According be emphasized rather than the forms of

According to Pica (2000) and Yule (1996) the last fifty years have witnessed a number of transitions in English language methodology, from grammar translation method which focused on explicit grammar and reading literature of the target language, to audiolingual method in which the emphasis was on listening and speaking, to communicative approaches which are all based on a view that the functions of language (what it is used for) should be emphasized rather than the forms of the language (correct grammatical or phonological structure). In respect of this point Richards (2006) pointed out that language learning was viewed as the mastery of grammatical knowledge and mechanical habit formation. Mistakes were minimized by memorizing dialogs and performing drills, so that errors were to be avoided through the spoken and written production.