Background to Smart contractsThe idea of Smart contracts was first developed by Nick Szabo in 1996. Szabo’s concept was to create protocols to transfer data using complex mathematical algorithms. These algorithms would automatically process transactions if certain conditions were met. The process would be a fully automated one. In 1996 the technology did not exist for the concept to be put into practice.In 2008 Bitcoin cryptocurrency came into existence and with it came blockchain technology which was a decentralized and distributed database. The blockchain could be used to create a distributed ledger. This platform could be used for the Smart contracts to be created and developed in.
A few years later the Ethereum platform appeared and this would make it possible for Smart contracts to be developed and used. Smart contracts were designed to be stored on the blockchain, be fully automated and could either replace or substitute traditional contracts. Program languages like C++, Python and Java amongst others can be used to design Smart contracts. The same rules that apply to any legal contract also applies to Smart contracts i.e. the same legal obligations, penalties and rules. Smart contracts also provide additional security, reduces considerable costs and streamlines the process associated with traditional contracts.