Caffeine substance. However, FDA specifies that the maximum amount

Caffeine is a naturally arising alkaloid which is found in
the leaves, seeds and fruits of over 63 plants species worldwide. It is an
alkaloid of methylxanthine family. The methylxanthines caffeine
(1,3,7-trimethyxanthine), theobromine (3,7- dimethylxanthine), and theophylline
(1,3-dimethylxanthine) can be usually found in tea leaves, cola nuts, coffee
beans, cocoa beans,  mate leaves and
other kinds of plants. While coffee and tea beverages naturally contain
caffeine and other methylxanthines, Caffeine aids as an ingredient in many
carbonated soft drinks including colas, pepper-type beverages, and citrus
beverages. Pure caffeine occurs as odorless, white, fleecy masses, glistening
needles of powder. Its molecular weight is 194.19g, melting point is 236°C,
point at which caffeine sublimes is 178°C at atmospheric pressure, pH is 6.9
(1% solution), specific gravity is 1.2, volatility is 0.5%, vapor pressure is
760mmHg at 178°C, solubility in water is 2.17%, vapor density 6.7.Caffeine has
drawn more attention in the past decades due to its physiological effects
beyond that of its stimulatory effect. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
defines caffeine as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance. However,
FDA specifies that the maximum amount in carbonated beverages is limited to
0.02% (FDA 2006). Therefore, the highest legal amount of caffeine allowed in a
355 mL (12oz) can of soft drink is about 71mg. Caffeine has attracted the
interest of consumers and health professionals alike due to its wide
consumption in the diet by a large percentage of the population and its
pharmacological effects in humans (Mandel 2002). Its physiological effects on
many body systems have been informed by researchers, containing the central
nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and renal systems
(Nehliget al 1992). The International Olympic Committee (IOC) defined caffeine
as a drug and abuse is indicated when athletes have urine caffeine
concentrations higher than 12?g/mL.