5. using schedules for clinical interview in neuropsychiatry

5.

DiscussionIn this study the prevalence of antisocial personality disorder was assessed by using psychopathic check list revised. The independent factors associated with antisocial personality disorder were age (18-27), single marital status, prior conviction, tobacco ever use, and monthly income less than 1557 Birr.The prevalence of antisocial personality disorder among Mekelle correctional center prisoners was found to be 31 % with confident interval (26.5-35.

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6). It is alien with a study conducted in England and Wales by using schedules for clinical interview in neuropsychiatry and psychopathy checklist-revised(31%)(27),UK by using IPDE-SQ(25.8%)(23),Iraq by using PCL-R (31%)(32),Sweden by using PCL-R(31%)(26) and USA by using MINI(35.3%) (31). In this study the finding was lower as compare to the study conducted in USA by using SIPD-IV(57%) (22), UK by using PCL-R (68%) (28) , South Africa by using MINI (46.

1%)(4),Nigeria by using Antisocial Personality Disorder Self- Test (47%) (33) among prisoners. The difference may be due to socio-cultural, environmental, sample size and using of different tool and cut points to determine the prevalence of antisocial personality disorder.However the prevalence was higher as compare to the studies conducted in Germany by using PCL-R(17%)(21). The difference with this study may be due to the study from Germany includes only female inmates but in this study majority of the participant were men.

The prevalence is also higher than the study done in Italy by using MINI (20%)(25), the difference may be due to using different tool and the research from Italy was done in community sample which ASPD is lower than from prison samples. The prevalence of ASPD in this study was also higher than the research conducted in Egypt (12.3%) (30). The difference may be due to difference in environment, socio-cultural factors and using of different tool. In this study PCL-R was used to decide the ASPD but the study from Egypt used structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disordersThe prevalence of antisocial personality disorder was found to be higher among the age group of 18-37 as compare to those who are in the age group of >47 years. The finding is in line with the study conducted in UK ASPD is high among the young age(19).

The high prevalence of ASPD among the age group may be due to the age is in transition between adolescence and adult age and those with conduct disorder in adolescent age my directly changed to antisocial personality disorder in the adult age. In other way it may be due to the yang age overt behavior such as criminality, substance use and aggressiveness increased in this age. In this study single marital status was significantly associated with ASPD. A research done in Zambia came up with the same report(36). The possible justification for the high prevalence of ASPD among single participants may be due to that individuals with ASPD have difficulty to form and maintain intimate relationship because of their odd behaviors.Tobacco ever was associated with antisocial personality disorder. Participants who had tobacco ever use were almost three times more likely to have ASPD as compare to those prisoners who had no tobacco ever use.

This is supported by two researches conducted in the USA indicates that most people from the community sample with ASPD are chronic cigarette smokers and other substance users(31,38). It is also support by a research conducted in Turkey(39) This may be due to most of the participants were young adult age who have high probability to test substance and being against the norm of the community . This study revealed that there was significant association between prior conviction and ASPD. The study conducted in Egypt on prisoners came up with similar finding (30) it is also supported by a research from South Africa (4). The high prevalence of ASPD among prisoners who had prior conviction may be due to repeated imprisonment of individuals with antisocial behavior such as destroying property, harassing others, stealing, or charging illegal occupations and other odd behaviors . Individuals with ASPD fail to conform to societal rules, persistent pattern of disrespect for, and violation of, the rights of others may be possible justification. Having low monthly income was also had significant association with ASPD.

The odds of anti-social personality disorder among those who had monthly income less than 1557 birr per month were four times higher as compare to those who had monthly income above 1557 birr per month).According to DSM-5 ASPD is high among those who have poor economic status(9). Having significant periods of unemployment despite available job opportunities and unable to work for long time due to their antisocial behavior may be possible reasons for low economic status.Variables which had significant association with antisocial personality disorder in other study but not significant associated with ASPD in this study are being male, having history of psychiatric illness and poor educational status. The difference may be due to variation in culture, sample size, economical status of the participants.

5. those segments of the isoquants which are

5. Isoquants Need Not be Parallel to Each Other:It so happens because the rate of substitution in different isoquant schedules need not be necessarily equal.

Usually they are found different and, therefore, isoquants may not be parallel 6. No Isoquant can Touch Either Axis:If an isoquant touches X-axis, it would mean that the product is being produced with the help of labour alone without using capital at all. 7. Each Isoquant is Oval-Shaped.

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It means that at some point it begins to recede from each axis. This shape is a consequence of the fact that if a producer uses more of capital or more of labour or more of both than is necessary, the total product will eventually decline. The firm will produce only in those segments of the isoquants which are convex to the origin and lie between the ridge lines. This is the economic region of production. Difference between Indifference Curve and Iso-Quant Curve:The main points of difference between indifference curve and Iso-quant curve are explained below:1.

Iso-quant curve expresses the quantity of output. Each curve refers to given quantity of output while an indifference curve to the quantity of satisfaction. It simply tells that the combinations on a given indifference curve yield more satisfaction than the combination on a lower indifference curve of production.2. Iso-quant curve represents the combinations of the factors whereas indifference curve represents the combinations of the goods.3. Iso-quant curve gives information regarding the economic and uneconomic region of production.

Indifference curve provides no information regarding the economic and uneconomic region of consumption.4. Slope of an iso-quant curve is influenced by the technical possibility of substitution between factors of production. It depends on marginal rate of technical substitution (MRTS) whereas slope of an indifference curve depends on marginal rate of substitution (MRS) between two commodities consumed by the consumer.Ans 3B)The study of the concept cross elasticity of demand plays a major role in forecasting the effect of change in the price of a good on the demand of its substitutes and complementary goods.Therefore, it helps in deciding the price of a good by determining the change in the demand of its substitutes and complementary goods.The demand for a good is generally associated with the demand for another good.

Therefore, change in the price of one good produces change in the price of another good. The extent of relationship between two related goods can be measured by cross- elasticity of demand. In other words, cross-elasticity of demand measures the receptiveness of quantity demanded of a good with respect to change in the price of its substitute or complementary good.ADVERTISEMENTS:Some of the definitions of cross-elasticity of demand are as follows:In the words of Leibhafsky, “the cross elasticity of demand is a measure of the responsiveness of T to change in the price of X.

“According to Ferugson, “the cross-elasticity of demand is the proportional change in the quantity of good-X demanded resulting from a given relative change in the price of the related good-Y.”It should be noted that the cross-elasticity of demand would be positive, when two goods are substitute of each other. This is because the increase in the price of one good increases the demand for the other. On the other hand, in case of complementary goods, the cross-elasticity of demand would be negative as increase in the price of one good decreases the demand for the other. For example, increase in the price of tea would result in the increase in the demand for coffee, whereas increase in the price of petrol would cause decrease in the demand for cars.Measurement of Cross Elasticity of Demand:ADVERTISEMENTS:Cross-elasticity of demand expresses the ratio of percentage change in demand of good X produced due to the percentage change in price of related good Y.Therefore, the formula for cross-elasticity (ec) of demand is as follows:ec = Percentage change in quantity demanded of X/Percentage change in price of YPercentage change in quantity demanded of X= New demand for X (?QX)/Original demand for X (QX)Percentage change in price of Y= New price for Y (?PY/Original price for Y (PY)The symbolic representation of the formula for cross elasticity of demand is as follows:ec = ?QX/QX: ?PY/PYec = ?QX/QX */PY/?PYec = ?QX/?PY */PY/QXADVERTISEMENTS:?QX can be calculated by subtracting original demand for X (QX) from increase in demand (QX1), which is as follows:?QX = QX1 – QXSimilarly, PY is the difference between the new price of Y (PY1) and original price for Y (PY).

It can be calculated by the following formula:?PY = PY1 -PYTypes of Cross Elasticity of Demand:The numerical value of cross-elasticity of demand is not same for every related goods. It differs for different types of goods.The various types of cross-elasticity of demand are as follows:i. Positive Cross Elasticity of Demand:Implies that the cross elasticity of demand would be positive when increase in the price of one good (X) causes increase in the demand for the other good (Y). In simple terms, cross elasticity would be positive for substitutes. For example, the quantity demanded for coffee has increased from 500 units to 550 units with increase in the price of tea from Rs.

8 to Rs. 10. Calculate the cross elasticity of demand and state the type of relationship between coffee (X) and tea(Y).Solution:QX1 =550 unitsQX =500 unitsPY1 = Rs. 10PY = Rs. 8Therefore, ?QX = QX1 – QX = 550 – 500 = 50 unitsSimilarly, ?PY = PY1 – PY = Rs.

2Now ec = 50/2*8/500= 0.4The cross elasticity of “demand is positive; therefore, X and Y are substitutes.ii. Negative Cross Elasticity of Demand:Refers to a situation when the rise in the price of one good (X) reduces the demand for the other good (Y).

The cross elasticity of demand would be negative for complementary goods. For example, the quantity demanded for X decreases from 220 to 200 units with the rise in prices of Y from Rs. 10 to 12.Now, the cross elasticity of demand would be as follows:QX1 =200 unitsQX =220 unitsPY1 = Rs. 12PY = Rs.

10Therefore, ?QX = QX1 – QX = 200 – 220= – 20 unitsSimilarly, ?PY = PY1 – PY = Rs. 12 – Rs. 10 = Rs.

2Now ec = – 20/2* 12/200= -0.6The cross elasticity of demand is negative; therefore, X and Y are complementary to each other.iii. Zero Cross Elasticity of Demand:Implies that the cross elasticity of demand would be zero when two goods X and Y are not related to each other. In other words, the increase or decrease in the price of one good (X) would not affect the demand of other good (Y).Significance of Cross Elasticity of Demand:The study of the concept cross elasticity of demand plays a major role in forecasting the effect of change in the price of a good on the demand of its substitutes and complementary goods. Therefore, it helps in deciding the price of a good by determining the change in the demand of its substitutes and complementary goods.Apart from this, cross elasticity of demand helps in determining the nature of relationship between two goods whether they are substitutes, complementary to each other or totally different from each other.

In addition, it also enables an organization to anticipate the intensity of monopoly and extent and type of competition in the market.

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