PAKISTAN-INDIA RELATIONS IN
MUSHARRAF ERA (1999-2008)
4.1 India Pakistan Relations in Musharraf Era
On October 12, 1999, Pakistan’s army chief General Pervez Musharraf dismissed the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif’s democratically elected government and took it all over the country. The Musharraf’s rebellion was not a unique and the result of weak political institutions. After coming to power, General Pervez Musharraf introduced a new word to “Chief Executive” instead of adopting the traditional title of Chief Marshal Law Administrator. He presented himself as a responsible and professional soldier who will bring real democracy in Pakistan. He stressed the role of the army that the army was compelled to save the move from the country’s disorder and uncertainty.
After coming to power, General Musharraf tried to resume the positive image of Pakistan. He tried to restart friendly relations with the rest of the world. In addition, he expressed the desire to resume the process of making routines of India and Pakistan. The army ended in Pakistan, India did not welcome it and he criticized General Musharraf on a large scale. Indian leadership refused to negotiate with General Musharraf’s military dictator. Actually India’s leadership was not ready to start negotiations with a non-democratic government. Indian behavior was more negative for the newly established military rule and there were two main reasons for which Pakistan did not want to continue negotiations with Pakistan. The first reason was that the Indian leadership has trusted Nawaz Sharif’s democratic government, and consequently due to a positive viewpoint of the unanimous dispute resolution. The second reason was that the Army Chief General Musharraf was the master mind of rebellion in Kargil. Nawaz Sharif had confidence in India compared to Musharraf and was due to the struggle of Pakistan’s prime minister to hold the announcement of Lahore.
Indian leadership considered Musharraf to end the peace process between Pakistan and Pakistan. India also accused Pakistan of cross-border terrorism. Not only did he destroy all diplomatic relations with Pakistan, but also tried to defame Pakistan on the international front. India has announced that they will not attend the meetings of the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and will try a lot of joint containers and to separate Pakistan on the international frontiers of the United Nations. Indian enemies behave more stress in the relations between the two countries. The aggression and the fighters continued, and even Pakistan was involved in violence and supported jihadists in Kashmir. (Khan, 2008:115).
Indian leadership was very unhappy with the arrest of the army by Musharraf. He expressed his concern about the removal of the democratic government. Indian Foreign Affairs Jaswant Singh said:
“We are worried about the development of Pakistan.
But there is no reason for alarm or nervousness.”
General Musharraf adopted much passionate view from India. He expressed great interest in maintaining peace between Pakistan and India based on equality. In the first press conference of the first November, its policy of India has shown that:
“The Indian community will be meeting with the enemy with threats, Security and threats I will ensure the respect and honor of this country. Nobody threatens us without any threatening response.” (Baruah, 2007: 198).
Musharraf talked about the problem of Kashmir and kept it from Pakistan on the foreign policy of Pakistan. Musharraf expressed the desire to restore the process of comprehensive discussion. He said:
“We want to solve all our differences with India and when I express all our differences, I mean, Kashmir’s main problem is first of all or at least. But if solving problems outside Kashmir If there is no design for it and eliminates the Kashmir issue, and then I am not a part of it. Kashmir problem should be resolved and it can be resolved with other issues. If it is our attitude, Look inside the border, I’m sure I’m going out of India in this area”
Between India and Pakistan, in December 1999, when an Indian airlines plane was kidnaped to Kandhar after flying from Katmandu. It was said that Hajj came from Pakistan and supported Pakistan intelligence (ISI). Heads of State demanded the Indian government to free five hundred prisoners. The main demand was that Mr. Masood Azhar, who was head of Pakistan-based militant organization Jesh E-Mohammad, who was involved in the insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir. Seven days later, the Indian government decided to release three terrorists, and in turn the kidnappers released the captured passengers. This incident proved to be the last nail in accordance with Pakistan’s negotiation process. The relations between the two countries arose at its lowest point of view, where each other aggression, community and animation. By the mid-2000s the dispute between India and Pakistan continued. Kashmir’s support for militants has increased in Kashmir, eliminating fighters, strengthening the Parliament’s parliament with the arrival of military regime in Pakistan. Pakistan’s aggression was due to his undesirable return from Kargil under international pressure due to which he had to step back and face a lot of criticism. (Khan, 2008:119-120).
4.2 Agra Summit 2001: The Revival of Bilateral Negotiations:
During 2000, Pakistan tried hard to convince India for bilateral talks and struggled to restore ties with India. Although Pakistan has accepted the aggressive fire from India, the Indian leadership did not respond much to the return of the troops from the borders. In 2001, when President Musharraf invited the Indian Prime Minister Atil Bahari Vajpayee, he severely broken, and showed sympathy about his sympathy during the quake in Kutch and Gujarat. Apart from this, Pakistan sent relief goods and medicines to the victims of earthquakes (Goswami, 2012:130).
Later the Indian Prime Minister pointed to Pakistan. On May 25, 2001, Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee invited General Musharraf’s chief executive to visit New Delhi for talks on top level. General Musharraf accepted the invitation and reached India on July 14, 2001. The Indian authorities welcomed the warmly. This is based on many expectations of the two countries. The leaders met in historic city Agra. The expectations of both countries were very high and the meeting was encouraged by the promotion of the two countries. (Nazir, 2004:34).
The four-round talks were held, and both the leaders talked about a serious concern about bilateral issues. They discussed the number of problems including Jammu & Kashmir issue. The leadership of both sides emphasized the dispute resolution through two-way talks. India and Pakistan focus on the need to promote peace and cooperation. Pakistan expressed that India should accept Kashmir dispute as the main issue on the path of development of peace and mutual harmony. As far as the Indian leadership took a concrete steps to eliminate the Pakistani border terrorism. However, the difference between opinion on Kashmir and General Musharraf was that the cross-border terrorism was the result of conflict of Kashmir which could have ended in the dispute resolution. The two countries could not reach a joint statement and remained steadfast on their agenda, which ultimately resulted in the failure of two-way talks. In addition, the talks failed, but the two countries continued to negotiate in the future. Both countries focus on increasing the role of media for normalization of relations and Pakistan has allowed the Pakistani delegation to inform their people and present them to the Indian people.
However, all negotiations are moving towards the next summit. Actually the draft summit between the two Ministers and secretaries of the two countries was finalized, but Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee refused to sign the agreement in the last minute because his cabinet did not accept the agreement. . While the deal was rebuilt, the Indian leadership stepped back before signing the agreement (Goswami, 2012:131).
4.3 India-Pakistan Relations Post 9/11:
On September 11, 2001, the United States was killed by terrorist attacks, which changed the whole political scene of the world. These attacks suddenly surprise the whole world as well as the United States. Terrorism targeted two towers in New York’s World Trade Center and Washington DC in Pentagon. These attacks brought a major catastrophic and more than 7,000 people were killed. The US President decided to attack Al-Qaeda and his supporters to attack the Afghan fundamentalist rulers or the Taliban. Bush announces war against terrorism and directly supports Pakistan to capture al-Qaeda and Taliban leaders (Khanna, 2007:105).
The American stand was that he would not support the war against terrorism, he would be considered equal to the enemy. Pakistan was the only option to accept the American proposal of war against terrorism. President of US President Pervez Musharraf accepted the American demand and tried to provide support for all kinds of support including the United States and the road, including the US. Pakistan became the front state against the fight against terrorism and achieved more economic and military aid from the US.
After the 9/11 ceremony, a new dimension of conflicts between India and Pakistan. Pakistan became a state-led state in the fight against terrorism. Terrorism became a global threat and it opened a new chapter of conflict between India and Pakistan. India got the opportunity to get Kashmir problem with the process of global terrorism.
India has been announced that Pakistan should focus on terrorism with the help of Pakistan in the Kyrgyz border in Kashmir. For regional security and peace, India presented Kyrgyzstan an important concern for border terrorism. He emphasized that various Pakistani based terrorist groups and organizations in Pakistan were involved in cross-border terrorism. Indian President Abdul Malik Azad and Interior Minister K.K. Advani criticized Pakistan and said that the international community has taken some concrete steps to avoid large cost in this regard. (Singh, 2010:11).
There was an important event in December 2001, which included animated new chapter between India. On December 13, 2001, the Indian Parliament hit a terrorist attack in New Delhi. The result of the attack was not much harm, besides 13 people including terrorists were killed. At least forty five minutes of fighting between the invaders and the security forces continued. The sudden attack surprised the Indian government and the Indian Interior Minister described it as the biggest threat in the promotion of terrorism in two decades. He alleged that two Pakistan-based terrorist organizations were directly involved in parliamentary attacks. He also accused Pakistan’s Intelligence Agency Inter Services Intelligence (ISI) that he supports the terrorist network against India. The immediate response of Pakistan was filled with the grief of terrorist attacks. The response of the Indian government to terrorist attacks was very aggressive. He constantly declared India responsible for making insecurity in India(Chary, 2009:265).
Apart from this, India has named Pakistan-based organizations for Lashkar-e-Taiba (LI) and Jash Muhammad (GMM) for the insurgency in Kashmir. However, Pakistan rejected India’s allegations while claiming that there should be some appropriate evidence to the Indian government. In India, India called for India to stop cross-border terrorism. Apart from this, he removed Islamabad from high commissioner and diplomatic staff as well as eliminating all the transit links to Pakistan. The diplomatic relations of the two states once again reached the lowest level (Schaffer, 2009:174).
The misunderstanding continued and the major military stand between the two countries continued due to a severe conflict. India instantly deployed its boundaries (land, air, navy) to Pakistani borders. All communication connections were captured, including air, road and rail. The Indian government has made a strategy of aggression against Pakistan. The deployment of troops has been estimated that a million people with the border of the two countries. After the December 13 attacks, the Indian government was ready to deal with many threats to control against the victims of Pakistan and it expressed more aggression. There was a lot of aggression from India and its example is the largest movement of Indian soldiers with borders from May to June 2002(Nazir, 2004:36).
The conflict further added, and the risk of nuclear war between the two countries was developed. The statements of government officials in New Delhi have clarified that nuclear weapons were more likely to fight for the activities of jihadist camps in Azad Kashmir and to crush Pakistani military aid. President of Pakistan Musharraf made a statement before the Pakistani press and said:
“If the Indian Army only went to the same step in the international border or line control then insha Allah will pass the Pakistani army and the supporters of Pakistan around the Indian army and it will not be a traditional was” (Sagan, 2009:243).
Indian reaction was not very different and they declared Musharraf’s statement as the biggest threat to using nuclear weapons against them. Indian Defense Minister George Fernandez declared Musharraf’s statement as irresponsible and said:
“We can take a bomb or two or more. But when we answer, there will be no Pakistan”(Sagan, 2009:243).
The international community has widely condemned the nuclear and military aggression of both the states and forced them to move to reconciliation. He insisted that both countries should spoil their tension through the start of the negotiation process. On one side Pakistan was fighting the fight against terrorism, as the Allies of the United States, while engaged in the biggest military position with India. In the whole region’s security environment, in addition to terrorism and in military conflict, India was in danger due to Pakistan’s involvement. Now the role of the international community was very important to reject the tensions between the two countries.
President Bush had initially played an important role in preventing tension after the parliamentary elections in India. He telephoned with Prime Minister Vajpayee. In addition, he telephoned Pakistan President Musharraf so that he would take appropriate steps against the cross border terrorism in India. He forced Musharraf to take measures against the organizations, particularly in the fight against India. He assured Pakistan President that America was ready to provide all its assistance against the terrorist network. (Schaffer, 2009:175).
On December 20, 2001, the US President announced that he will ban Lashkar-e-Taiba and include it in the list of global terrorist organizations. He caught assets of two more organizations on the charge of attacking the Indian Parliament. On December 27, Secretary of State Colin Powell announced as international terrorists Jash Muhammad and Lashkar-e-Taiba. Pakistan wanted to take some serious action against Pakistan in the terrorist network. He had more expectations than General Musharraf who started to take major steps against America’s actions against the acts of prohibited organizations (Schaffer, 2009:176).
Pakistan has received many instructions from the United States to take action against the terrorist network. Finally, on January 12, 2002, Musharraf took a bold step to counter international pressure and reiterated the ban on the main extremist organizations, which has played an important role in Jish Ji Mohammed and Lashkar-e-Taiba. He further said that Pakistan would not allow this area to be used for terror from inside or outside. He further said that Pakistan will continue to support Kashmir and will not return from its position on Kashmir. A few days later, Musharraf’s speech, US Secretary of State Klein Paul made an important visit to South Asia. He visited India and Pakistan and met with senior officials. He forced the two countries to choose the reconciliation route. He directed them to continue their stress for the development of the environment and restart bilateral talks. The US Secretary of State did not tolerate any break by eliminating the military position between Pakistan-Pakistan and its visit could not get positive results.
In July 2002, Colin Paul visited South Asia when India was preparing for elections in Kashmir. He demanded India to hold independent and fair elections in India in Kashmir. He further added that India should allow the independent body to monitor the elections. While he gave an important statement before pressing in Islamabad, in which he accepted “Kashmir International Agenda”. His statement in India was much criticized. America’s role in implementing peace process between India and Pakistan was very important. The US administration did not have an increasing desire to dispute between India and Pakistan.
The destruction of the 2003 spring ended when the Indian leadership of India took important steps to start a new start. Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee had a speech in Srinagar during the mid-2003, where he extended his hand to Pakistan. India made some conditions for the restoration process. The main demand from India was to stop the infection in Kashmir and cross-border. On this occasion Pakistan Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali warmly welcomed on this occasion and he appreciated the position of Indian Prime Minister. Prime Minister Jamali agreed to call Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee and call on the two negotiation process, including the restoration of diplomatic relations (Schaffer, 2009:181).
Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee aspect of normalizing the tension environment when India and Pakistan relations entered new direction of mutual peace and cooperation. In October 2003, Vajpayee proposed Pakistan various assurance measures (CBMs). The CBM’s recommendations started the maintenance of Srinagar-Muzaffarabad Bus Service and the maintenance of Khokkurkar-Raksha-pura service, which was closed after the 1965 war. On the two-way relationship, the snow passed on November 23, 2003 when Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali proposed a ceasefire with line control in Kashmir and Jamu. The Indian leadership accepted Pakistan’s fiber proposal and said that the actual ground position in Swine should continue the line. Eventually it was implemented on November 26, 2003(Baruah, 2007:34).
4.3 The Revival of Composite Dialogue:
History of India and Pakistan relations are always full of tension and reconciliation. The struggle for the development of peace and cooperation between India and Pakistan started several times and eventually stopped for various reasons. After 9/11 steps India and Pakistan faced a new tension.
Like India Pakistan, to sponsor terrorist networks in Pakistan and then stop the attacks of the 2001 Indian Parliament and the terror attacks on the Srinagar constitutional assembly led both the states to end the war. Pakistan blamed Pakistan for sponsoring these attacks. Between ten countries continued for a long time. Pakistan has banned many religious extremist organizations so that they should meet the Indian authorities. A 2003 Firefighter cooled up some conditions. After long time the tension broke between the two states, when the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation was held in January 2004 in Islamabad. Indian and Pakistani leadership met in the meeting in which they announced the restoration of comprehensive negotiations. Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee agreed that peace process should be restored. Pakistan also announced that it would not allow anyone to use its territory against terrorism or against India. There has been a change in leadership in India and Manmohan Singh has become Prime Minister of India. He continued the peace-making process in May 2004. In September 2004, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and President Musharraf met in New York, where he emphasized on negotiations for the normalization of bilateral relations and bilateral talks.
The agenda of comprehensive negotiations has been made to deal with eight important issues on which both countries will continue the process of negotiating, including steps to build trust. Jammu and Kashmir, Siachen, Walar Barrage, Sarkak, terrorism and drug trafficking, economic and commercial cooperation, and promotion of friendly exchange in different fields. New Delhi was held from 27 to 28 June 2004 with Foreign Secretary-level talks. These talks were part of a comprehensive dialogue, representing Indian Foreign Secretary Shashkan and Pakistani Secretary Foreign Riaz Khokhar. He cooperated with a joint statement to promote peace and security. He emphasized the need for the development of trust building measures (CBM) for the environment of peace and mutual cooperation. The joint statement was approved in the good number of CBMs, consulate in Mumbai and Karachi, the first notification of the missile test, including permission for high commission and permission for release of fishermen.
Foreign Secretaries agreed to continue the efforts of Kashmir issue. They aimed at resolving all disputes through jointly bilateral talks. Transport Diploma in Peace Development on Kashmir is of great interest. They agreed on Srinagar-Muzaffarabad Bus Service and discussed matters of legal documents of passengers. Both the secretaries expressed the desire to solve the problem of Kashmir according to the UN Charter and Shimla Agreement. They recognized each other’s nuclear power and signed a contract to hold a regular meeting on two-way nuclear concerns about technology (Kukreja & Singh, 2005:273-274).
Pakistan President Asif Ali Zardari once again took the path of cricket embassy after ex-President Zia ul Haq to resolve conflicts and tensions. Basically during the March and April 2005, Pakistan was playing Pakistan cricket match in India. Musharraf wanted to see the match between Pakistan and India in the match between pakistan and India. The Indian government sent an invitation to see any match. President Musharraf accepted the invitation and went to India on 17 April 2005 to see one day cricket match. This visit was transformed into a full India and Pakistan Summit, and both the leaders expressed the desire to discuss the differences. In Delhi, in the meeting held in New Delhi in April 2005, where the Prime Minister of India and Pakistan presented a number of suggestions to resolve the dispute. They issued a joint statement and agreed to promote contacts and cooperation with the two countries, to promote confidence building measures. Musharraf and Manmohan Singh agree to continue negotiations on the issue of Jammu and Kashmir. They emphasized on promoting points in the row of control to provide opportunities for disabled families to meet each other for trade between the two sides.
The leadership decided to start the Srinagar-Muzaffarabad bus service with an additional plan to start bus service between major cities of the two countries. Both the leaders agreed on opening train service on January 1, 2006 between Khokrapar and Munabao. He decided to reopen his Consulate in Mumbai and Karachi at the end of 2005. Both leaders promoted comprehensive dialogue tips. The leadership of both the sites decided to start discussion soon on issues of crack and swine glaciers. According to the International Mechanism, they directed high officials to discuss these matters. The leaders of both the countries agreed to increase cooperation in the fields of trade and trade and decided to react to the Joint Economic Commission and Joint Business Council (Chopra, 2006:150-151).
On October 3, 2005, on the level of Foreign Minister held between India and Pakistan, Islamabad, to review the overall development of the peace talks with the confidence building measures (CBMS), peace and security. In addition, joint commission meeting on October 18, 2005, President Musharraf and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh further rejected the joint statements. External Affairs Minister Khursheed M. Kasuri and the Indian Foreign Affairs focused on the development of a stranger for comprehensive dialogue for mutual peace and cooperation. They are reviewing the agenda of the negotiation process. The two Ministers promoted the joint statement of the second September 2005 joint statement between the Foreign Secretaries. To settle the rules for the points of discussion of families of transactions to arrange expert-level meetings till the end of the year, which was agreed unanimously between them? Ministers of both countries expressed joint agreements on various issues. A contract for planning process on Lahore-Amritsar Bus Service in November 2005. A mutually agreed agreement to meet experts from Islamabad on 25-26 October 2005 in Islamabad to start the Nankana Sahrat Amritsar bus service. It has agreed that in the near future, a technical level meeting will be held for talks about the Rawalakot-Poonch Bus service. The agreement between the Muzaffarabad and Srinagar has been jointly agreed to further the rules and regulations for the implementation of a truck service plan. Both decided to free fishermen and prisoners based on humanity (Katyal, 2006:296).
Foreign Minister of the two countries also signed a consensus agreement, which included relevant security officials in terms of occupying their citizens. It was agreed that the notification will be issued immediately in case of arrest of their citizens. They will provide each other to the consulate in three months. They also discussed other issues, including release of prisoners, national status verification procedures and LCC illegal crossings. Both the representatives talked about the problems of Siachen and Sir Creek. They have agreed that in January 2006, the Siachen issue will continue to discuss the issue of common agenda for the possible resolution of the issue before the next round of comprehensive negotiations. Ministers have agreed that they will conduct a joint survey in the road crossing to find maximum options for the solution of the sea border, which will be reported in the next round of comprehensive negotiations. He discussed the key possibilities of the Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline project (Katyal, 2006:298).
In the third round of talks between the experts of India and Pakistan, they agreed on unusual CBMs regarding Jammu and Kashmir, non-development of new posts and non-capability of current defense operations. They have made an agreement on the issues of wrong concern, including the return of the flag meetings and regulations of the people who accidentally cross the border. Pakistan has suggested that both the States should reduce the number of soldiers in Jammu and Kashmir. While Indian responded that the lack of troops would benefit terrorism for its purposes. Both days, between 30 and 31 May 2006, between the secretaries of India and Pakistan. Members agreed on both the agenda that the arrest and initial release will be issued. Fishing from both sides crossing the sea boundaries by mistake will benefit from this agreement. In addition to counter drug trafficking, the understanding came under memorable discussion.
The two secretaries changed the list of desired people. Pakistan demanded access to 35 people while India sought access to 35 people. Both countries also argued for softening the visa policy. In particular, in June, Pakistan made some relaxation in India’s visa policy for India. Tourists were given a 30-day visa instead of 14 days, while the India’s pilgrims was expanding a 15 visa rather than a specific visa, while business visa was held for a maximum of 30 days in six months triple entry visa at all times. Grew up When Pakistani films are given place in Pakistan, trade relations will also boost. Despite the resistance of some business lovers, India’s trade in India increased. During this time the trade of other goods was easily gone. Pakistan made an important decision to reinforce conspiracy bilateral relations and allowed transit of Indian trucks to Pakistan with Pakistan’s routes. On June 20, 2006, Sonia Gandhi inaugurated the Punch Rawalakot Bus Service, which played an important role in preventing mutual misconceptions. The third round of comprehensive negotiations ended on June 23, 2006 when the two sides briefly discussed the issue of Tulbul-Wular(Bhonsle, 2011:151-153).
4.4 Adoption of the Joint Anti-Terrorism Mechanism:
Pak India relations started towards the right direction at the beginning of 2006. On January 20, 2006, peace promise was implemented in the inauguration of the First Cross Bus Service between Amritsar and Lahore. Countries to move forward on peaceful bilateral relations. Writing between Khokroper- Munaba weekly train service, named express, started on February 18, 2006. Two-way talks between the two countries are gradually moving towards a positive direction. Two-way talks were going in a fair way, but when the sudden efforts came to Mumbai in July 2006, the Metropolitan City or Economic Center in Mumbai attacked Islamic militants.
The remote control bomb explosion occurred in the first class apartments of Mumbai’s suburban trains, which took 4.5 million passengers a day. There were too many deaths, about 200 people were killed and 800 injured. Indian response was quite responsible for these attacks. The Indian leadership condemned these attacks and accused foreign institutions. Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh demanded foreign hand joining from avoiding the name of Pakistan. However, the Indian leadership will hold talks with Pakistan on foreign secretary level. In September 2006 Mumbai police convicted Lashkar-e-Taiba in connection with the Mumbai attacks. In September 2006, high leadership meeting was held in Havana from both sides (Vohra, 2012:367).
In September 2006, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf approached Havana, a joint mechanism to counter terrorism. Both leaders expressed agreement of a comprehensive dialogue resolution to resolve all ongoing issues. They agreed to implement all joint statements issued in 2004.
After the Mumbai blasts of 2006, both sides of the leadership condemned the terrorist attacks. They jointly tried to eliminate several security measures on several security concerns on the security infrastructure. Both the countries decided to implement India and Pakistan’s anti-terrorism mechanism in order to eliminate terrorist’s growing terrorism. They released a joint statement based on several key centers to continue the overall negotiations after Mumbai bombings. Both sides agreed on a joint mechanism to combat terrorism and to implement anti-terrorism measures. The result of the agreement to adopt operational mechanisms to solve the Siachen issue. In addition, both the leaders met foreign secretaries in New Delhi in the Spirit of Combined Dialogue.Other types included mechanisms for quick solution to the siachin case. Talking about expert level and sea border for the joint survey of Siachen area in November 2006 (Bhonsle, 2007:148).
4.5 Musharrafs Four point Formula on Kashmir:
On December 5, 2006, President Musharraf solved Kashmir issue of his four-point solution during the interview of Indian Television Network NDVT. This formula is included:
1) Soft or wheat borders in Kashmir without changing the borders.
2) Autonomy or self-rule within every region of Kashmir
3) All areas are required
4) Joint supervisor mechanism (Misra & Clarke, 2013:94).
As Musharraf, it was that the Indian leadership should be convinced to end the dispute of Kashmir. Pakistan wants a quick solution to the problem of Kashmir. Indian leadership agreed to review Musharraf’s suggestions on Kashmir. Later the Indian Minister acknowledged that India and Pakistan have reached the draft of Kashmir dispute resolution. In order to implement Musharraf’s suggestions, both the governments were in contact with China in the back door.
4.6 Samjhota Express incident and After Effects over Indo-Pakistan Relations:
Indian Foreign Minister visited Pakistan on January 13, 2007. They signed a contract to promote mutual peace and cooperation in many fields of interest. The mutual security process was going smoothly, and both countries were engaged in a number of measures for mutual peace and security. On February 18, India and Pakistan, a co-operative Express, was targeted by terrorism when a sudden increase of violence and environment increased in the train accident. The bomb blast was planted in the train which causes blast and fire. There were 757 passengers in the train and majority of Pakistani. Train blasts proved to be a major disaster and nearly six hundred people were killed, many were injured and three days later they entered the hospital. This passenger was burnt very badly even though his identity was very difficult. The bombs were conducted well in a systematic manner and the terrorists also included heavy pollution equipment, which included the Kerosene bottles. The police suspect that the attacker had complete information about the arrival of the train and they examined the entire environment before the implementation of their plan. The eye witness also stated that he saw many Hindi speaking people coming out of the train 15 minutes before the blast. The train blasts largely condemned India and Pakistan leaders. The time of this terrorist activity was very astonishing because it was time when Foreign Minister Khursheed Mahmood kasuri visited India for a two-day peace talks on February 21, 2007. Both countries agreed to immediately hold responsible elements for their trails (Chalk, 2013:1).
In March 2007, two people had caught by the police, who sold the invaders to keep Swat bombs. In this investigation, the Islamic Militant Organization comprises the celebration of Jaish- e -Muhammad and Lashkar-e-Taiba student Islamic Movement of India (SIMI). However some Indian officials claimed that the inter service intelligence (ISI) board was involved in terrorist activities. However, Pakistani authorities accused India(Chalk, 2013:1).
Despite the attack on the majority of Pakistani passengers in Samjhota Express, the two countries continue peace measures. India and Pakistan signed a contract to reduce the risk of nuclear weapons related incidents in February 2007. In other initiatives, many CBMs were involved in building mutual confidence. Both sides focus on the need to promote trust for relief and misconceptions. Two-way economic relations improved, and both the countries took a number of measures for economic cooperation. In May 2007, a major deal between the representatives to establish Reserve Bank of branches and State Bank of Pakistan branches in other countries. The State Bank has suggested that three Pakistani banks will open in Delhi and Mumbai, while Reserve Bank of India has proposed to open two Indian banks in two major Pakistani cities. Meeting of Commerce Secretaries of the two countries in August 2007. Commercial issues include basics of trade obstacles and liberalization mainly. Important decisions were made to promote trade between the two countries. They decided to increase bilateral trade by $ 10 billion from 2010 to $ 1.7 billion. The second round of joint anti-terrorism system in New Delhi in October 2007, but JATM failed to reach any results and India continued to demand. It should take over Pakistan’s responsible institutions and start a trial against them.
President General Pervez Musharraf began to end his political position at the end of 2007 and at the beginning of 2008. Many of his decisions proved against Pakistan in Pakistan’s Lal Masjid operation. The proceedings against the judiciary were against General Musharraf against the country and political interests. The Indian leadership started losing confidence in Musharraf especially in 2006 after the terrorist attacks in Pakistan in 2006. The struggle for peace processed and the relations between the two countries were uncertain. Political setup was moving towards the democratic transition in Pakistan in 2008. The people of Pakistan won the elections and Asif Ali Zardari established his government. After the long-term military rule, the democratic government came into existence. With the policy of establishing a new government, Pakistan’s policy of policy on terrorism, nuclear strategy and matters relating to India was very worried.
Since independence, Pakistan-India has made several controversial conflicts that last for a long time. Kashmir has been the bone between the two leaders since 1947. William E. Brown and Robert Windrem mentioned in his controversial book “Critical Mass” that South Asia is the most dangerous place on earth in terms of Kashmir. Kashmir problem was encountered when the rulers of Kashmir announced their awareness with India. Pakistan has always handed over Kashmir issue to Kashmir, where India always expresses injustice on Kashmir issue. Basically, every government in India tried to close the issue of Kashmir. The leaders came and the time passed and relations between the two countries were sometimes improved and sometimes worsened. The Pakistan-India primarily depends on the leadership of both the states. Since independence, Pakistan’s foreign policy remains in many challenges. The country went under political instability and democratic institutions can never be strengthened in Pakistan. Military intervention was always an important feature of Pakistani politics. However, military rulers tried to improve bilateral ties with India, but they were never wanted to participate in friendly relations with Kashmir. Apart from this, the military rulers of Pakistan always urged the religious groups to remain firmly on India’s policy of Kashmir. The Indian leadership has never trusted most of Pakistan’s military governments.
The talks between India and Pakistan started several times, but they were never successful due to the reservations of both sides. Although negotiations were important, but in terms of India and Pakistan it proved to be a sport. On different occasions, leaders of the two countries agreed on several steps of mutual cooperation, CBM, peace and security, but all the efforts were temporarily proven to end new conflicts.
After getting the status of nuclear powers, India and Pakistan made changes in their policies towards each other to avoid nuclear disputes. Both the countries have signed a deal with each other using nuclear weapons. The biggest danger is that any of them can use nuclear technology to quickly eliminate their major conflicts on Kashmir. Therefore, completely change the pattern of policy of both the states of India and Pakistan. Pakistan always had Kashmir claiming that as its jugular vein and India faced the threat that Pakistan could use nuclear power to resolve this issue. Talks between India and Pakistan have finally been closed because of the beginning of Karl crisis. Kargal was another war due to the Kashmir issue, which was fought between India and Pakistan and was the result of the control of the two countries.
The 21st Century saw a new dimension of conflict between India and Pakistan. Pakistan was under the military rule of Musharraf, which was considered as a master mind for the 1999 census episode of India. The relations between Pakistan and India are still in place and India was not ready to interact with any ruler of Pakistan. Musharraf tried to rebuild the image of all Pakistan. After 9/11 the nature of conflict between the two rivals also changed the nature of conflict when India tried to convince the world that Pakistan was involved in terrorism in the cross border in India. India was blamed that Pakistan was supporting militant groups in Jammu and Kashmir against India. They demanded the international community to take serious action against Pakistan. Pakistan emphasized India’s resolve against border terrorism. Pakistan on the other hand refused Indian accusations and asked to take action against any institution from Pakistan that India is involved in terrorism in border in India.
India-Pakistan came to reconciliation and the relationship between the two countries started a new session by 2001. Both the countries agreed to cooperate with mutual security, peace and development of CBMs. They agreed to discuss all the bilateral disputes including Kashmir issue. However, the minor proceedings did not last long and both the Parliament reached the end of the war due to the attacks on the Indian Parliament. India blamed Pakistan for the involvement of Pakistan in the attacks on Indian Parliament. However, relations between the two countries can not move forward due to lack of mutual confidence.
After the restoration of a comprehensive dialogue, India-Pakistan agreed on a number of suggestions for resolving disputes. Several major issues including Kashmir issue were discussed. There was four points formula’s importance on Kazakhstan. Although they have raised Kashmir’s issue for many occasions, their four-step formula was unique on which the Indian leadership also showed positive attitude. However, due to domestic political disadvantages, no solution was found on Kashmir. When joint negotiations connect to terrorist activities in Mumbai in 2006, its significance ends. The Indian government illegally blamed Pakistan’s Intelligence Agency ISI behind these attacks. However the peace process was not completely eliminated. The minor proceedings between the two countries continued till 2008 when the relations between the two states were going to the right direction. However, things were changed with the 2008 democratic transition in Pakistan and measures taken by the Musharraf government were not fully implemented by the next democratic government. Apart from this, peace process became a victim of Mumbai attacks or 26/11 events due to the control of the two states.