April 9, 2018
Significance of maternal periodontal health in preeclampsia
DH311 Periodontics for the Dental Hygienist – Spring 2018
Systemic contributing factors are conditions or diseases that increase an individual’s susceptibility to periodontal disease by changing or increasing the host response to periodontal disease. Several systemic diseases or conditions are contributing factors in periodontitis. When local factors such as biofilm accumulation and/or calculus deposits are not evident, a diagnosis of a system condition or disease is the major contributing factor for periodontitis. Some system conditions or disease include: tobacco use, pregnancy, HIV/AIDS, Leukemia, Diabetes mellitus, and Down syndrome.
The article Significance of maternal periodontal health in preeclampsia is a case-control study to evaluate the association between maternal periodontitis and preeclampsia (K. Desai, P. Desai, Sa. Duseja, S. Duseja, Kumar, ; Mahendra (2015). Preeclampsia is a disorder that results from poor placental implantation during the first half of a women’s pregnancy (K. Desai et al., 2015). Preeclampsia and periodontitis are associated due to high levels of TNF-?, IL-10, and IL-6 that results in placental endothelial alterations (K. Desai et al., 2015). Their similar pathophysiology made the authors question if periodontal disease is a risk factor for preeclampsia (K. Desai et al., 2015).
The case-control study included an intraoral examination of 1,240 preeclamptic women ages 18-35 after 48 hours after delivering their child (K. Desai et al., 2015, p. 104). The exam included measurements of: bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal probing depths (PPD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL) (K. Desai et al., 2015). Gingival bleeding was recorded when bleeding occurred ten seconds after gentle probing; it indicates a positive score (K. Desai et al., 2015). Probing depths was recorded from the deepest depths of the six sites probed from each tooth (K. Desai et al., 2015). CAL was determined by the distance from the CEJ to the base of the sulcus (K. Desai et al., 2015). Maternal periodontitis was defined in this case-control study as PPD greater than four and CAL greater than 3 at the same area in at least four teeth (K. Desai et al., 2015). The women were divided into four groups: Group A consisted of a case group of 120 preeclamptic women, Group B consisted of a control group of 1,120 non-preeclamptic women, Group C consisted of 96 primiparous preeclamptic women from group A, and Group D consisted of 96 primiparous non-preeclamptic women from group B.
The results of maternal periodontal disease being a contributing factor of preeclampsia consisted of BOP, CAL, and PPD measurements from organized groups. Group A had a mean percentage BOP of 95.6 ± 14.4%, a mean PPD of 3.6 ± 0.9 mm, and a mean CAL of 3.9 ± mm (K. Desai et al., 2015, p. 105). Group B had a mean percentage 16.8 ± 30.2%, a mean PPD of 1.8 ± 0.74 mm, and a mean CAL of 1.9 ± 0.78 mm (K. Desai et al., 2015, p. 105). The results concluded that maternal periodontitis was found to be a systemic contributing factor affecting preeclampsia within all four groups (K. Desai et al., 2015). In the case-control study, “maternal periodontitis is associated with an elevated risk for preeclampsia” (K. Desai et al., 2015, p. 106). The pathogenesis is of both preeclampsia and periodontists is very similar to one another (K. Desai et al., 2015). Therefore, periodontal therapy and maintenance should be considered for reducing the risk of preeclampsia (K. Desai et al., 2015).
The article Significance of maternal periodontal health in preeclampsia was very interesting because of our continuous education on periodontal disease. As a dental hygienist, I can stress the importance of my patient’s periodontium health when considering having children or to my current pregnant patients. I can encourage periodontal therapy/maintenance to prevent and/or maintain periodontitis that may be increased by systemic contributing factors such as pregnancy. By providing patients with the education on their risk of periodontal disease due to systemic contributing factors, they can prevent the risks associated with periodontitis.
The authors of page are clearly identified at the beginning of the article directly below the article’s title. The authors credentials are stated on the article and are clearly credible to write on behalf of this topic. A corresponding author provided an email to be contact them and to verify its credibility. The article also has a scan code bar, a website, and a DOI number. The article’s purposes and objectives are clear. The primary purpose of the article is to provide information on the associated between periodontitis and preeclampsia. The article has a narrow range of information and it is clear about its focus on the topic. The article is part of a peer-reviewed journal called the Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry. The information provided throughout the article can be verified by an extensive bibliography. Based on my current knowledge on periodontal disease, the information seems credible. The article has no obvious mistakes, misspelled words, or any other signs of sloppiness throughout the article. The article was published March-April of 2015. The sources, scope, and statistics are clearly labeled throughout the article. The information was not excerpted from another larger piece. There are no photographic images that the article used or relied on. The article contained tables that displayed the results in an easy to read fashion. The article did not display a bias or perspective to the subject at hand. The article did not contain any inflammatory or provocative language. The article did not contain any advertising within itself. From thoroughly evaluating the article, I find the article to be a credible source.
Desai, K., Desai, P., Duseja, S., Kumar, S., Mahendra, J., Duseja, S. (2015). Significance of maternal periodontal health in preeclampsia. Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry, 5,103-107.