Bio-photovoltaic cell is a recently developed alternative technology which uses plant, fungi, moss and bacteria etc, to harness solar energy as a catalyst in the plant rhizosphere to generate electricity. This technology may possibly the method for electricity generation and makes an eco-friendly product and renewable fuels.
The bio-photovoltaic cell system is consists of biological material that produced electrons through the process of photosynthesis due to which many electrons undergo oxidation of water transfer in electrodes through complete circuits. These electrons are collected by using conductive electrodes which produces electricity. Hence, it is also known as bio-electrochemical device systems that converted to chemical energy into electrical energy that functions in a way similar to microbial fuel cell. The current review emphasizes on production of electricity through exploiting photosynthesis and the biological material that play a vital role production of electricity by using bio-photovoltaic cell with natural resources.Key-Words: bio-photovoltaic cell; bio-source of electricity; photosynthesis; electricity generation. 1. Introduction The demand for energy is increasing worldwide that causes energy crisis and environmental pollution too. Still, an estimate of over 67% of electricity is produced from coal, oil or natural gas (Ref).
Therefore, most of their researchers undergoing on harnessing electrical energy from renewable and sustainable sources like solar, wind, water, nuclear and biomass. In the present time world-wide electrical energy is obtained from nuclear reactors (13.4%), hydropower, wind (16.2%), solar and biomass (3.3%) 1. Bio-photovoltaic devices are the innovative framework for sustainable bio-electricity products. Due to rapid demand of fossil fuel for production of electrical energy, the sources are decreased and generate toxic compound that impact on environment. Therefore, the alternate mode of electricity production through bio-system which is new fast evolved field of science and technology especially for developing counties those faces the severe energy crisis 1-2.
The bio-photovoltaic device widely used for generation of electricity by using sunlight during the photosynthesis of plant (including cyanobacteria, algae, and vascular plants). The bio-photovoltaic is composed of several biological materials and consist of electrode that traps from the system produced electricity in circuit. This system also contain bacteria inside fuel cell decomposing bacteria that change waste material into organic matter present that help in production of electricity 3. From last few years, the bio-photovoltaic device concept has been systematically improved chief to the high demand for their electricity production through the biological photovoltaic system.
The bio-photovoltaic system is also known as microbial fuel cells or living solar cells 4. The bio-photovoltaic device was first developed by Bombelli and Driver in 2011 by using P. Patens for production of electricity 5, 6.1.1 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process used by plants, algae and other organisms to convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy that released to fuel. This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules such as sugar, which is synthesized from carbon dioxide and water in presence of chlorophyll, to make glucose and releases oxygen. A general equation for photosynthesis is given below: 5176CO2 + 12H2O + Photons C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O Photosynthesis reaction takes place through several steps which occur during two stages: a series of light-dependent reactions that are temperature-independent and a series of temperature-dependent reactions that are light independent.
The rate of first series, called the light reaction, can be increased by increasing light intensity but not by increasing temperature. In the second series, called the dark reaction, rate can be increased by increasing temperature but not by increasing light intensity Fig. 1.