CHAPTER TWO THE LITERATURE REVIEW 2

CHAPTER TWO
THE LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Literature review refers to the process of reviewing materials related to the study being conducted, these includes journals, books, news papers, previous research reports and different materials from the internet. Literature review helps a researcher to get background knowledge of the study and to know what have been covered and what have not been covered about the problem or title a researcher intends to study (Granello 2001). This section should present review of the literature related to the problem or purpose of the study
Shields (2013) define literature review as a text of a scholarly paper, which includes the current knowledge including substantive findings, as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews use secondary sources, and do not report new or original experimental work
Bandura’s social learning theory asserts that television can be a tool for entertainment, educational and can open a new world for the young people in the society, by giving them a chance to travel the global, learn about different cultures and gain exposure to ideas they may never encounter in their normal own communities. Programs with positive role models can influence viewers to make positive lifestyle changes, however the reverse of it can be true in a way that students or young people are likely to learn and adapt things which parents and the society as a whole do not want them to do, these things include improper dressing styles, living style, act, talking style and other things which young people imitate from various programs they see on TV particularly music videos.
Due to the development of science and technology students can now watch music videos not only on TV but also through online via websites, you tube channels, online blogs, social media which makes easy for them to consume the whole content as being displayed in these foreign music videos. Advancement of technology has made the enormous expansion on the global market for media products such as television programs; changes in media industry have a profound influence on the conditions and culture of young people where students are part and parcel of the group of young people. Young people are an important target group for media companies and particularly their advertisers. Nowadays young people are exposed to television because of its power of penetration. Television has a unique position as n advertising medium which directly affect young people, (Robert, 2005).

2.2 Theoretical Literature
In the study a researcher will use various theories which relates to the study he conducts, since there are a number of theories which explain about the problem, the main theory which a researcher will use is media effect theory, this a centre of the study in a way that a researcher wants to examine how do media affect people, the main focus is how these foreign music videos as being seen on TV influence university student dressing style at SJMC. Also a researcher will examine other theories relating to the study which include Bandura social learning theory, cultivation theory, magic bullet theory media equation theory and Sabido entertainment-education theory. Different theories relating to the study will be an important tool to help a researcher to have enough information about the problem and to relate the problem he investigates to the theoretical approach.

2.2.1 Two-step flow theory
It is developed by Katz and Lazar field (1955) where they argue that messages flow from the media to opinion formers (people who directly received a message, were interested enough to want to relay it to others and influential enough for others to take the message on board. This theory has three main elements which primary social groups, interpersonal sources, limited direct effects.
2.2.2 Magic bullet theory
This theory suggests that media transmit ‘messages’ (ideas, information, beliefs and so forth) that are then picked-up and acted upon by the audience (receivers). Media messages are a bit like drug injected into the body that is the audience. This theory presupposes a number of things which are effects, senders, receivers, noise or interference and artificial conditions. Media is very powerful to the audience, what is produced by the media whether a Television, radio or newspaper is directly consumed by the audience and tend to affect their behavior.

2.3 Empirical Literature
Shepherd (2003) argues on the changes that have been brought by foreign programs such as music has brought changes in dressing style in a way that people prefer western clothes or dressing styles as they see in the foreign music videos.

(Johan, 2007) Moreover media enable us to find models to imitate, these models help us to gain a sense of identifying, teaches us how to cope in a certain situation Therefore youths in urban areas particularly universities students copy what they see from foreign music videos without considering the effects of what they copy.

Chang (2005) asserts that young people in these days are more sophisticated than they were 20 years ago, many of today’s youths advertising guidelines are written, marketing to youth is a delicate issue since because combination of color, sound and action, television attracts more viewers than any other medium.

Betty Blowtorch asserts that dressing style is a garment consisting of a skirt with an attached bodice or a matching bodice giving the effect of a one-piece garment in western culture dresses are more often worn by women and girls. The hemlines of dresses vary depending on the whims of fashion and modesty or personal taste of wearer. She postulates that mini dress was introduced in the 1960’s length between the knee and upper thigh.

Ellen (1992) argues that in 1965 the word dress was broadly interchangeable with several other scientists, included in this list of terms were appearance, clothing, ornament adornment and cosmetics. But since then the word dress is more specific than with those terms which were used to describe dress.

Klapper (1960) emphasizes that mass communication ordinarily does not serve as a necessary and sufficient cause of audience effects, but rather functions among and through a nexus (network) of mediating factors and influences, such as perception, entertainment, social solidarity and others.

Tankard (1997) found that most frequent users of the media were those who were lonely and/ or socially isolated, which we can also note a further theoretical variation on diffusion models namely Reinforcement theory, which focuses on the social context of media use.
Belson (1978) is also cited as evidence that prolonged exposure to violence in the media produces violent behavior (in young males) As in males adapt various behaviors from television as they see them this also includes improper dressing styles, living style, act, talk and behaving as a whole.

New burn (1994) on the other hand found “a general lack of interest in television (violent or otherwise) among young offenders ( they had, presumably, better thing to do with their time or perhaps watching televised violence has a pacifying effect on people’s behavior)- which raises question”
David (1995) demonstrates how even very young children have a quite sophisticated level of media literacy, that they understand more about the media and how it works than adults give them credit for (they are able to distinguish between functional and factual representations of violence or any other harmful content. Here David tries to postulate that the level of media literacy between young people in which students are also part of the group and adults is different, in this sense even how will both sides be affected will be different.

George (1994) argues that media have grown so powerful and pervasive in modern societies they create mythical realities for those audiences who immerse themselves in media content. In other word, the heavier your media consumption (whether it be watching television, reading newspapers or surfing the internet) the more likely you are to e drawn into a fantasy world of the media creation. George further postulates that heavy television viewers are the ones who watch more than three hours a day are drawn into a distorted concept of reality.

Curren (2002) argues that “the conviction…..the media are important agencies of influence are broadly correct. However, the ways in which the media exert influence are complex and contingent”. The media does something and the audience reacts in some way.

2.4 The Relationship of the literature to the study
The study relate to several literatures in a way that some scholars have tried to speculate on the similar problem, they have conducted several studies to find solution to the problem of improper dressing style by students at SJMC and other universities which is influenced by foreign music videos as they are seen through television and also through internet.
Many scholars argued that media has become very powerful in such a way that it directly affect media users in their daily lives, particularly television which is more powerful than radio or other forms of media, thus audience consume what is portrayed I television stations such as these music videos are seen in both local and international stations. The content of these videos is harmful thus it affects university students dressing styles as students tend to imitate how foreign music videos stars wear in their everyday life. So the study is relevant to the literature since this study also wants to know how much television is powerful in displaying its content to the audience, and how is it powerful to influence behavior.

Moreover this study is relevant with other literatures since it intends to find the level of media literacy in understanding and analyzing the content of media by the young people, some scholars have discovered that media literacy of adults is different from that of young people in terms of consuming harmful content. Young people are more affected by the harmful content as being presented by the media.

This study is important since it will help to produce some new empirical data as how other researchers have done in their studies on the same problem in which a researcher intends to investigate on. All information which will be collected will help to improve knowledge among people in the society, also to provide a foundation for other researchers to use this study as a reference when conducting their studies.

Furthermore this study also will use several theories in the whole process, some theories which relates to this study includes media effects theory, cultivation, magic bullet theory, media equation theory. All these theories will be applicable to this study since what these theories states is relevant to what a researcher intends to find, for instance a researcher wants to know how powerful media is to the audience, it is stated in the magic bullet theory that media is very powerful, also a researcher wants to know who are the most affected group by media produced content among audience members, this is stated in the cultivation theory where it asserts that those people who watch television more than three hours a day are the ones who will be affected by media content.

2.5 The gap in the literature
Some scholars have attempted to investigate on the problem of the influence of foreign music videos in dressing style to university students in Dar es Salaam, but yet their studies did not tackle the problem directly as how a researcher intends to conduct. Many scholars have tried to discuss on how audience are affected by media content, how their level of media literacy affect their media use, also George (1994) argues that media has become very powerful in the modern societies, but most of these scholars focus mostly on the level of effects to the audience caused by media content but not the real problem of how do these western programs affect university students. Scholars and previous researchers failed to notice that inspite of audience being affected by media audience they are also being influenced, among audience member there is a group which is mostly affected that is young people. They also failed to spot impact of new media and internet as a whole plays a big role in influencing youth behavior, most studies focuses on old media basically television and forget new media which is more powerfully than old media. Also they failed to generate theories on the aspect f how new media plays a role of manipulating young people through internet.

Basically previous researchers and scholars failed to spot impact of new media in our day to day life particularly young people who are the most affected group in the society by new media, not only television transmit harmful content to manipulate young people, but new media also plays a part. Also new media has become to be more powerful than old media in terms of influencing audience behavior.

2.6 summary of the study
Foreign music videos these are materials broadcasted on TV or through internet but they are not of the place they are being broadcasted. Music videos of western countries and other foreign countries being broadcasted in our local TV stations. For instance hip hop, r ; b, rap music and other foreign music videos are being broadcasted and the whole content is consumed by Example K-pop is one of the foreign musical genres originating in South Korea that is characterized by a wide variety of audiovisual elements. What is presented in western music videos tend to affect university students in their everyday life, students copy what they see in the videos, for instance they wear very short mini-skirt on public, to wear skin jeans also to wear trousers below the back part of a boy. All these are mostly seen in foreign music videos is
Powerful to the audience, what is produced by the media whether a Television, radio or newspaper is directly consumed by the audience and tend to affect their behavior.

2.3 Empirical Literature
Shepherd (2003) argues on the changes that have been brought by foreign programs such as music has brought changes in dressing style in a way that people prefer western clothes or dressing styles as they see in the foreign music videos.

(Johan, 2007) Moreover media enable us to find models to imitate, these models help us to gain a sense of identifying, teaches us how to cope in a certain situation Therefore youths in urban areas particularly universities students copy what they see from foreign music videos without considering the effects of what they copy.

Chang (2005) asserts that young people in these days are more sophisticated than they were 20 years ago, many of today’s youths advertising guidelines are written, marketing to youth is a delicate issue since because combination of color, sound and action, television attracts more viewers than any other medium.

Betty Blowtorch asserts that dressing style is a garment consisting of a skirt with an attached bodice or a matching bodice giving the effect of a one-piece garment in western culture dresses are more often worn by women and girls. The hemlines of dresses vary depending on the whims of fashion and modesty or personal taste of wearer. She postulates that mini dress was introduced in the 1960’s length between the knee and upper thigh.

Ellen (1992) argues that in 1965 the word dress was broadly interchangeable with several other scientists, included in this list of terms were appearance, clothing, ornament adornment and cosmetics. But since then the word dress is more specific than with those terms which were used to describe dress.

Klapper (1960) emphasizes that mass communication ordinarily does not serve as a necessary and sufficient cause of audience effects, but rather functions among and through a nexus (network) of mediating factors and influences, such as perception, entertainment, social solidarity and others.

Tankard (1997) found that most frequent users of the media were those who were lonely and/ or socially isolated, which we can also note a further theoretical variation on diffusion models namely Reinforcement theory, which focuses on the social context of media use.
Belson (1978) is also cited as evidence that prolonged exposure to violence in the media produces violent behavior (in young males) As in males adapt various behaviors from television as they see them this also includes improper dressing styles, living style, act, talk and behaving as a whole.

New burn (1994) on the other hand found “a general lack of interest in television (violent or otherwise) among young offenders ( they had, presumably, better thing to do with their time or perhaps watching televised violence has a pacifying effect on people’s behavior)- which raises question”
David (1995) demonstrates how even very young children have a quite sophisticated level of media literacy, that they understand more about the media and how it works than adults give them credit for (they are able to distinguish between functional and factual representations of violence or any other harmful content. Here David tries to postulate that the level of media literacy between young people in which students are also part of the group and adults is different, in this sense even how will both sides be affected will be different.

George (1994) argues that media have grown so powerful and pervasive in modern societies they create mythical realities for those audiences who immerse themselves in media content. In other word, the heavier your media consumption (whether it be watching television, reading newspapers or surfing the internet) the more likely you are to e drawn into a fantasy world of the media creation. George further postulates that heavy television viewers are the ones who watch more than three hours a day are drawn into a distorted concept of reality.

Curren (2002) argues that “the conviction…..the media are important agencies of influence are broadly correct. However, the ways in which the media exert influence are complex and contingent”. The media does something and the audience reacts in some way.

2.4 The Relationship of the literature to the study
The study relate to several literatures in a way that some scholars have tried to speculate on the similar problem, they have conducted several studies to find solution to the problem of improper dressing style by students at SJMC and other universities which is influenced by foreign music videos as they are seen through television and also through internet.
Many scholars argued that media has become very powerful in such a way that it directly affect media users in their daily lives, particularly television which is more powerful than radio or other forms of media, thus audience consume what is portrayed I television stations such as these music videos are seen in both local and international stations. The content of these videos is harmful thus it affects university students dressing styles as students tend to imitate how foreign music videos stars wear in their everyday life. So the study is relevant to the literature since this study also wants to know how much television is powerful in displaying its content to the audience, and how is it powerful to influence behavior.

Moreover this study is relevant with other literatures since it intends to find the level of media literacy in understanding and analyzing the content of media by the young people, some scholars have discovered that media literacy of adults is different from that of young people in terms of consuming harmful content. Young people are more affected by the harmful content as being presented by the media.

This study is important since it will help to produce some new empirical data as how other researchers have done in their studies on the same problem in which a researcher intends to investigate on. All information which will be collected will help to improve knowledge among people in the society, also to provide a foundation for other researchers to use this study as a reference when conducting their studies.

Furthermore this study also will use several theories in the whole process, some theories which relates to this study includes media effects theory, cultivation, magic bullet theory, media equation theory. All these theories will be applicable to this study since what these theories states is relevant to what a researcher intends to find, for instance a researcher wants to know how powerful media is to the audience, it is stated in the magic bullet theory that media is very powerful, also a researcher wants to know who are the most affected group by media produced content among audience members, this is stated in the cultivation theory where it asserts that those people who watch television more than three hours a day are the ones who will be affected by media content.

2.5 The gap in the literature
Some scholars have attempted to investigate on the problem of the influence of foreign music videos in dressing style to university students in Dar es Salaam, but yet their studies did not tackle the problem directly as how a researcher intends to conduct. Many scholars have tried to discuss on how audience are affected by media content, how their level of media literacy affect their media use, also George (1994) argues that media has become very powerful in the modern societies, but most of these scholars focus mostly on the level of effects to the audience caused by media content but not the real problem of how do these western programs affect university students. Scholars and previous researchers failed to notice that inspite of audience being affected by media audience they are also being influenced, among audience member there is a group which is mostly affected that is young people. They also failed to spot impact of new media and internet as a whole plays a big role in influencing youth behavior, most studies focuses on old media basically television and forget new media which is more powerfully than old media. Also they failed to generate theories on the aspect f how new media plays a role of manipulating young people through internet.

Basically previous researchers and scholars failed to spot impact of new media in our daAy to day life particularly young people who are the most affected group in the society by new media, not only television transmit harmful content to manipulate young people, but new media also plays a part. Also new media has become to be more powerful than old media in terms of influencing audience behavior.

2.6 summary of the study
Foreign music videos these are materials broadcasted on TV or through internet but they are not of the place they are being broadcasted. Music videos of western countries and other foreign countries being broadcasted in our local TV stations. For instance hip hop, r ; b, rap music and other foreign music videos are being broadcasted and the whole content is consumed by . Example K-pop is one of the foreign musical genres originating in South Korea that is characterized by a wide variety of audiovisual elements. What is presented in western music videos tend to affect university students in their everyday life, students copy what they see in the videos, for instance they wear very short mini-skirt on public, to wear skin jeans also to wear trousers below the back part of a boy. All these are mostly seen in foreign music videos.