Autism Spectrum Disorder is theterm used to describe a group of complex disorders of the development of thebrain (CDC 2014).
There are several types of autism that are derived fromdifferent environmental factors and genetic combinations. The most common typeis Autism Disorder. It is characterized by impaired speech and nonverbal communication,challenges with social skills, and repetitive behaviors. Asperger Syndrome ischaracterized by slighter symptoms of the Autism Disorder, including socialproblems and unusual behavior.
Unlikethe people with Autistic Disorder, individuals do not have any intellectualchallenges or trouble with language. Persuasive Developmental Disorder isdiagnosed to someone who has some symptoms of both Autism Disorder and AspergerSyndrome. They do not have all the symptoms and they could potentially haveonly challenges with communication and social skills. This disorder can usually be detectedduring the first three years of life. At the infant stage, a common behavior that may beexhibited are avoiding physical contact. Infants with autism are described aseither passive or excessively frantic babies. A passive baby is one who is oftenquiet who demands his or her parent very rarely. An excessively frantic baby isone who cries a lot, sometimes non-stop, while he or she is awake.
Sometimesthese children develop the habit of rocking back and forth. At the toddlerstage, they might have begun talking, crawling, and walking, much earlier than expected,or this gets considerably delayed. Autistic symptoms begin to develop somewherebetween 1 1/2 to 3 years of age. They are often referred to as having’regressive’ autism. During childhood, autistic children may have a delay inthe areas of communication, social skills, and cognition. They can be described as living in their ownworld and antisocial towards others (CHW). They avoid making eye-contact withothers as well. One third of the people with autism do not speak and one inevery 88 children gets diagnosed with autism.
There is no exact proven causeof autism. Scientist have identified many rare genetic mutations and researchhas identified more than 100 autism risk genes associated with autism. In about15% of the cases of autism diagnosis, a cause of gene can be identified. Inmost cases, there is a combination of environmental and biological factors,such as, genetic predisposition to the disability (Autism Speaks 2014).
Themost fluid proven evidence based on environmental factors, show events mayoccur before or during birth. Such environmental factors may include, bothparents being of mid to older age at the time of conception, during pregnancy,and during birth can have a major effect on the chance of a child getting autism.Advanced parental age at time of conception, maternal illness during pregnancy,severe prematurity, and very low birth weight are some of the factors that canaffect the onset of this disability. Increased levels of pesticides and airpollution exposure can upsurge the risk of getting autism as well. There is additionally proofthat the disorder might be caused by the failure of embryonic brain cells toexperience typical patterns of relocation amid early advancement, influencinglater cerebrum structure and wiring of nerve-cell circuits that control social,dialect, development, and different capabilities. A sex irregularity in thequantity of influenced children (four times a larger number of guys thanfemales) proposes the disorder may likewise be identified with fetalintroduction to anomalous, elevated amounts of testosterone in utero; aconsiderable lot of the attributes of autism are said to reflect malepsychological and behavioral inclinations, for example, orientation to detailas opposed to the big picture, empathy for things instead of social experience,accommodations for math and numbers, and even verbal impairment; mentally autisticchildren can gather an extensive vocabulary without having the capacity tomaintain a discussion.