There are various taxonomies that teachers use in the teaching and learning process one of them is Bloom’s taxonomy. Bloom’s taxonomy was proposed by the American educational psychologist Benjamin Bloom in 1956. Today we use bloom taxonomy because this taxonomy incites a mechanism to align educational objectives, curriculum and assessments that are used in educational institutions. Bloom’s taxonomy also helps in structuring the depth and breadth of activities according to the curriculum.
Domains of Bloom’s taxonomy:
There are 3 main domains of blooms taxonomy which are
• Cognitive domain
• Affective domain
• Psychomotor domain
Among these three domains, levels of cognitive domain are widely used in our schools.
Cognitive domain of bloom’s taxonomy has 6 main levels which are
Importance and application of bloom’s taxonomy:
A teacher needs proper planning of the content before teaching it to the students. For planning lessons, educators use different theories and taxonomies because taxonomies can help the educator to classify various educational objectives, skills and behaviors that teachers set for the learners. For this purpose, the teachers often used bloom taxonomy in their lesson planning because it helps them to apprehend the complexity of the learning process and assure that their lessons are multifarious and invigorate thinking at diverse levels. It is also used to ameliorate the cognitive abilities of the learners because the main purpose of teaching is not just asking students to memorize the data but also to comprehend and critically examine it. Basically bloom’s taxonomy follows the 2 thinking orders. One is lower order thinking and the other is higher order thinking and this continuum helps the instructor to continuously check the cognitive development of the student. In this way, the instructors can keep their focus in the right direction. Lower order thinking involves recalling the information and the higher order thinking involves the application, synthesis and critically examination of that information. When a learner learns the lower level skill than it helps in building the higher level skills which succor the pupil in the application of knowledge in corresponding situations. In this way, bloom’s taxonomy assists in prioritizing the content which facilitates the organization of material. It should be kept in mind by the teachers that while designing a lesson they should set clear and measurable goals because calculable learning outcomes aids in choosing the most felicitous technique of assessment. Bloom’s taxonomy plays a significant role in the classroom assessment. Teachers can use this taxonomy in developing the test items. It also helps in organizing the test items just like it helps in organizing the learning outcomes according to the different levels. Appropriate test items and testing technique is crucial for evaluating the student understanding of the concept. Like MCQs are appropriate for testing the lower order skills while long or essay type questions are more suitable for appraising the student higher order and evaluative thinking ability. We cannot assess a learner’s Urdu speaking proficiency with the written examination or critical analysis ability with fill in the blank test item, because it’s a wrong technique of assessment according to the outcome. So blooms taxonomy help in selecting the best technique for assessment. It also helps in developing test item with a balanced ratio among learning objectives.
For example in a class, a teacher spends more time on a topic which covers the analysis level of the bloom’s taxonomy. So while making a quiz, the ratio of questions from the analysis level will be relatively higher than others. For example a teacher teaches a topic he spends 10% time for knowledge level, 20% for comprehension, 20% application, 30% on analysis, 10% on synthesis and 10% on evaluation so while developing a test he can add more test items from analysis level and fewer items from other levels. In this way, bloom’s taxonomy helps in the development of an assessment test so that no taught level will be left.
Q No 2: What is differentiated learning? What is the importance of using this type of learning in the classroom?
Differentiated learning and its importance:
In the class, there are many students. They all come from different backgrounds holding different cultures and behaviors. They all have different strengths and weaknesses. They may possess different learning styles and have diverse potentials. They have different needs but when these students come in a traditional classroom the teacher takes all of them as they have the same capabilities and same needs. As consequence students cannot comprehend the concepts and face difficulty in learning which results in high dropout from the schools. The solution to this problem is differentiated learning. In this type of learning the teacher can assess the prior knowledge of students before teaching a new concept. He can understand the diverse needs of his students and plan his lesson accordingly to improve the learning process.
For example, in a class, a teacher is teaching statement problems in math. As different students have different abilities, some are good in math while others are considering it a tough subject. At this point, a teacher can use differentiated learning in class. The teacher can design complex activities for high achievers and simple activities for struggling learners so that they feel motivated. In this way, all the students learn.
There are 4 main elements of differentiated learning which are
• Learning environment
The main reason to stress on the implementation of differentiated learning in the class is that it provides flexibility in teaching-learning process and organizing the content according to the learning styles, needs and interests of the learners. Differentiated learning is important in the class because the teacher knows the strengths and weaknesses of his students so he plans his learning outcome and content which has variety and ability to cater the needs of the students. The nature of differentiated learning is student-centered because during instruction more focus is laid on the student understanding as same activities used in class may not be equally engaging and interesting for all students. In differentiated classroom, the instructor acts as a facilitator, students and teachers construct knowledge by mutual collaboration. When information is presented in students’ preferred style, they take ownership of their own learning which has a positive impact on their academics. Differentiated learning is important in the class because it helps the gifted and struggling students according to their abilities and assists them to reach at their full potential. Teachers can also handle class disruptions and discipline issues with differentiated learning. Class disruptions occur when the students are not involved in the learning process and take learning a boring thing so differentiated learning aids in resolving the interruptions and distractions problems.
So it is concluded that there is a need of implication of differentiated learning in our schools because the traditional method of teaching is no longer effective. Now it’s time to teach students with a different methodology which makes learning interesting and enjoyable for students and cater all their needs. We need a teaching method where no one feel neglected and this could only be possible by the implementation of differentiated learning in educational institutions.