AbstractThe development of information technology constantly led to the development of various fields, including the field of training.
Training is no longer limited to being held in a specific place and the trainer explains only to the trainees, but this is developed by technology. The aim of this paper is to show all the latest techniques in the field of training, which positively affects the training process.this reviw paper primarily focuses on new technology for training and its research trend between 2000 and 2018; Paper discussed a review of 22 previous literatures from different journals in the same subject.
The findings of this paper showed that the use of modern techniques leads to the development of training, which is reflected positively on the trainee, in addition to the paper mentioned the most important techniques that can be used in training.Originality/valueThis study can be useful to those responsible for training in the development of the training process, which is reflected positively on the trainees.KeywordsTraining, Computer Based Training (CBT), Web Based Training (WBT), virtual training (VT)Paper type Literature reviewINTRODUCTIONThere is a rapid development in technology; this development of technology has become one of the main resources that can be used in various fields, including the field of training to improve the training process. There are many technology in the field of training as following: Computer Based Training (CBT) is defined as type of training where trainee have training by special training programs on computer and computer take the trainer role, Web based training (WBT) is simply defined as training delivered over Internet; it is commonly referred as e-learning, online learning and distance learning (Bronner Group, LLC), the use of Web-based training has also reduced the training cost (Syberworks, Inc.
), Virtual Training (VT) refers to training done in a virtual or simulated environment, or when the learner and the instructor are in separate locations.Virtual trainingVirtual training definitionVirtual Training refers to training done in a virtual or simulated environment, or when the learner and the instructor are in separate locations. Virtual training and virtual training environments are designed to simulate the traditional classroom or learning experience.Advantages and Disadvantages of Virtual LearningACCESSIBLE Virtual learning is accessible to anyone who has a computer, tablet or Smartphone.LOCATION You can take part in an online course from any location where you can get a Wi-Fi signal.FLEXIBLE Virtual learning can usually take place at a time that is convenient for the student.
There is no longer any need to be in a classroom at a specific time on a specific day.AFFORDABLE Because you can learn from the comfort of your own home it means that there is no travel costs involved in virtual learning.CONVENIENT You can study at your own convenience which makes this type of learning preferable for those with young families, those with full time jobs and those who have other responsibilities that require input at specific times or places.What is a Virtual Learning Environment?A virtual learning environment is an online system that allows education materials to be transmitted through the internet to transfer knowledge from organization to employee, or teacher to student.Examples of virtual learning environments:Virtual learning environment examples include the following and more, all of which can be accessed via an online or computer-based system:Distance Learning Degree ProgramsProfessional Certification CoursesInstructional VideosVideo or Audio LecturesWebinarsPodcastsAdvantages of a Virtual Learning EnvironmentEasy Tracking and AssessmentWith your virtual learning environment software, it’s easy to tell which employees have completed the activities. Built-in assessments like quizzes can help you ensure they’re absorbing the material.
Seamless DeliveryEvery employee has access to the same material, no matter when he or she gets hired. Your message is consistent through the years; when you make a change in company policy that can be updated in your learning system and all employees have access to it.Time Savings With a virtual learning environment, receive thorough training immediately.Financial SavingsWith an investment in virtual learning platforms, you’re paying someone to develop curriculum once, which can then be used over and over again.
Compare this to the expense of hosting workshops every time you hire new people or make changes in your business: paying speakers and instructors, arranging venues and travel, and losing productivity when employees are out of the office.Flexibility Employees can choose where and when they complete the training. They can revisit sections that were unclear, or review the entire curriculum from time to time. It’s also flexible for you since you can add or change material at any time.Virtual Instructor-Led Training (VILT)Virtual instructor-led training (VILT) refers to training that is delivered in a virtual or simulated environment, or when instructor and learner are in separate locations.
Benefits of choosing vILT for corporate learning:Train anyone, anywhere with a human element InteractivityTrackable learner performance Easy customizationRelated worksTraining (Designing Digitally Inc., 2015) states that as learning and development professionals, it is not enough to design a training course and deliver it. But what is important is to translate training needs into behavioral changes, and this is what is delivered through the use of Web-based training.(Vogel-Walcutt, Fiorella, & Malone, 2013) The effects of training can be enhanced through adequate instructions adapted to the pre-training, during-training and post-training phase.
(DeChurch & Mesmer-Magnus, 2010) (Delise et al., 2010) showed an effect of team training on cognitive outcomes which was larger compared to that of team building.(Chen et al., 2007), self-efficacy is one of the critical factors influencing employee training effectiveness.(Tharenou et al. ,2007) in commenting on the correlation between training and organizational-level outcomes, emphasize how individual outcomes are transformed into organizational ones, hoping that individual strategies can be combined with organizational ones in the workplace to achieve the corporate goals.
(Eom et al., 2006) observed that the more interaction between instructors and learners, the higher the user satisfaction. They also found that a knowledgeable teacher who is capable of facilitating learning has significantly positive influences on students’ satisfaction.(Marks et al., 2005) emphasized the importance of the interaction between instructors and learners. The instructor, who should be an enthusiastic participatory leader, can facilitate the learners’ involvement by assembling interesting issues for discussion, stimulating the students’ critical thinking ability, and encouraging them to ask questions.
(Kraiger et al., 2004) mention that one of the reasons training is frequently criticized is that what is learned cannot be applied to work.Salas et al. (2003) highlight the importance of assessing the trainees’ perception of relevance and value of training.
(Michel Armstrong, 2001), Training is systematic development of the knowledge, Skills and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job.(Salas & Cannon-Bowers, 2000) Team training should include the knowledge, skills and attitudes relevant for the trained task.Computer Based Training (CBT)(Likewise, Lim et al., 2007) found that the higher the trainee’s computer self efficacy regarding online training, the higher their learning performance. Evidently, computer self-efficacy is important in the e-training environment.(Strother, 2002) Computer-based training can provide a number of advantages such as time and place convenience for students and instructors, standardized delivery, self-paced learning, economies of scale in terms of classrooms and instructors, automated feedback to students and instructors, and a variety of available content.(Benbunan-Fich, 2002), IT can assist an instructor in extending availability beyond class time and office hours, establish links between classmates, and accomplishing administrative activities.(Leidner and Jarvenpaa, 2001), There is a potential for computer-based teaching methods to improve classroom learning that remains untapped by the inability to use them effectively.(McGray, 2000) demonstrated the potential of IT to enable an instructor to be more efficient and effective in broadening and deepening the learning process for business students in MIS.