A basic review of the traditional method of
damage detection and some issues will be listed in the introduction below.
Moreover, an idea is going to be presented and aimed to use several types of
embedded optical strain sensor to set an advanced technique called in-situ
strain-based fibre optic damage detection assessment system (FODDAS) which can
address and improve detection of damage in the composites. Classic fibre optic
sensors and fully distributed sensor network system will be discussed in the literature
review. In additional to, fracture of the optical fibre is supposed to be identified
as an approach related sensor network to detect damage, and an example for
detecting matrix crack by the harm of optical fibre will be pointed at the last
part as well as advantages of the method.
Fibre reinforced composites are consisted
of and composited of reinforced fibre
materials, such as glass fibre, carbon fibre, aramid fibre, and the matrix
materials through winding, composites moulding or extrusion moulding process.
However, there are some unexpected damages in the fibre reinforced composites.
For instance, micro-crack is a kind of those damages in the fibre reinforced
composites, which are created greatly under impact conditions and fatigue,
should be healed before fast crack propagation and catastrophic failure happen.
Therefore, it is essential that the methods and technologies should be created
or improved to monitor the damage in the composites. Due to the barely visible
impact damage usually existing in the composites, a competent technology of
non-defect test for damage determination and continuous material structural
integrity monitoring has been considered as the professional method to detect
damage. At present, most conventional
NDT technologies, such as visual inspection, thermography, ultrasonic C-Scan
and X-Ray radiography are restricted as they have to test structural components
of complex geometry which are taken out of service for the considerable length
of time because of post-damage check and evaluation. For continuous and in-situ monitoring of integrity
structures, a method of using strain gauges shows great further potential.
However, strain gauges are susceptible to electrical and electromagnetic effect
in addition to the damage. As for the issues, how to find a feasible method to
improve damage detection techniques have to start from following representative
modes of damage in the composites.
According to course book of sensors and composites, there are two
typical modes of damage in the fibre reinforced composites. Figure 1 shows a
series of crack situations, which are happening when a unidirectional fibre
reinforced composite (Figure 1 a) is suffered from tensile loading. In this
case, the failure strain of matrix is presumed to be importantly higher than
that of the fibres. Therefore, with increasing tensile loading on the
composites (Figure 1 b), a reinforced fibre will break at its weakest position
anywhere along its length. Obviously, a redistribution of stress will take
place with additional stress being brought to bear on nearby fibres. This
failure mode is a characteristic process in most fibre reinforced composites.
Other processes (Figure 1 c) which will take place in the vicinity of broken
fibre are interfacial debonding or matrix yielding. The last process (Figure 1
d) represents the position where the fibre debonding shown in the Figure 1 c
has been transformed to a longitudinal crack along
the direction of fibres and become a plane
thickness crack as well.
Figure 1: schematic illustrations of damage mode 1
Above mode is the same complexity as when the failure
strain of fibre is higher than that of the matrix, which shows in Figure 2.
Figure 2: schematic
illustrations of damage mode 2
Basically, the consequences of all types of damage
in smart structures are part or whole changes in strengths and stiffness. Fibre
optic strain sensors can measure these changes through one of the optical
properties, such as intensity, wavelength, phase or state of polarization.
Additionally, fibre optic strain sensors can be integrated into a present
composite structure and form the kind of superb smart structure so as to access
the interior of material where other sensors or devices cannot probe. The research
was directed by Bhatia V (1995) and gathered some results, which have indicated
that embedded fibre optic sensor carried through the same way as either
non-embedded sensors in terms of failure stresses in tension and compression,
notwithstanding the stress and strain concentrations around the embedded fibre
optic sensor. As for
detecting damage, embedded sensors should have appropriate mechanical bonding
with the host composites structures so as to existing the same strain gradient
situation as host composite structures.
The present essay intends to focus on using
embedded fibre optic strain sensors to establish a technical system, which can
develop in-situ damage detection and assessment systems. The major issues
needed to be solved are an in-situ detection of complex structural damage and
damage state, which will be addressed via in-situ strain-based fibre optic
damage detection assessment system (FODDAS).
improving damage detection, the FODDAS should be enhanced via various major
types of fibre optic sensors and related optical properties which are helpful
to measure mechanical strain. The general optical fibre consists of a centre
silica core covered by an annular silica cladding with an outermost protective
coating, as shown in figure 3. Main fibre optic strain sensors are categorised
into intensity, interferometric and polarimetric sensors in terms of which
optical properties are inflected by the external loading. Due to their fibrous
characterisation, they can defiantly measure axial strains. For measuring
mechanical strains, there are two aspects of requirements to fibre optic strain
sensors. One is that fibre strain sensors should be too adjacent the damage to
gain the reliable data and responses. Another point is that they have to
guarantee an adequate strain resolution, in case that the positions of the
damage are far away from them. In many applications (Tay A K,1990), one-loop
serpentine fibre optic sensors were used to increase the degree of sensitivity.
Furthermore, optical fibres have a critical value of failure strain as the same
level as that of the reinforced fibres of the host composites. Obviously, if the
failure of the optical fibres is used to indicate the damage, indeed, it is
unnecessary for the strain measurement.
Schematic of the general optical fibre
2.1 Intensity sensors
everyone knows, the simplest fibre optic sensor is based on a kind of
light-intensity modulation in a multi-mode optical fibre. In its working
process, the light wave with greater intensity is going to spread, Meanwhile,
when the optical fibre is under strained state, it will reflect losses of light
intensity. An advantage is that these sensors are simply to establish and do
not present complex instrumentation and signal processing. However, they can
only gather limited data and information about the location of damage. For this
drawback, if a large number of intensity sensors can be used in a complete
system or a network (Kulman R,1987. McBride R,1998) for detecting significant
damage, they could be useful and practical because of the low cost in the
co-operation system or network.
2.2 Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor
fibre Bragg grating sensor is based on a single mode optical fibre, and has a
suit of periodic reflective Bragg gratings along with the length of the
individual fibre (Udd E,1996), as illustrated in figure 4. When an embedded FBG
sensor is impacted by the external load, the changes in the wavelength of the
gratings could be defiantly associated with mechanical strain. During the
producing of FBG sensors, the pitch spacing of every grating is able to control
individually so that the wavelength shift of a set of individual FBG sensors
can be tracked simultaneously for multiplexing. According to an existing research
(Liu T,1998), the positive aspects of FBG sensors are easy to use wildly,
unaffected by discrepancy calibrations, and having a high value of failure
strain, up to 2%. Additionally, the sensors are also easy for multiplexing. On
the other hand, the potential drawbacks that the measured strain could be
three-dimensional features so as to that a detailed analysis of the output is
necessary to correctly work out axial strains, and that they are very sensitive
to the influence of temperature variations.
Diagram of Bragg Grating Sensor
polarimetric sensor is a special optical fibre based on an elliptical core duel
mode with birefringent polarisation-maintaining. Basically, the birefringence
will be generated by the remanent strain field across the core in addition to
that could be induced by an asymmetry character of the core geometry. To
specifically, the localised sensing region of a polarimetric sensor usually is
made by either two in-line splices (Figure 5 a), or one in-line splice with a
reflecting mirror in the end (Figure 5 b). It is worth noting that this type of
sensor costs too much and has a complex sensing system. Moreover, low axial
strain sensitivity and three-dimensional feature of measured strains will
sometimes get the process of detection into trouble. whereas the excellent
character of high transverse sensitivity will bring the sensors more help
the location of impact.
Schematic of (a) in-line splice and (b) single-ended polarimetric sensor
2.4 Fibre optic sensor system or network
roundly inspect the damage in the smart composites, it is necessary that the
multiple strain value is measured and determined. As for how to achieve the
complex and multivariable measurements, mentioned fibre optic detection damage sensor
system (FODDAS) is able to provide such technique. According to a research (Culshaw
B,1985), A direct way to set a sensor network system is easily using enough
number of orthogonal arrays of intensity optical fibre at different ply
interfaces to form a composite structure. Consequently, it is possible that the
impact location, damage severity and distribution could be estimated as optical
fibre across the depth of the smart structures. An existing research (Rogers
A,1999) results showed a type of multiplexing technique called
quasi-distributed fibre optic sensor network system. As the Figure 6 shows, the
individual sensor in the network system can be posed into either series
topology (see Figure 6 (a)), parallel topology as fleshed out figure 6 (b) or a
combination of both as presented in figure 6 (c). Another idea which the
sensing location can be at any points along with the direction of the optical
fibre called fully distributed sensor network system. When the external load
causes the optical fibres change such as pressure or tensile in the extent of the
reflected signal, the mechanical strain will be detected by mentioned
multiplexing techniques. In general, this type of sensor network system is
considerable to provide guarantees in the further damage assessment and detection.
Schematic of multiplexed sensor system in (a) serial topology, (b) parallel
topology and (c) serial and parallel combined arrangement
2.5 Method of detecting
Damage usually exists in the form of three states,
such as matrix cracks, delamination and fracture of reinforced fibres. One of
the most straightforward methods of detecting damage is based on whether the
embedded sensing fibres are to fracture or not. In essence, fracture of optical
fibre approach is a reliable technique to inspect damage at present. For
example, matrix crack or fracture of reinforcing fibre could lead a part or
complete fracture, especially, of the nearby optical fibre. This feature is
very useful in some applications where it is possible to know whether the
composite is under sustained impacts above the thresholds (Martin A,1997).
Usually, the fibre does not have to fracture completely, whereas it suffers
some level of breaking after the impacts. In a sense, the broken fibre will
emit light because of the fracture, then the light can be detected by
monitoring devices. It is no denying to say that this approach can only fix
with one-time damage led by a transverse loading. However, the nature of this
method depends on the magnitudes of local normal stress, so there is no need to
concern about the quality of interfacial bonding between the fibre and host composite.
The distinct advantage is that it can be applied to the smart composite with
complex geometry and do not to be required to be in the all-time standby mode
so as to reduce the cost of monitoring devices.
So far, many efforts to improve the methods of
damage detection have been proposed and discussed. Although traditional approaches
to detect damage, such as visual inspection and thermography, are basic
techniques and pioneer in the area of damage detection, they still have the obvious
weak aspect which cannot be applied to detect such damage with complex
structural geometry. FODDAS is built in the structures of laminated composites and
is based on the embedded fibre optic strain sensors, achieving multiple strain
measurements. These sensors have been enhanced to the position where they have realised
capabilities to be the enable technique in the development of such network
systems. The core part of this technology has concentrated on detection of
damage caused by loading impacts embodied in a typical damage mode of matrix
crack. Moreover, FODDAS must be custom-built and have the specific structure not
only with many different types sensors or networks but also with assessment
models, further formulated for different application field. All in all, to make
a progress on the FODDAS and bring it to be a viable and practical technology,
more conclusive research and experiments must be carried in the near future.
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