According to Andrea Borini ‘womanhood is often defined through motherhood and childless women are always stigmatized leading to a wide of psycho-social consequences, loss of social status and security, isolation, neglect , domestic violence and abuse, marital instability, problems with gender instability, loss of continuity of family lines, general emotional distress and even suicide, CITATION And16 l 1033 (Borini, 2016). Geoffrey Sher et al goes on to tell us that ‘ in Africa 85% of women have an infertility diagnosis attributable to an infection and the type of mode of infection varies from country to country depending on social factors, health infrastructure , health care practices and environmental factors, iatrogenic causes of infertility have higher rates in developing countries representing approximately 15.5% of all causes in Africa, compared with 5% Western Europe’, CITATION Geo13 l 1033 (Sher, 2013).’The world’s first In Vitro baby was born in England in 1978, the word In Vitro means fertilization in a glass whereby the woman is given fertility drugs that stimulate her ovaries to produce as many mature eggs as possible and when ovaries have been properly stimulated, the eggs are retrieved by suction through a needle inserted into her ovaries, the harvested eggs are then fertilized in a petri dish in a laboratory with her partner or donor’s sperm, then the fertilized egg is transferred by a thin catheter through the woman’s vigina into her uterus where it is hoped they will grow into one or more healthy babies, CITATION Geo13 l 1033 (Sher, 2013) Geoffrey Sher goes on to say that ‘chances of a woman becoming pregnant with IVF are much greater compared to that of a fertile woman conceiving without treatment’, CITATION Geo13 l 1033 (Sher, 2013).
‘Ovulation Induction is used by women who are not ovulating or not ovulating regularly, it involves taking a hormone tablet or injection which stimulates the production of a follicle stimulating hormone and this encourages the development of one or more follicles’, CITATION Ame15 l 1033 (Medicine, 2015). When the follicles are large enough, another hormone is administered which releases the egg from the follicle and if the couple has intercourse around this time the chances are greatly increased, CITATION Ame15 l 1033 (Medicine, 2015).Artificial Insemination is used for women who have normal and healthy fallopian tubes but cannot conceive for unknown reasons, it can also be used when semen has been frozen due to a male partner’s absence or prior to cancer treatment, CITATION Ame15 l 1033 (Medicine, 2015).
The process involves insertion of a male partner’s semen through the female’s cervix and into the uterus just before ovulation, this is performed during a natural menstrual cycle in combination with ovulation induction if the woman has irregular menstrual cycles, CITATION Ame15 l 1033 (Medicine, 2015).Donor conception a donor sperm is used