Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Quality and fresh foods are good source of nutrients

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Quality and fresh foods are good source of nutrients, but there are negatives involved with choosing fresh as well, such as foods that are more expensive and have a shorter shelf life. However, the biggest downfall to eating mass-produced foods are the process and chemicals used to preserve them.
Egg is one of the basic food we eat on our daily lives. It is one of the most important ingredient in several kinds of cooking like baking and pasta. It has full of nutrients that good to our health because it contains essential of all vitamins. Eggs are also a good source of minerals like iron, phosphorous, choline, and protein which the human body needs.
Fresh eggs are highly unprotected to microbial growth in a short span of time. And because the bacteria can enter the egg easily, it will rotten as fast as the day goes by. The more time the unprotected egg is expose, the more chances the egg can have a bacteria to grow inside. One of the bacteria that can grow inside the egg is the salmonella. Salmonella is a bacteria, an infection that can be transfer to individuals by eating foods that are contaminated. Contaminated foods are often gets from the animal origin such as poultry, pork, beef, poultry milk, eggs, and all foods including vegetables may become contaminated.
One of the major problem that the poultry farmers avoid is that having over stock of eggs. Over stock eggs tend to be rotten soon. To avoid having rotten eggs, the poultry farmers sell it in a low cost to the retailers and this will have a huge effect in the business. Big amount of profit can be loss if this will happen in every time they give the eggs in low cost price.
One factor of over stacking of egg is the increase in supply and decrease in demand. In 2013 Egg Consumption Per Capita in the Philippines reached 4.02 kg. That is 0.248% less than in the previous year. Philippines has been ranked 105th within the group of 161 countries we follow in terms of egg consumption per capita (Egg Consumption Per Capita in Philippines, n.d.). While chicken egg production in the Philippines continue to grow with its latest increase of 7.94% in 2018.
CALABARZON remains the highest producing region with production of 38. 37 thousand metric tons (Chicken Egg Situation Report, 2018). While as of July 1, 2016, layer farms had the most number of chicken in CALABARZON, with 48 percent of total chicken inventory, followed by broiler and native farms with 39 percent and 13 percent respectively (Perido, 2016).
Preservation is a good solution in this problem. Prolonging the shelf life of eggs with the used of ultrasound helps the poultry farmers to maintain the good quality of eggs. Eggs that stored in the refrigerator can only stay longer in four to five weeks. If not stored in the refrigerator, it only stay long in just 7 to 10 days. The problem in storing the freshness of eggs in refrigerator is that it must maintain its temperature before to eat or use it. To maintain the good quality of eggs without maintaining its temperature is using ultrasonic treatment. Ultrasonic treatment is used to expand the properties of the egg. It expands the sensory properties of egg shells. Also, using ultrasonic treatment it can decrease the content of bad bacteria which is salmonella that can cause food poisoning.
Novel preservation technologies are an interesting option to produce high quality of food products with an extended shelf life including ultrasound. Ultrasound is an emerging technique that could be alternative to existing thermal processing techniques and traditional food processing methods. Application of ultrasonic method in food processing has widely attracted attentions in recent years ultrasonic treatment is one of these emerging techniques that could be the alternative to existing thermal processing techniques. This is based on the transmission of ultrasonic waves (20 to 100 kHz frequency) through a medium. This is used to minimize processing, maximize quality and ensure the safety of food products. It can preserve the internal freshness of eggs by sealing pores and thus reducing the mass transfer of gas and moisture (Yuceer & Caner, 2018).

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THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Food preservation is one of the most useful thing to do in maintaining the quality of food. In this process, the food will be able to extend its quality and shelf life for longer. By preserving food, it can also improve its textures and flavors that possible depending on how to prepare it. Civilization has been dependent on the way humans have been able to master food preservation (Neil, 2017). Prolonging the shelf life of foods helps the people to create and develop another kind of foods. There are several forms of preserving foods like mixing with chemicals, irradiation, maintaining the low temperature; refrigeration and freezing, high temperature; pasteurization, canning, smoking, and dehydration. There two techniques of preservation: Bacteriostatic that does not allow microbes to grow in numbers by creating adverse condition like changes in PH, removal of moisture, use of natural preservative and use of chemical preservative. Bactericidal cause damage to microbes. It kills and destroys the microbes. It is use of high temperatures, low temperatures or irradiation (Sawant, n.d.). Nowadays, the development of food processing is getting easier and much better with support of the technology.
Ultrasonic is the vibrations of frequencies greater than the upper limit of the audible range for humans that is higher than 20 kilohertz. It has ultrasound waves of very high amplitudes. Sound waves of frequencies greater than 1013 Hertz. There are various use of ultrasonic treatment such as in medicine, industry, and also in food preservation. Ultrasonication is one of the new, fast, and emerging green technology in the field of food science and technology. Ultrasound is use in different areas of food technology like crystallization, freezing, bleaching, degassing, extraction, drying, filtration, emulsification, sterilization, cutting and many more. It also an effective preservation instrument in many food processing foods such as in fruits, cereal products, water treatment, etc. (Ishrat Majid, 2015). Ultrasonic method is one among those rapidly developing techniques that were devised to minimize processing, enhance quality, and safeguard the safety of food products (Dietrich Knorr, n.d.).
Ultrasound offers a net advantage in term productivity, yield and selectivity, with better processing time, enhanced quality, reduced chemical and physical hazards, and is environmentally friendly. Food products, such as fruit and vegetables, fat and oils, dairy, and meat are complex mixtures of vitamins, sugars, proteins and lipids, fibers, aromas, pigments, antioxidants, and other organic and mineral compounds. Before these products go to markets, they have to be processed and preserved for food ready meals and extracted for food ingredients. (Chemat, Zill-e-Huma, & Khan, 2011)
Theory of microcontroller. Microcontroller is a compact integrated circuit design to govern a specific operation in an embedded system. It includes a processor, memory and input/output peripherals on a single chip. It is usually found in vehicles, robots, office machines and home appliances among other devices. A microprocessor’s processor will vary by application. Options range from the simple 4-bit, 8-bit, or 16-bit processors to more complex 32-bit or 64-bit processors. In terms of memory, it can be use random access memory, flash memory, EPROM or EEPROM (Shea ; Rouse, 2017). The application used to program the microcontroller is the Arduino. Arduino is a microcontroller that can be used to control other objects with its temperature or speed. This microcontroller have its own software which is the Arduino IDE that enable to program the ideal work in controlling the object. Arduino is an application use to set a program inputted to the device. It is a programmable logic controller. It has a hardware that is connected to the laptop to set or to test a program.
These theories were related to the study of Prolonging the Shelf Life of Eggs Using Ultrasonic Treatment for it has a concept that should be constructed and intended for the design to combine the study to work. It also gives the proponents the idea to consider the aspects regarding the design. These are significant since the purpose of the study is to prolong the shelf life of eggs without considering the temperature or mixing other chemicals to it.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Conceptual framework that lead this study was depicted in the form of a research paradigm. It shows the input, process and output of the study.

Frame 1 shows the input variables of the conceptual framework of the study which are the factors to consider in constructing the project of Prolonging the Shelf Life of Eggs Using Ultrasonic Treatment in knowledge, hardware and software requirement.
Frame 2 shows the process done such as conceptualization, data gathering, canvassing of materials, construction, testing and assembly, evaluation and finishing after the input of the conceptual framework of the study which is the construction of the project of Prolonging the Shelf Life of Eggs Using Ultrasonic Treatment.
Frame 3 shows the output of the conceptual framework of the study which is the project of Prolonging the Shelf Life of Eggs Using Ultrasonic Treatment.

Objectives of the Study
To design and construct a machine that will be used in Prolonging the Shelf Life of Eggs Using Ultrasonic Treatment.
Specific objectives:
1. To determine and identify the materials and technology needed to design and construct a machine that will Prolong the Shelf Life of Eggs Using Ultrasonic Treatment that will satisfy the standard requirements
2. To evaluate the viability of ultrasonic treatment on commercially available eggs.

Significance of the Study
This research aims to prolong the shelf life of eggs using Ultrasonic treatment. The findings of this study will be a great contribution to agriculture and to as follows:

Egg Producers. This research will be a great beneficial to the egg producers. With this study, they may improve the production and maintain the quality of eggs they are producing. The poultry farmers may use this research for controlling the possible sales of the poultry.

Consumers. This study may ensure the health of consumers by having a good quality of eggs that they consume every day.

Agricultural Significance. Mass production of eggs belongs to agriculture. Conducting this research will contribute to the development in agriculture and other related matters.

Researchers. With this study, the researchers are able to fulfill the requirements needed in their course taken. They also acquired knowledge regarding this study that might help them in future circumstances.

Future Researchers. This study may be a guide and acts as a reference for students and future researchers who will conduct the same studies. The study may provide background and overview to those who are collecting data related to this research.

Scope and Limitation
The research does not include everything about poultry farming. It focuses mainly on egg production and the possible solution on the challenges in maintaining the quality of eggs before consumption.
The project have the capability to provide ultrasonic treatment that can be used to prolong the shelf life of commercially available eggs. It can accommodate as many eggs as it can based on its design and the project can be easily manipulated by the poultry farmers. However, the ultrasonic treatment is not applicable on fertilized eggs and eggs with cracks since it is more vulnerable to bacteria.

Operational Definition
Ultrasonic. A treatment used to restore the nutrients of the eggs and maintain its quality that results in prolonging the shelf life of eggs. It is a frequency that has a certain value for about above 20 kHz to 100 kHz.

AC Supply. A form of electricity needed in the entire operation of Prolonging the Shelf Life of Eggs Using Ultrasonic Treatment. It will act as the strength of the device. With this, the machine are able to start its process and make the system working.

DC Motor. A medium that will make the ultrasonic to be distributed equally in all eggs that are being treated. It rotates in the whole process of treatment to ensure that the eggs are treated fairly.

Arduino. Microcontroller used in integrating the ultrasonic treatment with the DC Motor.

Arduino IDE. A type of programming that will follow all the instructions and serves as the brain of the machine. It is set in a certain command by the user according to its operation.

PCB Circuit and Design. It is where the components, big or small are being connected. By having this, the device are able to attach its constituents with one another. It acts as the functional unit of the machine.

Time. Used to determine how long the process will take to fully treat all the eggs. It is a unit required for the completion of whole operation.