Capstone Group Name: CRIME ANTICIPATERS
Project Name: Surveillance Cameras & DNA Phenotyping
Name Student Number Name Student Number
1. Kondlo Z 21812517 6. Zwane NP 21818346
2. Buthelezi MK 21813721 7. Irusan CJ 21818957
3. Samithan A 21815231 8. Moss RG 21820140
4. Jagarath J 21816376 9. Mngomezulu GN 21820915
5. Dhubow AA 21817462 10. Ndawonde KN 21822203
TOC o “1-3” h z u Introduction: PAGEREF _Toc514621713 h 3What is crime? PAGEREF _Toc514621714 h 3What is the solution that can help people and the country to limit crime? PAGEREF _Toc514621715 h 6Why do we need protection so much? PAGEREF _Toc514621716 h 8Background information about our solution PAGEREF _Toc514621717 h 10What are we currently facing without protection around our country and in the world? PAGEREF _Toc514621718 h 11Murder PAGEREF _Toc514621719 h 11Statistics PAGEREF _Toc514621720 h 11Assault PAGEREF _Toc514621721 h 12Statistics PAGEREF _Toc514621722 h 12ROBBERY PAGEREF _Toc514621723 h 13Statistics PAGEREF _Toc514621724 h 13The benefits of surveillance cameras in public places PAGEREF _Toc514621725 h 14HOW SURE ARE WE THAT OUR SOLUTION CAN BRING GOOD IMPACT? PAGEREF _Toc514621726 h 15SURVEILLANCE CAMERAS PAGEREF _Toc514621727 h 15DNA PHENOTYPING PAGEREF _Toc514621728 h 17What has our solution done in the past that we can say it is protective? PAGEREF _Toc514621729 h 19Advantages and disadvantages of using Surveillance cameras in public. PAGEREF _Toc514621730 h 20References PAGEREF _Toc514621731 h 23
Introduction:What is crime?A crime is an unlawful act that is punishable by the law. Crime can be harmful not only to a single individual but to a community or state. Some crimes can be petty, such as speeding; while there are major crimes such as theft. Laws are put in place to prevent crime from taking place while penalties are established to punish criminal offenders. However, laws in every country may differ from each other.
Here are a few examples of criminal activity:
Trafficking of illegal goods
When so much crime occurs, people enter a mental state where they can become consumed with foreboding, qualm, apprehension, consternation, dismay, dread, terror, fright, panic, horror and trepidation.
Despite laws, security and local and state authority, crime remains to be a major problem for many (if not all) nations.
Different crimes will be feared depending on the country that you live in. The following is the top 10 feared crimes in South Africa based on a crime survey from 2014/15.
Livestock Theft – The tenth most feared crime with a percentage of 15.9% of household votes
Vehicle Hijacking – Vehicles are hijacked based on the location (places where hijacking often occurs) and vehicles that are easy to target. It is the ninth most feared crime
Business Robbery – Regarded as the eighth most feared crime due to 17.5% of household votes.
Assault – Regarded as offensive contact with an individual, it is the seventh most feared crime in South Africa
Pickpocketing/Bag snatching – There is a chance where someone is following you, waiting to grab your possessions and slip away unnoticed. The sixth most feared crime in South Africa
Sexual Assault – This is a very alarming issue in South Africa. Surprisingly, it is only the fifth feared crime with a percentage of 30.7%
Murder – The murder rate in South Africa is extremely high. In fact, South Africa is part of the top 10 countries with the highest murder rates in the world, and the murder rate is increasing further. Yet there are more feared crimes as murder is only the fourth feared crime.
Street Robbery – The third most feared crime. Street robbery can be associated with murder which explains its higher ranking than murder
Home Robbery – The second most feared crime. Not only can home robbery be associated with murder, but with assault and rape as well.
House Breaking/Burglary – The most feared crime in South Africa. It is also the most common crime in South Africa.
As shown above, these are the most feared crimes, but not the most common. Besides street robbery, house robbery, and house burglary (which are the three most common crimes), communities focus on various crimes due to fear of it occurring instead of the potential threat that it possesses.
Crime needs to be prevented In order for individuals all over the world to feel safer. Preventing crime can prevent physical and emotional trauma, including any financial struggle caused by theft or vandalism.
Technology, including computers, is evolving in a rapid state. Computers serve a function in almost every task that we perform and can also be used to prevent, disrupt criminal activity or alert authorities of crimes that are taking place.
What is the solution that can help people and the country to limit crime?Technological advances will continue to enhance our ability to monitor public spaces. By extension, technology will continue to aid efforts to prevent crime and apprehend criminals.
We should have surveillance cameras in public places because they ensure public safety. Rarely will anyone attempt to harm you when they know their actions are being recorded on camera. Cameras keep you and your personal property safe.The police can identify criminals recorded with cameras. Through surveillance cameras, the police can both prevent crimes from happening and can quickly solve criminal cases with material evidence.
in addition, surveillance cameras protect against property theft, and vandalism. It is very difficult to get away with stealing something if there are cameras filming you. Therefore, the thief will often get caught. Surveillance cameras will catch the thief before, or during the process of committing the crime.
If no one is aware of the crime until after it has been committed, the surveillance footage is always a crucial piece of evidence during a police investigation. Surveillance cameras have, and will prevent many crimes.
Some people may say that we should not have surveillance cameras in public places. They claim that they invade privacy. That is false. Why be out in public if you want privacy? Just stay at home. Surveillance cameras are meant to keep you and other property safe, not to stalk you. Cameras are there not to invade a person’s privacy but to protect the public by deterring criminal activity and by providing material evidence when a crime has been caught on film.
Criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the area if they know they’re going to be being filmed the whole time. Things like shoplifting hardly seem worth it when pitted against the possibility of going to jail.
We should have surveillance cameras.
Having cameras in public places make people feel safe. If people know that there are cameras around them, they will most likely not do anything stupid! People feel safer in the knowledge that a potential mugger or attacker will be put-off by the presence of a camera.
Cameras, through video analytics, now have the ability to zoom in to reveal someone’s identity which can be beneficial to crime prevention when used in the correct way. The criminal can be apprehended quickly. Especially in abduction cases a video would be a great way of tracking down a person quickly and maybe preventing a death!
One of the benefits of this technology is a significant reduction of the suspect pool which can save time, money and manpower.
Simply stated, DNA phenotyping predicts the physical appearance of an unknown person from their DNA. This technology helps to generate investigative leads; narrows the suspect list or assists when there are no suspects or database hits; and assists with mass casualty situations and identifying unknown remains. Companies committing resources to developing this technology utilize a number of different approaches.
Why do we need protection so much? Crime has taken over the world and preventing it from happening requires an active mind and body. It means paying attention to your instincts, to other people, and your surroundings. It means constantly training your brains and limbs to act defensively. It is more than just a few martial art moves, it is a way of life. The statistics of crime are horrifying. More than 800 children were murdered in the year 2012, it doesn’t end there 21 575 were assaulted in that very same year 2266 women were killed, and 141,130 women were victims of attempted murder, assault, and common assault. This is to name just a few. Protection is needed so much because of these factors:
Inequality before the law
No easy solutions
No respect for the law
Inequality before the law
Something is happening around the world, the principle of inequality before the law is being dumped. Law has become a friend of a few wealthy people and an enemy to many poor people. Prosecutors shy away from charging the rich and if they are charged they are given light sentences. The people who are somehow more equal than the others get the best of everything, best lawyers, and delay any judicial proceedings. If by chance they are charged they build luxuries within prison walls and live comfortably while the poor are in hellholes. The rich enjoy immunity while the poor gets harsh treatment by the law. (George Monbit: Guardian: 19 November 1998.).
No easy solutions and Lack of respect for the law
South Africa’s attitude towards the law is shown in different ways which may be seen or considered to be small but it is the little things that lead to no respect for the law and solving these problems becomes a challenge. A high number of people who drive under the influence of alcohol, who don’t wear seatbelts, teachers who still beat children even though it was banned, traffic officers, judges and prosecutors who break the law by taking bribes even if not necessary, drivers who ignore traffic lights the list goes on and on. It is difficult to slow down crime when there’s no respect for it. Yes the law has failed many and is considered funny and some may say that it is nothing more than words on a piece of paper, some follow it and some do not after all humans are born with free will. Without law there would be chaos millions of murders would be reported daily and no one would be charged. We choose not to live like that and that is why we must live under rules and regulations, we choose to follow the law. There will be always people who won’t follow the law, which in turn leads to a high increase of crime, and for them, we’ll let the police, prosecutors and the law deal with them whether it’s fair or unfair.
Background information about our solutionThe mean reason why we had to move forward and investigate more about crime is that we wanted to introduce some well-known technology to decrease the rate of crime in the country, therefore, we as a group we had to deeply investigate want is need around the world that can change people’s lives for the better so that each person can feel safe and can be able to survive each day.
So we came up with Surveillance cameras which are the monitoring of behavior, activities, and managing, directing or protecting people.
It also includes an observation from a distance by means of electronic equipment such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras or interception of electronically transmitted information such as internet traffic or phone calls. It also includes face recognition at face. By using this type of technology around the world it can decrease the rate of crime because they are used by governments for intelligence gathering, prevention of crime, the protection of a process and group or object.
By using this technology we will be able to see criminals planning robbery, kidnapping and also murder that is done on streets or just around the area.
It may happen that surveillance cameras will not be able to capture the criminal clearly that is where we introduce our second solution that can back up surveillance cameras which is DNA PHENOTYPING that is able to predict organisms by using genetic information collected from genotyping or DNA sequencing. This can be helpful as it is able to keep track of the victim’s blood and by using it will be able to show and identify who the person is.
No matter how old the blood is by using this solution if it happens that surveillance cameras fail it can be able to predict a person’s physical appearance or biogeographic ancestry for forensic purposes. By introducing these solutions to the country will protect us individually and also drop the crime rate. Not only will it reduce the rate of crime but also fraud included and other scrams that are done when people are not around.
What are we currently facing without protection around our country and in the world?In my area, most crimes go unsolved due to lack of evidence. People get murdered in broad daylight and people get away with it because no one can be able to identify their faces and in the scene of the crime no evidence can be found so the case will be closed in several months and the person who did the crime will escape justice. A big number of crimes take place in South Africa and in most of them, no one gets arrested for doing the crime. Even the UN statistics show that South Africa was once in the top 2 when it comes to Drugs and crime in 60 countries’ that were present in the analysis. These are the most common crimes in South Africa at this moment.
MurderIn 2016/17, the police recorded a total of 19,016 murders, up from 18,673 murders in 2015/16. The murder rate increased marginally from 34 to 34.1 per 100,000 people. The Eastern Cape Province had the highest murder rate at 55.9 per 100,000 people.
StatisticsMurder rates in South Africa’s provincesthe ‘murder rate’ refers to the number of people that were murdered per 100,000 people in the province. It allows for an accurate assessment of risk because the different population sizes are taken into account.
AssaultThe Institute for Security Studies cautions that these statistics may not reflect reality: “Police statistics for assault are notoriously unreliable because most victims don’t report these crimes to the police. Since the victim and perpetrator may be related (such as in a case of domestic violence) victims are often reluctant to disclose assault.” Most of the time even if the victim pressed charges the case won’t have evidence due to lack of DNA profiling or video from surveillance cameras that must be around cities.
StatisticsIn 2016/17, 156,450 common assaults were recorded. On average, 428.6 people were victims of common assault every day.The assault rate decreased from 301.1 per 100,000 people to 280.2 in 2016/17.
ROBBERYMost of the time people don’t go to the police because the is nothing police can do about the problem. Most of the robberies take place in towns and other people will just look at you while you are being robbed. Most of the robberies that take place in our communities are not reported to the police and those people will continue robing kids and women. And when the community had enough they will beat the person to dearth and that will be a crime on its own.
StatisticsIn 2016/17, 140,956 robberies with aggravating circumstances were recorded. This is a 6.4% increase from 2015/16.The robbery with aggravating circumstances rate increased from 241.1 in 2015/16 to 252.4 in 2016/17.On average, 386.2 robberies with aggravating circumstances were recorded each day.
The benefits of surveillance cameras in public placesHaving surveillance cameras in public places will not only ensure public safety but also impose fear in public offenders because they would know that their actions are being monitored by a camera. Through surveillance cameras, the law enforcement can rapidly respond to the crime scene and prevent more crimes from occurring, and can also quickly solve criminal cases with material solid evidence. Furthermore, surveillance cameras protect against property theft and vandalism. It will be very difficult to get away with a crime if there are cameras filming you. Therefore, the criminals will often get caught and will think twice about committing a crime. Surveillance cameras will catch the culprit before, or during the process of committing the crime.
Employing cameras in public places will definitely make people feel safer. If people know that there are cameras around them, there will be fewer chances of them doing something that opposes the law. People will feel much safer knowing that a potential mugger or attacker will be put-off by the presence of surveillance cameras. Cameras, through video analytics, now have the ability to zoom in to reveal someone’s identity which can be beneficial to crime prevention when used in the correct way. The criminal can be apprehended quickly. Especially in kidnapping cases, a video would be a great way of tracking down a person quickly and perhaps preventing death. If no one is aware of the crime until after it has been committed, the surveillance footage can be a crucial piece of evidence during a police investigation. In countries that have already adopted this system, surveillance cameras have and will continue to prevent many criminal activities.
Some people may say that we should not have surveillance cameras in public places. They claim that they invade privacy. That is false. Why be out in public if you want privacy when you could just stay at home? Surveillance cameras are meant to keep people and other property safe, not to stalk them. Cameras are there not to invade a person’s privacy but to protect the public by deterring criminal activity and by providing material evidence when a crime has been caught on film. Criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the area if they know they are being filmed the whole time. Petty crimes like shoplifting will hardly seem worth it when pitted against the possibility of going to jail.
HOW SURE ARE WE THAT OUR SOLUTION CAN BRING GOOD IMPACT?SURVEILLANCE CAMERASOur (CRIME ANTICIPATERS) surveillance camera’s set to act as a 24/7 truthful caretaker regardless of is it a holiday, is it cold or hot or any other relatable occasion regarding human or humans’ belongings safekeeping. Our quality displays every diminutive movement caught in the act with clear descriptions enough to catch a thief.
All eyes on you, everywhere you go.
By this instant, there are probably several eyes on you. If you are reading this research in a public place, a surveillance camera might be capturing your actions and even see you enter your login information and password, that’s of course not our intentions or aim as surveillance cannot determine when to capture and when not to capture. Remember, we protect 24/7, suffice to say, being watched is part of life today. This leads to a good public safety regardless of violating human privacy in any way. We all have varying opinions on how we feel about this persistent surveillance. Being watched feels disturbing, but if surveillance is in a public place, others are being watched too, with potential safety that benefits for all of us.
We are regularly watched by lifesavers at a beach or pool, paramedics, firefighters etc., and the benefits are often comforting. So, while it may be easy to claim you don’t like being watched, it is sometimes the case that you want someone watching over you. Hence being watched by the cameras should not be deemed as a violation of human privacy.
Security cameras are proliferating throughout our daily lives.
Our governments and industry leaders hide their cameras confidential in roofs, ceiling, of wine-dark cloudiness, so we can’t see which way the camera is looking, or even if there is a camera in the dome at all.
These cameras will be surrounded by a certain amount of voltage enough to keep thieves away from them.
DNA PHENOTYPINGOur team is determined to diminish if not terminating any sort of crime that is seemed trendy in our country (South Africa) and the world as a whole. As we all know that some thieves think they are intelligent, they might try to trigger our surveillance cameras, if they transpire to be successful in triggering them, our alternative method (DNA PHENOTYPING) will be brought into place.
By DNA samples that are found in the scene, there is no way someone can deny the match of his or her DNA code. This will bring assurance that every sort of DNA evidence found, it leads straight to our suspect.
Photo from forensicmag
This is said to be 75% accuracy, and this adds to our surety as one of the solutions we chose. Our team is certainly sure that with these solutions, our society, homesteads, companies etc. will be saved from constant growing crime rate.
What has our solution done in the past that we can say it is protective?Our solution of using surveillance cameras and DNA Phenotyping to eradicate crime from the world is quite a complex process. On one hand, people have been using surveillance cameras for several years to catch the perpetrators, but on the other hand, DNA Phenotyping is a relatively new process, because scientists have only recently developed the proper technology to perform the act of developing the face of a person through their DNA. There were several previous cases that were gone “cold”, due to the lack of evidence, but all thanks to the DNA Phenotyping process, those cases were solved.
In 2009, Sierra Bouzigard was found brutally murdered and her lifeless corpse was left on a road. After a few attempts by the Louisiana Police Department to find the murderer, the case went cold due to a lack of evidence, but in 2015, Parabon Nanolabs used the DNA found at the crime scene, to test their new method of DNA Phenotyping, and they were shocked. The process turned out a success, the DNA Phenotyping process developed a face of a man, and the Police Department declared a fugitive hunt for this person, then a few weeks later the Louisiana Police Department arrested Blake A. Russell, and he was found guilty of murdering Sierra Bouzigard 7 years prior. (KPLC. 2017).
Thanks to DNA Phenotyping, we have solved cases that we would have never been able to solve, and these criminals would have gotten off Scott-free, and the families of these victims will have to suffer for the rest of their lives without closure. DNA Phenotyping is a very high-tech process, and it does not come at a cheap price, but there is also another alternative, that could identify a criminal, and that alternative is to install surveillance cameras at an important place, to ensure that the criminal is identified if a crime had to be committed there. Surveillance Cameras can catch a criminal in the act, and everything will be recorded on tape, so you can review the tape and look for more evidence.
The best way to set up surveillance cameras is to hide them from the public eye, so the potential criminals would not be able to spot where the camera is and try to go out of the camera’s line of sight and commit a crime. With surveillance cameras, we can also employ someone to watch the video feed of those cameras, and try to spot any suspicious activity going on, and either report it to their boss or report it straight to the authorities. As technology continues to enhance itself, so will our ability to apprehend criminals, and it will be much easier to identify the guilty parties and make them pay for their wrongdoings (La Vigne, N. 2013).
Advantages and disadvantages of using Surveillance cameras in public.Technology is a two-way street. Whilst technology has several benefits for us, it can also be used to cause trouble. The majority of us reap its advantages, but a few with vested interests continue to abuse it and make our lives miserable. But just like other inventions, surveillance cameras have a few drawbacks as well. The advantages, however, outnumber the disadvantages, and this revolutionary equipment continues to be popular in many countries that are serious about keeping the public and its assets safe and secure.
Improve Public Safety
When we install a home security camera, we gain increased house safety. Just like that, the main benefit of surveillance cameras in public spaces is also the increase of public safety. Public surveillance cameras help you stay safe while clubbing, shopping, and traveling. Cameras can be used as a way to keep an eye out for any crimes that are being committed. Panoramic fisheye security cameras put in public spaces, like a crossroad, a retail store, parking lots, museums, concert halls, do an excellent job in providing 360 degrees seamless surveillance solutions. If a suspicious individual or individuals or items are seen in an area, the appropriate authorities can be contacted to move into the area before any damage is done or any crime is committed
Reduction of crime in public areas
Placing cameras in public spaces will help prevent crimes from being committed, and if an individual acknowledges the presence of surveillance cameras in a certain area, they may be less tempted to commit a crime near the location for the fear of being caught.
Provide Evidence and Gather Clues
Any footage that is on a surveillance camera that captures a crime being committed can be used in a court of law as evidence against the accused. In some cases, if there were no footage there would be little or no evidence to convict the person of the crime and the individual may go free. Those night vision security cameras feature the good and long range of night vision so that robbers can be recognized even if they commit a crime in dark areas. Also in some cases, the video surveillance footage can also help prove someone’s innocence if they have been accused of a crime that they did not commit.
In good, you can also bad, just as there are advantages there are also disadvantages.
Violate Privacy Rights the cameras monitor every move that you make which creates a complete picture of a person’s life, thus hindering the person’s privacy. We all have a private which we like not anyone or the government to know.
Can be easily abused
The information gathered by the surveillance system can be misused to blackmail people and also cyber mischiefs can hack into the system and use it to spy on women, voyeurism.
As much as effective as it may be, the price of setting it up is way too high. Considering the fact that the people might try to vandalize the cameras.
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