren ; Svenska, 1898). Pseudo second order equation described the occupancy rate of adsorption sites is proportional to the square of the number of unoccupied sites (Dada et al., 2012).

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Intra-particle diffusion plays an important role in the control of the kinetics of the adsorption process. The linear forms of these three models are expressed by equations (2.4), (2.8) and (2.9) respectively, where the terms qe and qt have the same meaning as previously described in chapter 2 with unit mg g -1 while k1, k2 and kp are pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion model rate constants, expressed in min-1, g / mg min and mg / g min0.5 respectively.

Table 4.9: Kinetic Study Data for the Removal of 2,6-DCP at Different Initial ConcentrationTime (t) Min. Initial 2,6-DCP Concentration (Co) in mg/L 100 mg/L 200 mg/L 300 mg/L 400 mg/L 500 mg/L Ct qt Ct qt Ct qt Ct qt Ct qt30 4.32 4.784 12.22 9.389 21.

30 13.935 32.28 18.386 43.95 22.80360 3.61 4.

820 11.72 9.414 20.22 13.989 31.72 18.

414 43.05 22.84890 1.

11 4.945 10.84 9.

458 19.14 14.043 30.92 18.

454 41.85 22.908120 0.

83 4.959 10.20 9.490 18.60 14.070 29.96 18.502 41.

05 22.948150 0.75 4.

963 9.92 9.504 18.18 14.091 29.

32 18.534 40.80 22.960 Note: Final 2,6-DCP Concentration (Ct) in mg/L and Adsorption Capacity (qt) in mg/g @ Time (t)The slopes and intercepts of plots were used to calculate qe, k1, k2 and kp as illustrated in Figures 4.8 – 4.

10. These model parameters and constants along with the corresponding linear regression coefficient R2 values are depicted in Table 4.10. The applicability of the kinetic model is compare by judging the correlation coefficient R2 and the agreement between the calculated and experimental qe values. Table 4.

10: Kinetic Parameters and Correlation Coefficients (R2) obtained for the Adsorption of 2,6-DCP onto MTCNS (Adsorbent)Kinetic Models Parameters Initial Concentration Co (mg/L) 100 200 300 400 500 qe, Exp. (mg g-1) 4.963 9.504 14.

091 18.534 22.960Pseudo First Order log?(q_e ?-? q_t )=log??q_e ?-k_1/(2.303) t k1 (min-1) 0.045 0.023 0.

023 0.017 0.028 qe, Cal. (mg g-1) 1.070 0.292 0.

344 0.286 0.480 % ?qe 78.44 96.93 97.

56 98.46 97.91 R2 0.9284 0.9163 0.

9812 0.9058 0.9179Pseudo Second Ordert/q_t =1/(k_2 ?q_e?^2 )+t/q_e k2 (g mg-1 min-1) 0.107 0.113 0.132 0.120 0.122 qe, Cal.

(mg g-1) 5.028 9.560 14.144 18.587 22.

989 % ?qe 1.29 0.59 0.37 0.

29 0.13 R2 0.9999 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 Intra-particle Diffusionq_t=K_p.

t^(1/2)+C kp (mg g-1 min-0.5) 0.0301 0.0312 0.0237 0.0225 0.

0248 C (mg g-1) 4.6176 9.1444 13.8080 18.251 22.665 R2 0.8843 0.9233 0.

9891 0. 9697 0.9804It can be observed that the correlation coefficients (R2) obtained from the plots of log (qe – qt) versus time (t) (Appendix D) for pseudo-first-order equation (Fig. 4.8) were moderately high (0.9058 – 0.

9812), but the calculated qe values from pseudo-first-order kinetic plots were deviating (% ?qe) much as compared to the experimental qe values, and were not in agreement with the experimental qe values suggesting that the removal of 2,6-DCP by adsorption on MTCNS did not fit the pseudo-first-order model. Fig. 4.8: Pseudo-first-order Kinetic plots for Removal of 2,6-DCP by MTCNS Fig. 4.9: Pseudo-second-order Kinetic plots for Removal of 2,6-DCP by MTCNS Fig. 4.10: Intra-particle Diffusion Kinetic plots for Removal of 2,6-DCP by MTCNSOn the other hand, the R2 values from the plots of t/qt versus time (t) (Appendix D) for pseudo-second-order model (Fig.

4.9) were extremely high (0.9999 – 1) for all the initial concentrations of 2,6-DCP. The calculated qe values were closer to the experimental qe values and the calculated qe values agreed well with the experimental ones. This indicated that the kinetics data fitted perfectly well with the pseudo-second-order model.

This model assumes that, the rate-controlling step in the removal of 2,6-DCP by adsorption with MTCNS is chemisorptions involving valence forces through sharing or exchanging of electrons between adsorbent and adsorbate (Parate ; Talib, 2015).According to Intra-particle diffusion model, the intercept (C) of the plots qt versus t1/2 (Appendix D) give an idea about boundary layer thickness. The larger the intercept, greater the boundary layer effect, and if the plots qt versus t1/2 pass through the origin then intra-particle diffusion is the rate-controlling step.

When the plots do not pass through the origin, this is indicative of some degree of boundary layer control and this further show that the intra-particle diffusion is not the only rate-limiting step, but also other kinetic models may control the rate of adsorption, all of which may be operating simultaneously (Arami et al., 2008). It can be seen from Figure 4.10; the interception of the line does not pass through the origin showing that the mechanism of adsorption is not solely governed by intra-particle diffusion process. In a view of these both considerations, we may conclude that the pseudo-second-order mechanism is predominant.

Similar observations have been reported for the adsorption of chlorophenols onto other single adsorbents (Wang et al., 2011; Agarry et al., 2013).

4.1 such as Education, health, road authority,

4.1 IntroductionThis chapter deals with the data analysis, discussion, finding and interpretation of data gathered through questionnaire, Interview and FGD. The chapter analyzes, discuss and present objectives of the research. And also the data collected from different sources using different tools have been consolidated as well as analyzed using SPSS software package and other statistical tools and finally presented using graphs, charts, percentages and tables. 4.2 Response RateFrom the total sample size of 171, 10 leaders have been dedicated for interview and 10 head and vice of the committee of Community associations for focus group discussion. Thus, the remaining 151 questionnaire have been distributed to the civil servants of the 10 selected woreda sectors study area, such as Education, health, road authority, water, mineral and energy,Publicservice& Human resource Development, woreda administrative,MSED, justice ,finance and economic development and agricultural.

From these 151 (100%) of them have returned the questioners for this study and in the qualitative approach 9 (90%) and 8 (80) of interviewees and FGD participants respectively achieved in the data gathering methods. Thus, the researcher believes that the respondent rates were achievable to precede to analyses the collected data through the different data gathering tools.Table 5 Response RateNo. Data Collection Tools Number of Planned Respondents Number of Actual Respondents Respondent Rate 1. Questionnaires 151 151 100%2. Interview 10 9 90%3. FGD 10 8 80%Source: Field Survey, 20184.3 Validity & Reliability of the InstrumentSince validity is refers to what the instrument measures the proposed objectives, the researcher used different methods to increase validity of the instruments.

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After the questionnaires were translated intoAfanOromo language, the researcher has consulted language teachers to comment and correct any difference between the two versions. Before the actual survey, a pilot test was done with sample of 20 respondents from target population (2 respondents from woreda administrative office 2, respondents from Education office 2, respondents fromhealth, 2 respondents from road authority2, respondents from water and energy 2, respondents from civil service woreda administrative 2 , respondents fromMSED2 , respondents from justice2 and 2 respondents from agricultural to check the clarity and validity of the items randomly. Based on the comments obtained during the test, different adjustments were made and the modified questionnaires were distributed to the respondents. Based on the data collected, each basic research questions were examined.Table 6 Reliability Statistics Reliability Statistics Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items Meaning0.72 28 Reliable Source:Source: Field Survey, 20184.4 Demographic Profile of the RespondentsTo understand the demographic features of the respondents some characters were included in the questionnaire, like gender, age, educational status, work experience (service year) and marital status.The purpose of demographic data; it gives a context to the findings of the study.

The summarized demographic information of the sample population for this study is presented as follows.4.4.1 Gender of RespondentsWhile considering the gender, out of total respondents, 111(73.5%) and 40(26.5%) are male and female respondents respectively, from the data the researcher understood that the majority of the respondents are male that engaged in different expert positions.

This may emanate from cultural influence and the perception of male on the representation of women.Table 7 Gender of respondentsGender Frequency Percent Male 111 73.5 female 40 26.5 Total 151 100.

0Source: Field Survey, 20184.4.2 Age of RespondentsAs it can be revealed on the table below, the majority of respondents, 67 (44.4%) are at the age between 26-30years and 55(36.4%) are the age between31-35years. While, 17 (11.

3%) and 11 (7.3%) of respondents are at the age between 20- 25 and 36- 45 years respectively whereas, the remaining 1(.7%) of the respondents are at the age of46- 55 years. This implies that majority of respondents are between the ages of 26- 30 and years in the selected organizations and it seems they are productive age because they are young , so they can bring fighting in the challenges process of good governance in the study area.

Table 8 Age of RespondentsNo Age in years Frequency Percent1 20-25 17 11.32 26-30 67 44.43 31-35 55 36.44 36-45 11 7.35 46-55 1 .7Source: Field Survey, 20184.

4.3 Work Experience of RespondentsOn the other hand, while grouping respondents on their work experience, 9(6.0%) of the respondent have been serving less than 2 years. Whereas 41(27.2%) and 79(52.3%) served between 2 to 5 years and 6 to 10 years respectively.

And the remaining 22(14.6%) have served above 10 years.This may indicate that majority 142(94%) of the respondents have more than two years work experiences in the selected public sectors.Thus, the respondents can reveal the existing situation of the present good governance implementation in the study area.Table 9 Experience of respondentsNo Experience of respondent Frequency Percentage 1 less than 2 years 9 6.02 2-5 years 41 27.263 6-10 years 79 52.

34 above 10 years 22 14.6Source: Field Survey, 20184.4.4 Educational StatusIn relation to the educational status of respondents, the results were found that 90(59.6%) of respondents had first degree, 50(33.

1%) of them had diploma,10(6.6%) of them had certificate and only 1(.7%) of them had second degree. This implies that the organizations different composition of professionals with their educational status that can reveal the points of the study by understanding the existing situation in the implementation of good governance principle in the study area.Table 10 Educational status of the respondentsNo Educational status Frequency Percent Certificate 10 6.6 Diploma 50 33.1 Degree 90 59.6 Masters 1 .

7 Total 151 100Source: Field Survey, 20184.4.5 Marital status of the respondentsRegarding to marital status 55(36.4.9%) of the respondents were unmarried and 88 (58.3%) of them were married while 6 (4.0%) and 2(1.3%) were divorced and others respectively.

From the table blow, it canimpliesthat the studyinvolve different society with their marital status which is significant in the study of implementation of good governance principle in their use ; service delivery.Table 11 Marital status of the respondentsNo Marital status Frequency Percent Unmarried 55 36.4 Married 88 58.3 Divorced 6 4.0 Other 2 1.3 151 100.

0Source: Field Survey, 20184.5 Challenges in implementation of Good Governance4.5.1 Factors influence leaders’ decision to improve good governanceTable 12Factors influence leaders’ decision to improve good governanceNO ITEM Rates Frequency percentage mean Standard division1 Luck of decision making skill Strongly agree 20 13.2 2.21 .851 Agree 102 67.5 Undecided 7 4.

6 disagree 22 14.6 Total 151 100 2 Luck of clear organizational rules and regulation Strongly agree 39 25.8 1.82 .578 Agree 102 67.5 undecided 8 5.

3 Disagree 2 1.3 Total 151 100 3 Interference by external bodies. Strongly agree 35 23.2 2.00 .800 Agree 94 62.3 undecided 9 6 Disagree 13 8.

6 Total 151 100 4 Leader’s commitment problem Strongly agree 25 16.6 2.11 .796 Agree 99 65.

5 undecided 12 7.9 Disagree 15 9.9 Total 151 100 Source: Field Survey, 2018As it can be seen from Table 4.6, the majority 102(67.5%) and 20 (13.2%) of respondents rated as agree and strongly agree respectively with the existence of leadership challenge in related toLuck of decision making skill while 22 (14.6%) respondents disagree on existence of Luck of decision making skill problem. Only 7(4.

6%) of respondents were neither agree nor disagree on the existence of Luck of decision making skill as a good governance challenge. This implies that employees in the public organizations tend to believe that Luck of decision making skill of the leaders affect good governance principles. Having decision making skill could improve the leaders’ decision to improve good governance. Additionally, majority of interviewees and FGD participants confirmed that having decision making skills has an essential role to increase or decrease theleaders’ decision to improve good governance and different activities in their life. However, implementation of decision making skill in the study area is unsatisfactory.

From the second item on the table above Luck of clear organizational rules and regulation were influence leaders’ decision to improve good governance negatively; majority of the respondents 102(67.5), 39(25.8%) agreed and strongly agreed respectively on the issue that luck of clear organizational rules and regulation.

only 2(1.3%) of respondents disagree about the issue while 8 (5.3%) of respondents neither agree nor disagreeon the concern of luck of clear organizational rules and regulation. Additionally, majority of both the interviewees and FGD participants confirmed thathaving clear organizational rules and regulation is poor and less transparency in displaying rules and regulation for others that exacerbate bad governance.

This implies that that having clear organizational rules and regulation play great role in implying good governance principles through decision making process.Regarding the third item of question on the tableabove which is related with interference by external Bodies negatively, majority of the respondents 94(62.3%) and 35(23.2%) agreed and strongly agreed about interference by external bodiesinfluence leaders’ decision to improve good governance. While 13 disagreed and 9(6%) of respondents (8.

6. %) of respondents neither agree nor disagree on the issue.Additionally, online with this question, all of the response of interviewees FDG confirmed same of the leaders agree with the above response from the respondents while the remains leaders were the opposite that decision by leaders were not influenced by external bodies From this one can the researcher can conclude there is problem of is interference by external bodies which are a challenge for leaders’ decision to improve good governance. Hence, this can contributed for lessleaders’ decision to improve good governance.Likewise, on the fourth item of question related withLeader’s commitment problem affect negatively; the results were found that 99(65.5%) of respondentswere greed and, 25(16.

6%) of them strongly agreed and the rest 15(9.9%) and 12(7.9%) of them remain disagree and undecided respectively. Hence the majority of respondents agreed that Leader’s commitment problem, negatively influence leaders’ decision to improve good governancethis may implies that due to Leader’s commitment problem decision to improve good governance were shown in the public sectors. And also there are huge challenges and hurdles that wait ahead. Much of the challenges are related to rent-seeking, nepotism, leadership incompetency and working system limitations which the government is currently trying harder to reform all.

As it is indicated by various forums of the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Front (EPRDF) good governance is a challenge that is encountered at different levels due to capacity constraints among leaders and public servants at different administrative levels. To curb these challenges government launched a number of process re-engineering and training programs to improve skills and ensure appropriate good practices in different government institutions.The government on its part is deeply evaluating and taking measures to reverse the deep rooted grievances that created massive public dissatisfaction at various levels.

It is evaluating its leadership gaps as part of the ongoing deep reform that it has put in place following the 15 years evaluation of the ruling party. Even if the move taken by the government is a good start, it is not suffice as good governance cannot be attained only through the efforts made by the government. Civil society organizations, the entire public, institutes of higher learning, the private sector, and religious organizations should be able to find their niche in contributing to the enhancement of good governance in the country.In general Good governance and effective leadership are the essential requirements for an organization to be considered successful in the eyes of all stakeholders in the 21st century. There is a direct link between Good Governance, effective leadership and economic prosperity. The difference between African and Asian countries, many of which started their history as states at the same point in the 1960s, is striking.

Lack of effective leadership is the main cause for Africa’s lagging behind from the rest of the world. Governance intertwined with effective leadership is the key variable. Effective leadership and Good Governance is two sides of the same coin. The two have many elements in common.

Without an effective leadership we may not envisage Good Governance in its totality. In fact, Good Governance may not be achieved in its totality because of cultural, psychological, social and sociological impacts and differences. Its implementation and perception also varies in line with the level of development and demands of the society. Due to this, the practice shows that very few countries and societies have come close to achieving good governance in its totality.(Herlad News Ensuring good governance 21 Mar 2018 Editorial-View-Point) 4.5.2 Challenges facing the leaders in insuring good governance.Table 13: Challenges face the leaders insuring good governance.

NO Item Category Frequency percentage1 Can you identify what challenges are facing leaders to insure good governance? Yes 148 98.0 No 3 2.02 Can you considered resource problem as one challenges of leaders to insure good governance? Yes 128 84.8 No 23 15.23 . Is there a relationship between citizen’s development demand and good governance Yes, they have a direct relationship. 134 88.

7 Yes, they have indirect relationship. 14 9.3 No, they do not have any relationship.

3 2.04 Poor implementation capacity of government offices can be considered as one challenge of leaders’ to insure good governance. Strongly agree 92 60.9 Agree 46 30.5 Partially agree 13 8.6 Disagree 5 Customers do not know their responsibility when they want service form Government Offices. Strongly agree 82 54.

3 Agree 45 29.8 Partially agree 23 15.2 Disagree 1 .7 Source: Field Survey, 2018From the above table item 1 the perception of respondents related with challenges are facing leaders to insure good governance? Most of the respondents148 (98 %) replied yes, 3(2.0%) of them replied no. This indicates there is a challenge facing leaders to insure good governance in public organizations.Similarly the qualitative data, FGD participants also stated their opinion on the issue; in manycan you identify what challenges are facing leaders to insure good governance? The respondents said yes, there are so many factors which Poor implementation capacity of government offices, the awareness of the customers and civil servants on the principle of good governance the rent seeking of same employees, resourceproblem, the proper implementation of the principle of good governance They have been depicted across generations to be only capable of trivial matters, incompetent and less intelligent.

This was projected and reinforced through the socio-cultural factors societies which internalized the idea. This implies that there are challenges of reader to practices theprinciple of good governanceAs it can be seen on the above table of the second item the considered resource problem as one challenge of leaders to insure good governance? 128(84.8%) of respondents are yes considered resource problem as one challenges of leaders to insure good governance? 23(15.2. %) of them replied no. This implies that considered resource problem as one challenges of leaders to insure good governance.

Additionally as translated from Amharic version, FGD discussion participants stated as; considered resource problem as one challenges of leaders to insure good governance, Utilization, maintenance and purchasing system is not fair, adequate knowledge and skill in planning and allocating financial resource is observed and Management flows transparency principle in resource utilization is the problem of leader to insure good governance . As it can be seen on the above table of the third items respondents were also asked to give their views regarding there a relationship between citizen’s development demand and good governance; most of the respondents134(88.5 %) are yes, they have a direct relationship.

and 14(8.6%) And 3(2%) of respondents replied Yes, they have indirect relationship .and No, they do not have any relationship. This implies that development demand and good governance have a direct relationship to increase to good governance.As it can be seen on the above table of the forth items the majority of the respondents 92 (60.9%) strongly agree and 43(30.5%)of the respondents were agree Poor implementation capacity of government offices can be considered as one challenge of leaders’ to insure good governance. The remains 13(8.

6%)were partially agree so this implies that almost all the respondents were Poor implementation capacity of government offices can be considered as one challenge of leaders’ to insure good governance. It shows there is Poor implementation capacity of government offices can be considered as one challenge of leaders’ to insure good governance. As it can be seen on the above table of the fifth items 82 (54.3%) of the respondents replies strongly agree and 45 (29.8%) of the respondents replies agree and 23 (15.2%) and 1(0.7%) of the respondents were partially agree and disagree that Customers do not know their responsibility when they want service form Government Offices.

This implies that there was luck of awareness about their responsibility. Therefore, from the above ideas or opinions of respondents, interviewees and focus group discussion except those some respondents who’s their ideas contradicting the ideas of bureau heads conducted through interview, it is possible to conclude that the there a relationship between citizen’s development demand and good governance; Poor implementation capacity of government offices can be considered as one challenge of leaders’ to insure good governance. And Customers do not know their responsibility when they want service form Government Offices the main challenges of good governance implementation. 4.6 Practices of the core elements of Good Governance It is understood that, good governance is an ideal concept, which is difficult to achieve in its totality. Among its’ characteristics, the table 4.10 – table 4.9 below show the views of respondents in terms of Accountability, Participation, Effectiveness & Efficiency, Equity & Equality, and Transparency.

4.6.1 AccountabilityTable 14 AccountabilityNo Item Frequency/% Strongly disagree Disagree Undecided agree Strongly agree Total1 Accountability of administration are implemented properly f 69 25 3 23 31 151 % 45.7 16.6 2.0 15.

2 20.5 1002 Adequate knowledge of polices, principles and procedures are well practiced f 80 41 5 12 13 151 % 53.0 27.2 3.3 7.9 8.6 1003 Citizen charter is properly implemented in the institution. F 64 38 1 19 29 151 % 42.

4 25.2 0.7 12.6 19.2 1004 Budget plan preparation is well managed and it is well implemented f 55 57 1 11 27 151 % 36.4 37.7 0.7 7.

3 17.9 100Source: Field Survey, 2018The result founded from the opinion survey about accountability in the study area is considered to be less.Concerning implementation of accountability of administration, the table4.

10 above shows that about 69 (45.7%) of respondents were strongly disagree and the other 25(16.6%) of respondents’ disagreed on the accountability,it confirmed that there is no accountability.

The remains respondents 31(20.5%)of the respondents were strongly agree ,23(15.2%) of the respondents were agree and 3(1.3%) of the respondents were undecided. From this it can understood the selected public sectors was not made accountability to their responsibility. It can imply that in the study area there have the problems of accountability.

Therefore it was challenging to apply good governance. Regarding to following accountability in line with having adequate knowledge on polices, principles, and procedures as indicated in table above, about 80( 53.0% )of the respondents’ were strongly disagreed on its well-practiced and about 41(27.2% )were disagreed and the remains 25 (16.5%)were agree and 5(3.3%) of them were undecided on the issues. This result shows that there was awareness gap on polices, principles and procedures of the government and other concerned bodies on polices, principles and procedures of governments.

Proper application of good governance improves the quality of life of citizens, establishes the legitimacy and credibility of institutions, and secures freedom of information and expression. It also strengthens citizen-friendly and citizen-caring administration. Regarding Citizen Charter is properly implemented in the institution 64(51.0%) of respondents’ strongly disagreed 38(25.5%) of respondents’ disagreed.

The remains respondents 29(19.2%)of the respondents were strongly agree,19(12.6%) of them were agree and 1(0.7%) of the respondents were undecided. Even though to measure the performance of public officials as well as to ensure that the standards are met, implementation of accountability in implying citizen charter is poor in the study area.

This can imply that in the study area there is the problem of the implementation of citizen charterto confirm both horizontal and vertical accountability in the study area. Budget plan preparation is well managed and it is well implemented55(36.45)of the respondents were strongly disagree 57(37,7%)of the respondents were disagree and the remains1(.7%)were undecided,11(7.3%)were agree and 27(17.9%)were strongly agree this implies that there were problem of budget plan preparation In general, accountability is one of the basic elements of good governance in which federal and local government bodies are obliged to report, explain and be answerable for the consequences of decisions they make on behalf of the citizens they serve. However, implementation of accountability is not well practiced in the study area to verify good governance in shabe sombo woreda.

Provide services to citizens. Public sector entities are accountable not only for how much they spend but also for the ways they use the resources with which theyhave been entrusted. In addition, they have an over arch mission to serve the public interest in adhering to the requirements of legislation and government policies. This makes it essential that the entire entity can show the integrity of all its actions and has mechanisms in place that encourage and enforce a strong commitment to moral values and legal fulfillment at all levelsBesides, it can imply that in the study area there have problems of accountability in a way that they are not open to the public.

The data which was collected from informants shows that when the public officials make decisions it is not based on the need and interest of public and they don’t want to invite (even when the people are invited and variety of thoughts are suggested, it is not taken in to consideration for the better implementation of the decisions) the community at the initials stage and when the decisioncome in to implementation phase a number of grievance encountered in the governing process. Moreover, the clarity and accessibility of newly enacted policies and decisions are near to the ground.4.6.2 ParticipationFigure 1 Participation of society in Governance aspects Source: Field Survey, 2018Concerning the participation of the society on the aspect of good governance the above figure shows that 82(54.

3% )of the respondents strongly disagreed and 52(34.4%)of the respondents are disagree while the remaining 10(6.6% )strongly agree and 6(4.0%)were agreed on participation of society in the issue of good governance. The left 1(0.7%) of respondent is undecided on the participation of society on the facet of good governance.

Since the course of participation is such broad, based up on freedom of association and speech, as well as capacities to participate constructively, good governance also requires that civil society to get the opportunity to participate during the formulation of development strategies and that directly affected communities and groups to participate in the design and implementation of programmes and projects. However, result above shows that there is high limitation with participation of society in governance aspects to ensure good governance. This shows that there are challenges of good governance in the study selected sectors in the woreda.Additionally, in an interview and FGD conducted with concerned leaders, majority of them confirmed that failure to involve the community in government aspects like in designing, planning, formulating projects that benefit the community.

This makes increase the ignorance of ownership within the community participatory development. Moreover, majority of the FGD participants intelligently argued that leaders failure in being Model the Way by participating the community with their voice and setting an example. This implies that Leaders in the study area are not supposed to stand up for implementation of good governance with participate the community in aspects of governanceFigure 2 Implementation of Participatory Decision Making Even though participation refers to the process by which all men and women have a voice in decision making either directly or through legitimate intermediate institutions that represent their interests, figure above shows less in its implementation. From the total respondents 74 (49%)of the them displayed their perception in strongly disagree while 24(15.9%)of them were disagree on the item implementation of participatory decision making principles of good governance is well. The other 34(22.

5%) and 18(11.9%)were strongly agree and agree respectively. One (0.7%) respondent was undecided on the issues. This implies that there is the lack of implementing good governance principles in the public sectors.

From this figure it can implied that there have implementation gap on participatory decision making. Figure 3 community Involvement in Resource Management Community involvement in resource management is crucial in increasing ownership. From the figure 4.3 above concerning the Community involvement on resource management at least 104(68.8%) of the respondents were disagree while 46(30.5%) of the respondents are agree and only 1(0.7%) of respondent was undecided on the issues. This reveals that the whole community were not participate on resource management.

The above results implied that in the study area there were the need of community based resource management. To bring the sense of ownership participation is necessary, but its implementation is unsatisfactory.Data gathered from the informants shows that as participation is one of the basic indicators of good governance is that decisions areexpected to be made in a collective manner and asked how and to what extent is your engagement is powerful in decision making process, they responded the involvement they made in different dialogue and meeting is not a such influential and they are in a position to take than make decisions and there is a strong word but little action as the public officers don’t want to be criticized for the misleading of the public institutions the reason further is because there is a tendency of those who seize public office suppose as theyare the complete ownership of better policies and decisions. Accordingly, there have performance gap on partaking decision making in the study area.4.6.3 Effectiveness and EfficiencyTable 15: Effectiveness and EfficiencyNo Item Frequency/% Strongly disagree disagree Undecided agree Strongly agree Total1 There is frequent follow up in administration area f 93 11 0 24 23 151 % 61.

6 7.3 0 15.9 15.2 1002 Utilization, maintenance and purchasing system is fair f 109 9 0 18 15 151 % 72.2 6.

0 0 11.9 9.9 1003 adequate knowledge and skill in planning and allocating financial resource is observed F 9 118 0 14 10 151 % 6.

0 78.1 0 9.3 6.6 1004 There is a proper complaint handling system for anybody. F 22 79 6 30 14 151 % 14.6 52.

3 4.0 19.9 9.3 1005 Employees Serve the interests of citizens instead of their own personal interests f 82 55 0 7 7 151 % 54.3 36.4 0 4.

6 4.6 100Source: Field Survey, 2018The concept of good governance should ensure efficiency and effectiveness in the use of resources of a nation having not compromise the crucial needs of citizens. It is the extent to which limited human and financial resources are applied without unnecessary, waste, delay or corruptionand it serves the interests of citizensand handling any complaints properly. Table 4.12 above shows that about 104(68.9%) of respondent disagreed on the item that says there is frequent follow up in administration areawhereas 47(31.1%) of the respondents agree as there is frequent follow up in administration area. From this it can be concluded that there is follow up but still a gap concerning the application of good governance in the study.

an interview and FGD informants added that if society is keeping on participation in different public dealings then surely they can get the expected result and it can increases the communities’ confidence level and helps to know their environment in a better way. The service users can come across many difficulties through which the community comes to distinguish the positives and negatives of decisions. In addition to this, the consistency of decisions made in line with the rule of law and the legal competence of decision making government bodies and individual task is an imperative factor for the legitimacy of the decisions and therefore for the assurance of good governance. However, it failed to realize that participationprovides a platform to test the public ideas and thoughts. From this it can be concluded that there have follow up but still there is a gap concerning the application of good governance in the study.Concerning material utilization, maintenance and purchasing system about 118 (78.2%) of the respondents were disagreed and 33(21.8%) of the respondents were agreed.

This shows that still there was a problem in purchasing system, maintenances and utilization of material. The result implies that there was violation of rules and regulation of government concerning the abovementioned issue. Concerning budget plan preparation and its management the above table shows that about 127 (84.1%) of the respondents were disagreed whereas 24(15.9%) of the respondents were agreed on the planning and management. This implied that the budget use was less managed. These shows that still there were knowledge and skill gap among the administrators of the study area. From the above result implicit that to bring wise use of resources the study area needs to fill the gap.

Thus, it needs the way of grasping adequate knowledge and skill in planning and allocating financial resources. In addition to this, data collected from informants implies that adequate knowledge on the policies and procedures plays a leading role in enhancing the implementation level of the existed policies and to the extent possible to reframe policies which are not compatible to the current need and interest of the community. Hence, it can be concluded that adequate knowledge can diminish the implementation gap of good governance.The respondents were also requested to evaluate the current complaint handling system that ensures effectiveness and efficiency of good governance. As Table No. 4.12 above shows, from the total respondents 79 (52.

3%) and 22(52.3%) strongly disagree and disagree respectively on the item that says there is a proper complaint handling system for anybody. This indicates majority of the respondents have not satisfied with practices of complaint handling system for anybody. Only 30(19.9%) and 14(9.3%) of respondents disagree and strongly disagree respectively to the presence of proper complaint handling system for anybody while the rest 6(4%) respondents were undecided whether failure asthere is a proper complaint handling system for anybody or not. This indicates that the start of complaint handling system but it is not effective.

As it can be seen from Table 4.12 on the last item, the majority 82(54.3%) and 55 (36.4%) of respondents rated as strongly disagree and disagreeasemployees of the study area serve the interests of citizens instead of their own personal interests while 7(4.6%) and 7(4.

6%) of respondents were disagree and strongly disagree respectively on the item that says employees Serve the interests of citizens instead of their own personal interests. Here, amazingly the employees believed that their service delivery is not satisfying the interest of the citizensinstead of their own personal interests.4.6.4 Equity and EqualityTable 16 Equity and EqualityNo Item Frequency/% Strongly disagree disagree Undecided agree Strongly agree Total1 There is proportion of women in key positions in your institution F 35 88 7 17 4 151 % 23.

2 58.3 4.6 11.3 2.6 1002 Bosses are treating every employee in impartial and equal eyes. F 36 89 5 12 9 151 % 23.

8 58.9 3.3 7.9 6.0 1003 Employees treat all citizens equally irrespective of people’ status, social rank, etc F 46 85 2 10 8 151 % 30.5 56.3 1.3 6.

6 5.3 100Source: Field Survey, 2018According to UN-Habitat the sharing of power leads to equity in the access to and use of resources. Women and men must participate as equals in all urban decision making, priority-setting and resource allocation processes. Equity and equality in shabe sombo woreda seem to be given less attention. As table 4.13 shows on the statement that says there is proportion of women in key positions in the institution, only 21 (13.6%) from all respondents are agreed whereas the 123 (81.5%) of the respondents were in disagreement with the respect to proportion of women in key position in the institution was exist.

The left 7(4.6%) of respondents were undecided on the issues. This implies that women have been given less attention in sharing of power that leads to equity in the institutions.However, majority of themember of the staff feel that the proportion of women assigning in key positions is necessary.

The informants added that as female are more vulnerable part of thesociety they are not playing their role in governance process of the woreda affairs, the reason they added is because female are underestimated and they are considered as incapable to hold public office and lead different public institutions because of this reason public institutions are not serving all stake holders. Hence, it can be concluded that there have challenges of good governance and with the intention of the level participation of male and female in decision making is not one and the same in the study area Sabe sombo woreda selected public office.In line with equal treatment to every employees in the organization, 89(58.9%) and 36(23.8%) of respondents disagree and strongly disagree, on the item bosses are treating every employee in impartial and equal eyes while only 21(13.9%) of respondents were in agreement on the item and 5(3.3%) were undecided.

This indicates that bosses are not treating every employee in impartial and equal eyes.In the above tables the third items the response of the respondents 85 (56.3%) were strongly disagree and 46 (30.5%)of the respondents were disagree as Employees treat all citizens equally irrespective of people’ status, social rank, etc and the others respondents were18 (11.9%)dis agree and 2(1.

3%)were undecided. This implies that employees do not treat all citizens equally irrespective of people status, social rank, etc.4.6.5 TransparencyTable 17 Transparency Item Frequency/% Strongly disagree disagree Undecided agree Strongly agree Total Governing bodies have transparency F 54 78 5 10 4 151 % 35.8 51.7 3.3 6.

6 2.6 100 Management flows transparency principle in resource utilization F 26 96 3 19 7 151 % 17.2 63.6 2.

0 12.6 4.6 100 Stake holders are participating in budget planning F 51 80 9 8 3 151 % 33.

8 53.0 6.0 5.3 2.0 100Concerning transparency the table4.14 above shows that about 54 (35.

8%) of respondents were strongly disagree and 78(51.7%) of respondents were disagree while only 10(6.6) of respondent agree and 4(2.6%)of the respondents were strongly agree on the item says Governing bodies have transparencyand the left 5(3.3%) of respondents’ undecided on the issues.This confirmed that in the study area there is the problem of the transparency of governing bodies.Management flows transparency principle in resource utilization 96(63.6%) of respondents’ disagreed and26 (17.

2%) of respondents’ strongly disagreed while7(4.7%) and 19(12.6%) of the respondents strongly agreed and agreed respectively. So from this the researcher concludes that there is a problem in resource utilization in selected public sectors.

Concerning Stake holders are participating in budget planning 51 (33.8%) of the respondents were Strongly disagree80(53.0%) of the respondents were disagree and 9 (6.0%) of the respondents were undecided and 8(5.3%) and 3(2.0%) of the respondents were Strongly agree and of the respondents were Strongly agree this implies that there were the problem of Stake holders are participating in budget planning in the study area.Transparency equally means the right of citizens to be informed on the entire decision making process.

Over the last fifteen years, good governance has become a major area of focus by the Ethiopian government as it is one of the tools to realize nation’s development goals. By the same token, the issue of good governance has long been a question of debate and claimed by citizens of the nation for long. And the government of Ethiopia is reclaiming that the issue is a question of survival both to the people and the government of the nation. Furthermore, structural adjustments in various economic sectors, relative democratization of public life and the promotion of the private economic sector have triggered the demand for good governance in the country. Although the government of Ethiopia exhibits a strong political will to ascertain good governance in the country, there are huge challenges and hurdles that wait ahead. Much of the challenges are related to rent-seeking, nepotism, leadership incompetency and working system limitations which the government is currently trying harder to reform all.

As it is indicated by various forums of the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Front (EPRDF) good governance is a challenge that is encountered at different levels due to capacity constraints among leaders and public servants at different administrative levels. To curb these challenges government launched a number of process re-engineering and training programs to improve skills and ensure appropriate good practices in different government institutions.The government on its part is deeply evaluating and taking measures to reverse the deep rooted grievances that created massive public dissatisfaction at various levels. It is evaluating its leadership gaps as part of the ongoing deep reform that it has put in place following the 15 years evaluation of the ruling party. Even if the move taken by the government is a good start, it is not suffice as good governance cannot be attained only through the efforts made by the government. Civil society organizations, the entire public, institutes of higher learning, the private sector, and religious organizations should be able to find their niche in contributing to the enhancement of good governance in the country.Likewise, considerable issues and concerns that are being voiced by the public should also be addressed accordingly.

Transparency are technical and legal issues at some levels, but also interactive to produce government that is legitimate, effective, and widely supported by citizens, as well as a civil society that is strong, open, and capable of playing a positive role in politics and government. This paper considers goals for better governance, key challenges confronting efforts at reform, examples of successful good-governance efforts, and action steps for improving both participation and institutions. Identified are: Legitimate, effective, responsive institutions and policies (“embedded autonomy”) Understandable processes and outcomes: • Transparency: • Incentives to sustain good governance: • Vertical accountability: Horizontal accountability and leaders, and among segments of governme4.7 Opportunities to improve effective Good GovernanceTable 18 Opportunities to improve effective Good GovernanceNo ITEMS Yes/No frequency Percent (%)12 Can you identify an opportunities in your locality which helps the sector to improve effective governance?. Yes 142 94.

0 No 9 6.0 Total 151 100Source: Field Survey, 2018From the tables above the researcher observed 142(94.0%)of the respondents says yes to the item that request there is an opportunities to improve effective governance in the public sectors in the study area.

This implies there so many opportunities to improve effective governance. There are many opportunities in the public sectors to contribute to the success and realization of good governance.. In the above chart (5), with regard to the question asked in relation to the opportunities in the public sectors s of theworeda for the success and realization of good governance, the formation collected through interviews and discussions also supports the information provided above. According to their views, it is possible to deduce that the greatest concern given for good governance by the government at the country level, strongimplementation of the tools of management like BPR and BSC, determination of leadership in taking initiation to realizetheprinciples of good governance. And formation of different groupings and its effective implementation in the process ofproviding efficient and effective services to the customers are the major opportunities that can effectively be used by themunicipalities to the realization and success of good governance. Identifying the major challenges of goodgovernance and suggesting solutions to cure these challenges is very important in deepening the principles and providingefficient and effective services to the customers and stakeholders of publicsectors.

Concerning suggesting solutions to the major challenges of good governance, particularly, to the success of good governance in the future in the public sectors of the study area have identified providing series of trainings on the issues of good governance to the officials and the employees of the public sectors. Commitment from the leadership, creating awareness about good governance to the public sectors service users is needed in order to enable them to challenge in the absence of good organizational governance, filling positions with qualified and skilled man power as important solutions. The building institutional capacity of the public sectors, establishing institutional framework for good governance implementation follow up, carrying out various activities of the public sectors benchmarking or centering the principles of good governance, and having published performance standards and manuals of good governance are some of the solutions to the challenges of good governance. Therefore, the overall conclusion is that providing series of trainings on the issues of good governance to the officials and employees of the public sectors , commitment from the leadership, creating awareness on good governance to the public sectors employees and service users in order to enable them to challenge in the absence of good organization governance, and filling positions with qualified and skilled man power are identified as major solutions to the challenges of good governance in the future public sectors so as to provide efficient and effective public services.CHAPTER FIVE5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONSIn this part of the paper findings of the research had briefly summarized, more condensed and Comprehensive statements had offered in the form of conclusions and recommendations.

4.1 sufficient checks and balances to tackle corruption.”

4.1 I believe that paragraphs 2 and 3 are an accurate account of the youth today. As they are “taking stock of existing systems”, such as the use of the internet and social media platforms to advocate their causes. Youth in the 21st century have the ability to communicate with each other on a broader platform of technology. With the access to social media the youth are able to create buy in with each other to join their campaigns and fight injustice with the simple click of a button “recruiting a steady influx of peers to join them”. 4.

2.1 Jhatkaa.org envisions an inclusive, sustainable and equitable India, built and maintained through the democratic power of an engaged citizenry.4.2.2 1) “To advocate solutions based on 21st century realities defining a development pathway to address the challenges of access to clean water, food and air, ensuring enforcement of existing human rights laws, supporting implementation of a new education system and ensuring sufficient checks and balances to tackle corruption.”2) “To mobilize millions of people from all over India to weigh in on decisions for different issues.”3) “To make the powerful accountable, targeting the behaviour of governments, political parties, corporations and cultural institutions.

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“4) “To transform the public narrative on citizenship and democracy so that people no longer accept corruption and our social problems as inevitable and instead understand their role in shifting systems to make our democracy functional.”These aims are realized by the generous donations of members and the community to help continue running this organisation. They look for members who are passionate and self-driven and are willingly to fight to make government and corporate decision-makers accountable of issues of public welfare. The organisation keeps up to date with current affairs and works around the clock to always have a plan of action in place for the members, by using social networks, sms, email, IVR, missed calls, and cutting-edge web tools. With the help of members and donations Jhatkaa is able to hold regional community meetings with activists and citizens to build grass root networks, run various campaigns, and use different forms of advertising. They even produce videos showcasing the realities and their aims which they aim to alleviate. 4.

3 1) The lack of credibility and trust necessary for securing meaningful investments. 2) They operating in insolation without access to critical opportunities for peer learning.3) They are lacking the connection to networks, mentors, skill building opportunities and funding which is hindering their ability to make a difference in their communities. 4.4.1 The opportunities young people can tap into that would potentially ensure their success as activists, are advocating for legislation, creating public awareness campaigns on social media, raising funds for various organisations and volunteering in their respective communities. 4.4.

2 These opportunities can be accessed by means of the internet/ social media such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. Schools and universities guidance counsellors can train students and inform them on various organisations and issues around the world that need to be addressed. Non-Governmental organisations can recruit young people and guide them in the right direction aswell.

Parents should also be acting as role models for the youth to mimic their actions in society.4.5 The author puts forward to her readers and to society as a whole, how the youth have new, creative, innovative and unique opinions and ideas. They have a fresh perspective on the world and often are more energetic and self-driven to make a difference in their communities however there are challenges that they face. 1. They are not taken seriously and their value as advocates is often undermined. The author alludes to the fact that the authorities in power do not have faith and any trust in the youth to combat and fight injustice.

2. The author also alludes to the fact that a major challenge the youth faces is they are inheriting this environment as the next generation and want to be heard, considered and valued as partners in development of their future and livelihood. People in positions of power should embrace the youth and allow them the opportunity to make a difference and give them the tools to help combat issues the world is facing.

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