Committee of URSA 301 Bunnell Building PO Box 757580 Fairbanks

Committee of URSA
301 Bunnell Building
PO Box 757580
Fairbanks, Alaska 99775
Dear Committee:
I hereby respectfully request a grant of $3,000.00 for my research on the topic “Reasons Parents are Choosing not to Vaccinate their Children”. By the changes of mind about vaccines in parents, I’m committed to make awareness of the severity of this decision. The research paper will provide important information for the Health Department the lack of information parent has or collect when they decide not to administer vaccines to their children. With this information they can be more proactive in educating parents about the importance of vaccines.

Thank you for the consideration of my request. I will follow up with you in the next week to answer any question you may have regarding the research. Please contact Yazirelle Lora Torres at [email protected]

Sincerely,
Yazirelle Lora torresSenior students
University of Alaska Fairbanks

Yazirelle Lora Torres
Reasons Parents are Choosing not to Vaccinate their Children
Writing and the Sciences
Tara Knight
University of Alaska Fairbanks
April 30, 2018

Abstract:
Human beings have benefited from vaccines for more than two centuries. The goal of vaccination is the elimination of infection in a defined geographical area, for that is required to continue the measures to prevent re-establishment of transmission. To achieve population-wide reductions in death and morbidity, vaccination must be widely implemented. The purpose of this research is to add knowledge to add knowledge to the relevant agencies of how educated parents are about immunizations. In this way they can take the appropriate action to avoid outbreaks of dangerous diseases in the future. The hypothesis of this research is that parents nowadays are choosing not to vaccinate their kids do to the lack of reliable information and in most cases, they are not receiving any information at all. We will conduct a survey during the months of June-July 2018, with parents around Fairbanks and North Pole, Alaska area, via telephones interviews. The MATLAB will be used to analyze the results.

Table of Contents:
Title Page……………………………………. 2
Abstract……………………………………… 3
Table of contents…………………………….. 4
Body
Introduction………………………….. 5
Literature Review…………………….. 6-7
Methods……………………………… 8-9
Broader Implications……………..….. 10
Conclusion…………………………… 11
Reference…………………………………….. 12-13
Budget and budget justification……………… 14
Introduction:
Vaccines are one of the greatest advances of the twentieth century, is what our body needs to get through life with all that is found in the environment. But this generation has a different outlook about this topic. When it comes to vaccines, parents have different perspectives, information, and strong opinions on whether vaccines are good, bad, or not indispensable for their children. On top of that, the media often gives misinformation, and puts the parents over the edge, at the point where they sometimes decide not to administer vaccines to their children. But parents forget, that denying vaccines to their children can cause horrible diseases, and even death, and this action not only puts the health of the children at risk, but of every person around them.
Some of the reasons that parents choose not to vaccinate their kids are for their religious beliefs, the poor information they received about it, or speculation on how the exposure of vaccines can cause a disease. Also, a lot of parents are worried that infants receive too many vaccines now-days (Offit et al., 2012, p. 124). This cause of worry comes because parents think that the infant’s immune system is not ready at such young age to handle vaccines in a safe way or that multiple vaccines may overwhelm the immune system (Offit et al., 2012, p. 124). Therefore, the importance of this research if to know, what are the reasons parents are choosing to not vaccinate their children? What information they received on vaccines or they received any information at all? Parents nowadays need to understand better how vaccines works, and why they are so important for society. With this project we can open the eyes of many parents and society, we educated them about vaccines, and what they are putting at risk. We also can put this back into to the government, so they enforce and make better laws for vaccination.

Literature Review (condense):
Vaccines are the tools that humanity use to fight dangerous diseases that can cause our extinction. It teaches the body how to defend itself when microorganisms such as viruses or bacteria invade it, so it is extremely important to administer them when it’s appropriate (Brown, 2016, p. 2). The immune system with vaccines are the body’s defense, it prepares the body to recognize foreigners without getting infected (Brown, 2016, p. 2). A vaccine gives a signal to the immune system to make antibodies that recognize a singular germ, in case you get infected your body recognizes it and fights back (Brown, 2016, p. 2).

Vaccines are not something that is made up overnight, and it is administered to people. They go under extended research over many years before being approved for use. Once they prove it safe, the vaccine is tested in several thousand volunteers to make sure the vaccine works (Brown, 2016, p. 3). All the infections we are protecting against by using vaccines are alive and well in our world (Brown, 2016, p. 4). The only disease that has been eliminated is smallpox, and when it was eliminated, they stopped vaccinating for it (Brown 4). When use of immunization rates drop, epidemics occur, simple as that. That’s what happened in 2015, when a measles outbreak occurred, and this was because in that community the measles immunization rates was below 80% (Brown, 2016, p. 4).

Parents that don’t vaccinate their kids can’t use the fact that their kids haven’t been infected without vaccines, because that is thanks to the 98% of the population that are vaccinated and protect their kids from getting sick. But, children have a tremendous capacity to respond to multiple vaccines. (Offit et al., 2017, p. 125). By providing protection against bacterial and virus, it prevents the “weakening” of the immune system (Offit et al., 2017, p. 126). There is no such thing as too many vaccines for kids. Like everything in life, bacteria, viruses, etc., evolve, and create resistance to vaccines (Offit et al., 2017, p. 125). These viral infections cannot be treated with medicine once an infection occurs, and that’s why it must be administrating when it is supposed to (Brown, 2016, p. 8). Vaccines that protect against bacterial diseases are most of the time resistant to many antibiotics (Offit et al., 2017, p. 125). Even though the number of vaccines has gone up, the total put on the immune system has gone down (Offit et al., 2017, p. 127).

Today’s vaccines are better than the shots from a few decades ago, are better process, with a lot of technology that monitored every step of the way. Our children have safer vaccines today and better protection than we ever got as kids (Brown, 2016, p. 3). At Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to America’s Health Insurance Plans (AHIP), researchers found no evidence indicating an association between vaccines and the risk of acquiring autism or any other diseases (DeStefano et al., 2013, p. 562-563). DeStefano (2013, p. 561) said: “Considerations of biological mechanisms should be taken into consideration when evaluating an association between autism and immunologic stimulation from vaccines early in life”. Allison (2005, p.253) said: “Parents who oppose to compulsory vaccination believe that vaccines are not important to their child’s health and that their children bodies can fight off any diseases”. Most of these parents are misinformed, or simply don’t really care much about getting to know the topic.

Along in this research, we will prove the importance of vaccines in the human life. There has been an in numeral of research about vaccines, but there are not easily for interpretation. Is important to make this research understandable to a much open audience, to make sure parents understand the entire process of vaccines. The education of vaccines need to reinforce and accessible if parents read information about it carefully, they would be calling for compulsory vaccination, and not the other way around.

Methodology:
A survey research is going to be conduct during the months of June-July 2018, with parents around Fairbanks and North Pole, Alaska area, to understand their perceptions and information needs related to childhood immunizations. Telephone interviews are going to be conducted with a stratified sample, parents should be between ages of 18 to 30. Screening is for those who had at least one child under the age of 18. Interview questions are going to investigated parents’ knowledge of administration, schedule, awareness, attitudes and behaviors related to vaccination. Is important that the parents are between the ages of 18 to 30, since the refusal of administering vaccines have emerged in the last 10 years.

The survey is going to be of closed-ended questions in which the respondents are given a list of predetermined responses for them to choose from. These interviews are going to be made by telephone because it will have higher response rates, and the responses can be gathered more quickly. The call will take about 10 to 20 minutes. Is going to be a stratified sampling, which means that we identify the people that have the desired characteristics, then randomly selects a sample of them. Before the interview start, the respondent will be informed of the study’s purpose, content, and duration. Also, the respondents’ identities will remind confidential. In these interviews, the respondents are going to be ask:
Do you have children? YES or NO
What is your age?
18 to 21
22 to 25
26 to 29
30 and up
Your child has received vaccination? YES or NO
Did your child received their vaccinations according to the schedule required by the Health Department? YES or NO
Did you inform yourselves about vaccines? YES or NO
Where do you get your information?
Health provider
Scientific papers
Internet
Facebook
Friend’s stories
NONE
Do you believe there is enough accurate and understandable information for you to read about vaccines? YES or NO
The data analysis will be through the analytical tool MATLAB. We will use inferential statistics because make probability about a population based on trends seen in the data. Findings from this research will be used to inform public education strategies and initiatives.

Broader Implications:
The research will expose the lack of information parents have about the consequences of not administrating vaccines to their children. Is important for the Public Health Department and the Department of Justice to notice how this can put the risk the life of billions of human beings. There have been a lot of research about vaccines, what they do, or they don’t, but these researches are not prepared for multiples audience, closing the information to parents to be able to inform themselves with accurate information. This research will potentially make the health official and non-government organizations to step up and educated and make communication campaigns to promote vaccination. Also, make lawmakers reinforce the requirements for non-medical exemptions from vaccination requirements tied to school and daycare attendance.

Social norms often shape parental choices about vaccination, meaning that parents choose not to vaccinated according to what is acceptable for society. Implementing laws, policies, campaigns, that make parents that choose to forego or delay vaccinations for their children, been reprimanded. Health is an area of concern for all nations, and research that address a common threat, such as infectious diseases that easily cross borders, can open avenues of communication between the United States and other nations. Specific question: What are the reasons parents are choosing to not vaccinate their children? What information they received on vaccines or they received any information at all?

Conclusion:
Vaccine education is not only important for a specific area or state, but for the world. Important first steps in building a better understanding of the importance of routine childhood vaccinations, is basic vaccine information. Is extremely important to know how many parents go without a proper orientation or education about vaccination. This way we can make sure to educate them and be sure parents are making safer decision for the sake of their children and the entire world. Also, this will make Health Department and lawmakers aware of how dangers are becoming the refusal of vaccines and how going without stick regulation can be disastrous for humanity. This is not something we can take lightly, infectious disease are still in the world and evolving, and we need to make sure our children and the entire world is protected and safe.

References:
Biologics Evaluation and Research. (2017, March 27). Vaccines for Children – A Guide for Parents and Caregivers. Retrieved 2018, from https://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/ResourcesforYou/Consumers/ucm345587.htm
Brown, A. (2016). Clear Answers and Smart Advice About Your Baby’s Shots by. Retrieved 2018, from http://www.immunize.org/catg.d/p2068.pdf
Campbell, A. W. (2015). Vaccines: both sides of the same coin. Alternative Therapies In Health And Medicine, 21(4), 8-10.

Destefano, F., Price, C. S., & Weintraub, E. S. (2013). Increasing Exposure to Antibody-Stimulating Proteins and Polysaccharides in Vaccines Is Not Associated with Risk of Autism. The Journals of Pediatrics, 163(2), 561-567. doi:10.1016/j.pepo.2014.07.003
HUNT, K. (2018). Dealing with the out of the ordinary: Most routine childhood immunizations are just that routine. Practice Nurse, 48 (2), 10-14.

Kennedy, A. M., Brown, C. J., & Gust, D. A. (2005). Vaccine Beliefs of Parents Who Oppose Compulsory Vaccination. Public Health Reports, 120(3), 252-258. doi:10.1177/003335490512000306
Offit PA, Quarles J, Gerber MA, et al. (2002). Addressing Parents’ Concerns: Do Multiple Vaccines Overwhelm or Weaken the Infant’s Immune System? American Academy of Pediatrics, 109(1), 124-127. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11773551
Parasidis, E., & Opel, D. J. (2017). Parental refusal of childhood vaccines and medical neglect laws. The American Journal of Public Health, (1), 68-71.

Rao, C. Y., Goryoka, G. W., Henao, O. L., Clarke, K. R., Salyer, S. J., & Montgomery, J. M. (2017). Global Disease Detection–Achievements in Applied Public Health Research, Capacity Building, and Public Health Diplomacy, 2001-2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 23S138-S146.

Silverman, R., & Wiley, L. (2017). Shaming vaccine refusal. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics, 45(4), 569-581. doi:10.1177/1073110517750597
Research connection. (2018). Survey Research and Questionnaires. Retrieve from: https://www.researchconnections.org/childcare/datamethods/survey.jsp

Budget and budget justification:

Investigator and assistant are going to be make the phones, and interviews. MATLAB the tool that is going to analysis the data collected. Computer is to make the input of the data, internet is for the connection with the data analysis, paper and printer to have the data in paper in case of computer damage.