CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Background of StudyFrom the focal point of diverse and dynamic nature of modern development, the demand for energy has been consistently increasing from time to time. By this declaration, relying on fossil fuels alone will continue to add to the problem of unsustainable rural energy planning and management especially in developing countries.
This project is captioned the impact of integrating renewable energy sources for rural electrification optimization using an intelligient agent. The project is emphasized on enhancing stable power supply in rural area with Amoli community in Awgu town of Enugu state, NIgeria as a case study. The renewable energy sources used in this project are solar and wind plus the grid. Amoli have these two in aboundace when compared to other existing renewable energy. The problem faced in this rural area are lack of power supply or intermittent power supply which has led to the reduction of development in the area.Wind and solar electrical power systems are recently getting lot of attention, because they are cost competitive, environmental clean and safe renewable power source, as compared to fossil fuel and nuclear power generation.The reason for the world wide interest in developing solar and wind generation plants is the rapidly increasing demand for electrical energy and the consequent depletion of fossil fuels, namely; oil and coal , whose reserves are limited. The depletion reserves, increase in demand, and certain factors in world politics have together contributed to a sharp rise in the cost of thermal power generation.
Many places also do not have the potential for generating hydro power. Nuclear power generation was once treated with great optimism, but with the knowledge of the environmental hazards associated with the possible leakage from nuclear power plants, most countries have decided not to install them anymore.The growing awareness of these problems led to heightened research efforts for developing alternative sources of energy for generation of electricity. The most desirable source would be one that is non- pollutant, available in abundance and renewable and can be harnessed at an acceptable cost in both large scale and small scale systems. The most promising source satisfying all these requirements is solar and wind, a natural source energy . Solar and Wind energy conversion may be mechanical or electrical in nature, hut the present focus is on electricity generation.
Amoli is a hilly area despite occupying a region low in altitude which rises 350 feet above sea level. It is a transitional area between open grass land and tropical forest and has an average annual rainfall of seventy-seven inches (198cm). The population of Amoli is estimated at 10,477 by 2013.Energy is an integral part of a society and plays a pivotal role in its socio-economic development by raising the standard of living and the quality of life.1.2 Problem StatementThe availability of renewable energy sources is limited, the shortage results in frequent power break-downs and disrupts daily life, man power losses in offices, agricultural activities and adversely affect the industrial production and thereby the economy.The irregular power supply in Amoli and Enugu State as a whole has been a persistent battle between customers and energy suppliers.
This is evident in the most recent tussle between the major energy supplier EEDC (Enugu Energy Distribution Company) and Enugu youths on the epileptic nature of the energy supply coupled with the deliberate issuance of inflated bills to customers.Fossil fuels are running out and people are worried about the way burning fossil fuels damages the environment. For instance, the green house effect, acid rain and effect on the ozone layer. The greenhouse effect is caused by an increase in the concentration of gases such as carbondioxide (C02) in the earth’s atmosphere.Other problems include: i.
Decline in generation due to Niger delta vandalisationii. Ageing of some of the generating units due to lack of maintenanceiii. Technical expertise iv. Inadequate supply of transformers. The critical loads like television, lightening, radio, fans, VCD and other type of compact disc that make life worth living are not secured as a result of intermittent power supply.
The Commonwealth Business Council (CBC), said that Nigeria was losing $100 billion yearly due to lost output and high costs for local business.All these points to the urgent need for the local government/state to diversify/explore other sources of energy generation to save her citizens from such impasse. 1.3 Aim and ObjectivesThe aim of this proposed project is to analyze the impact of integrating renewable energy sources in Amoli thereby recommending the most efficient renewable energy source. This will be achieved by the following objectives:i. To determine available sources of renewable energy in Amoliii. To analysis the energy demand for a cluster of building/facilities in Amoliiii.
To optimize the energy demand for a cluster of building facilities in Amoliiv. To design an optimized intelligent agent for an effective power stabilityv. To Create a chart of the required number of recommended energy system to meet the various energy demand level. vi. To design a Simulink model for the impact of integrating renewable energy sources for rural electrification optimization using an intelligent agent. 1.
4 Significance of the StudyThe relevance of this study in modern society cannot be overemphasized, most especially in a country like Nigeria where power supply is more of a luxury than a basic social amenity. It was often thought that renewable energy sources such as solar systems for instance are expensive and inefficient. However, studies have shown that the relatively high initial cost in harnessing the renewable energy from the sun becomes negligible over the life span of usage. Integrating renewable energy system provides the following impact/benefits.i. It enhances the availability of energy and electricity to all communities.ii.
Environmentally safe and friendly.iii. Enhances the creation of wealth and power reduction by offering potential for new jobs for both rural and urban dwellers.iv. Encourage large scale agriculture.
v. Helps in mitigating climate change. 1.5 Scope of the StudyThis project is limited at analyzing the various impact of integrating renewable energy sources predominant for rural settlements.
Thereby contributing to the socio-economic development of the community.1.6 Organization of the workThis dissertation report is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is an introduction of the work done. The second chapter is the literature review of the related work. Chapter three deals with methodology, design and implementation of the work done while chapter four is the data presentation and analysis of the work and chapter five is the conclusion and recommendations of the work done.