As defined by Daniel Lorenz andScot Morrison, periodization is the planned manipulation of training variables(load, sets, and repetitions) in order to maximize training adaptations and toprevent the onset of over-training syndrome. Under the umbrella ofperiodization, there are three different types which include linear,non-linear, and block periodization.
Linear periodization also known asthe “classic” periodization model is one that is based on changing exercisevolume and load across a three to four-month span (mesocycle). Through thismodel, there is a break down into recognizable blocks that are titled based ontimespans. This model is often utilized by rehabilitation procedures.
There arevarious potentially advantageous aspects of employing this specific approach.One of which is repetition and loading schemes are anticipated between theathlete and sports physical therapist. Additionally, this model secures thegradual advancement of strength, power, and speed. On the other hand, there arealso a considerable amount of probable drawbacks. One of which is the fact thatthe linear plan was primitively formulated for Olympic weightlifters preparingfor competitions annually. With that being the case, it would not be an optimaloption for those athletes that have a higher competition frequency. Another main type of periodizationis the non-linear periodization which is also known as the “undulating”periodization model. This particular model is solely based on the approach ofmore consistent revisions of volume and load ranging from daily, weekly, andbiweekly to grant the neuromuscular system greater spans of recovery as slightloads are executed more frequently.
Within the model itself, there are changesin stimuli that occur often and may be useful in gaining strength. Thenon-linear model is similar to that of the linear model in that it also has potentialdisadvantages. Its disadvantages are in reference to athletes that arerecovering because they may not be prepared for power development seeing as thenecessary strength has not been earned. Also the model may potentially hinderthe degree of development for components of performance. In comparison with thelinear model, the efficiency of the non-linear is definitively comparable.
Their similarities could feasibly be due to their like of short studies, andthe prior training history of their constituents. Additionally, current studiesfound that both the linear and non-linear models were considered inferior withfavorability being ambiguous. The final type of periodization is block periodizationwhich consists of highly concentrated, specialized workloads. Recently, thisparticular model has been the center of a revival of attraction. Blockperiodization is categorized as a stepwise program with hefty volumes ofexercises focused on clear-cut training abilities to augment adaptation.
Structurally,this approach is devised as three definite phases: the accumulation phase,transmutation phase, and realization phase. In the accumulation phase, workcapacity is built and exercises are at a greater volume compared to the otherphases for about a two to six-week period. During the transmutation phase,exercises are at higher loads. Lastly, the realization phase encompassesfurther distinctive movements than that of the prior phase. This model is different from othertraditional models, because it does not account for only single “peaks”annually.
In contrast with the linear model which elevates basic qualities, theblock model reduces those during the on-season for athletes and allows them tobe cultivated throughout the year. Also this model differs from the linear andnon-linear models, because it doesn’t necessarily allot focused time forendurance, strength, power, and speed if they are simply not necessary to theathlete’s sport regimen. Another difference is that this model is categorizedinto a two to four-week block period while the linear and non-linear have atleast four week phases.
In comparison to the linear model, there were nodifferences in upper and lower extremity power in trained athletes and theblock model was even deemed superior in some particular training situations.