Colour blindness is considered as one of the forms of racism, is the rejection or the ignorance of ethnic characteristics when interacting with others in social life.People with colour reject any form of racism which can lead to inequality between people which are different physically. In relation to racism, Colour blindness is the disregard of racial characteristics in social interaction, for example in the rejection of affirmative action, as way to address the results of past patterns of discrimination.
Critics of this attitude argue that by refusing to attend to racial disparities, racial colour blindness in fact unconsciously perpetuates the patterns that produce racial inequality (“Racism”).CulturalCultural racism is a concept used to describe a new idea of racial forms that has appeared since World War II. It can be considered as the beliefs that create the supposition that the products of certain culture concerning language and customs are superior compared with those of author culture. Cultural racism is a term used to describe and explain new racial ideologies and practices that have emerged since World War II. It can be defined as societal beliefs and customs that promote the assumption that the products of a given culture, including the language and traditions of that culture are superior to those of other cultures. It shares a great deal with xenophobia, which is often characterised by fear of, or aggression toward, members of an out-group by members of an in-group (“Racism “).EconomicHistorical economic is one of the aspects of racism, it appeared as a result of historical reasons. Historical economic has many effectson many aspects of social life, especially education.
Historical economic build up racial behaviours towards people of different ethnics, religion, social class….etc.Historical economic or social disparity is alleged to be a form of discrimination caused by past racism and historical reasons, affecting the present generation through deficits in the formal education and kinds of preparation in previous generations, andthrough primarily unconscious racist attitudes and actions on members of the general population (” Racism”).InstitutionalInstitutional racism is a term considered as a type of racism. Institutional racism has different names, is a racial behaviour used by government, social institution, organization which have the authority to affect the lives of others because of their colour, race, religion…. Institutional racism plays an important part in the damaging of the relationships between people.
Institutional racism (also known as structural racism, state racism or systemic racism) is racial discrimination by governments, corporations, religions, or educational institutions or other large organizations with the power to influence the lives of many individuals. Stokely Carmichael is credited for coining the phrase institutional racism in the late 1960s. He defined the term as “the collective failure of an organization to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin”(“Racism “).OtheringOthering is a concept used to distinguish between people of different colour, race, ethnicity, religion, social class. To say other means to make certain person or group of people separate from the norm.
Othering reveals a side of discrimination and plays an important role in the existence of racism till now.Othering is the term used by some to describe a system of discrimination whereby the characteristics of a group are used to distinguish them as separate from the norm.Othering plays a fundamental role in the history and continuation of racism. To objectify a culture as something different, exotic or underdeveloped is to generalize that it is not like ‘normal’ society. Europe’s colonial attitude towards the Orient exemplifies this as it was thought that the East was the opposite of the West; feminine where the West was masculine, weak where the West was strong and traditional where the West was progressive. By making these generalizations and othering the East, Europe was simultaneously defining herself as the norm, further entrenching the gap (“Racism”).
Racial segregationRacial segregation is a term considered as one of the aspects of racism, it is the separation of certain people from other groups. Racial segregation appeared in social activities in daily life such as in restaurant, school, supermarket, cinema,…etc.Racial segregation is the separation of humans into socially-constructed racial groups in daily life. It may apply to activities such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a bath room, attending school, and going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home.Segregation is generally outlawed, but may exist through social norms, even when there is no strong individual preference for it, as suggested by Thomas Schelling’s models of segregation and subsequent work (“Racism”).SupremacismSupermacism is a form of racism, this term means superiority in statue, position, power, or other aspects of social life. To be higher than others in certain elements and portrayed it in a form of attitudes toward certain groups or general population.Centuries of European colonialism in the Americas, Africa and Asia were often justified by white supremacist attitudes.
During the early 20th century, the phrase “The White Man’s Burden” was widely used to justify an imperialist policy as a noble enterprise. A justification for the policy of conquest and subjugation of Native Americans emanated from the stereotyped perceptions of the indigenous people as “merciless Indian savages” (as described in the United States Declaration of Independence). In an 1890 article about colonial expansion onto Native American land, author L. Frank Baum wrote: “The Whites, by law of conquest, by justice of civilization, are masters of the American continent, and the best safety of the frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the few remaining Indians.”Attitudes of black supremacy, Arab supremacy, and East Asian supremacy also exist (“Racism”).Symbolic/modernModern racism is a new form of racism, based on the different evaluation of the same attitude comes from two different people, for example one person is black and the other is white, this evaluation will based on their race, colour, ethnicity, religion. Like the inequality in treating black people because their history of slavery;black people have less opportunity then the white people in the social life.
Modern racism is a clear rejection of certain groups because of their race.Some scholars argue that in the US earlier violent and aggressive forms of racism have evolved into a more subtle form of prejudice in the late 20th century. This new form of racism is sometimes referred to as “modern racism” and it is characterized by outwardly acting unprejudiced while inwardly maintaining prejudiced attitudes, displaying subtle prejudiced behaviours such as actions informed by attributing qualities to others based on racial stereotypes, and evaluating the same behaviour differently based on the race of the person being evaluated. Some scholars consider modern racism to be characterized by an explicit rejection of stereotypes, combined with resistance to changing structures of discrimination for reasons that are ostensibly non-racial, an ideology that considers opportunity at a purely individual basis denying the relevance of race in determining individual opportunities and the exhibition of indirect forms of micro-aggression toward and/or avoidance of people of other races(“Racism”).Subconscious biasesSubconscious biases racism is one of the aspects of racism; there are various definitions of subconscious biases racism, but we choose the most explicit definition that gives all the sides of what subconscious biases means. According to “Racism” recent research has shown that individuals who consciously claim to reject racism may still exhibit race-based subconscious biases in their decision-making processes. While such “subconscious racial biases” do not fully fit the definition of racism, their impact can be similar, though typically less pronounced, not being explicit, conscious or deliberate.