Ancient Egyptian society and Ancient Mesopotamian society are similar in that the were both highly developed complex societies for their time period.
However, their societies greatly differed in their political structure, methods of record keeping, and beliefs about the afterlife. All of these differences are a result of geography. Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia were both located in the Middle East, during the time period of early complex societies. At the beginning of the Neolithic Era, people transitioned from hunting to farming due to the climate change. This transition allowed for a much more steady food supply, which led to people migrating to the area, and populations increased, which led to the rise of complex societies.Ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian societies both had organized governments and definite social class systems.
They both had government leaders to make decisions for the people, prevent conflict, and maintain order. However, they differed in that Egypt had one central government, while Mesopotamia was organized into many separate city-states, and those city-states were often fighting with each other.