Complex. Training


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. Complex. training. refers. to. a. training. mode. which. combines. strength. exercises. with. a. comparable. plyometric. exercises. to. improve. strength. and. power. of. the. players.. Nowadays,. Complex. training. has. gained. popularity. as. a. better. training. strategy.. The. success. of. Complex. training. is. well. supported. by. research,. studies. and. reports. Recently,. several. researches,. studies. and. reports. also. recommend following. complex. training. method. in. order. to. improve. muscular. power. and. performance. of. players. particularly. for. volleyball. and. basketball.


Complex. training. (CT). is. a. training. method. designed. to. improve. both. strength. and. power. in. the. same. training. session. with. the. combination. of. strength. training. and. plyometric. training.. Before. 1986,. Complex. training. is. a. secret. Russian. training. method. designed. to. increase. strength. and. power. Fleck. and. Kontor. wrote. the. ?rst. peer-reviewed. article. on. Complex. training. after. visiting. the. Soviet. Union. in. 1986.. The. author. describes. that,. the. procedure. of. Complex. training. is. performed. by. the. use. of. a. heavy. resistant. exercise. followed. by. a. lighter. exercise. of. a. similar. biomechanical. movement. pattern.. The. heavy. resistant. exercise. also. referred. to. as. the. training. activity,. can. be. in. the. form. of. a. slow. speed/. high. load. exercise. or. a. high. speed/moderate. load. exercise. (i.e.,. 4. to. 12. repetition. maximum).. The. pairing. of. 2. biomechanically. similar. exercises. (i.e.,. squats. and. vertical. jumps). is. termed. a. “complex. pair”. Complex. training. combines. a. slow,. heavy. strength. exercise.. The. idea. is. to. use. the slow, heavy. movement. to. maximally. recruit. the. nervous. system. and. then. take. advantage. of. that. with. the. fast. exercise.. More. specifically,. complex. training. alternates. biomechanically. similar. strength. training. exercises. with. plyometric. exercises. in. the. same. workout.. For. example. set. of. squats. followed. by. a. set. of. squat. jumps,. etc.. Previously,. Ebben. and. Watts. (1998). reviewed. the. complex. training. literature. and. described. the. success. of. combining. strength. training. and. plyometric. training.. Further,. the. authors. suggested. for. designing. complex. training. programs,. and. recommended. research. to. assess. the. possible success. of. complex. training.. The. purpose. of. this. article. is. to. know. about. the. facts. of. Complex. training.

Complex. Training.

Complex. training. integrates. strength. training,. plyometric. training,. and. sometimes. sport-specific. movement.. Complex. training. is. a. training. method. with. a. combination. of. several. different. exercises. in. to. one. i.e.,. strength. exercise. often. resistance. based. followed. by. a. matched. plyometric. exercise. e.g.

• Squats. followed. by. Squat. jumps.
• Split. leg. squats. followed. by. Lateral. bounds. (Ice. skaters).

The. logic. behind. these. matched. pair. of. exercises. is. that. the. resistance. work. gets. the. Central. Nervous. System. (CNS). into. full. action. so. that. more. muscle. ?bres. are. available. for. the. explosive. exerciseso. as. to. achieve. a. better. training. bene?t. Complex. training,. also. known. as. contrast. training. or. Post-Activation. Potentiation training,. involves. the. integration. of. strength. training. and. plyometric. in. a. Training system. designed. to. improve. explosive. power.. According. to. Robbins,. Post-Activation. Potentiation. (PAP). is. a. phenomenon. by. which. the. force. exerted. by. a. muscle. is. increased. due. to. its. previous. contraction.. Post-activation. potentiation. is. a. theory. that. purports. that. the. contractile. history. of. a. muscle. influences. the. mechanical. performance. of. subsequent. muscle. contraction.. Players needs. to. be. physically. fresh. and motivated. to. achieve. best. benefit. from. Complex. training.. Hard. aerobic. or. anaerobic. sessions. for. at. least. 48. hours. before. a. complex. session. are. should avoid.. Avoid. any. static. stretching. exercises. as. this. will. relax. the. muscles. and. reduce. force. production. potential.. Correct. rest. periods. be. ensured.

Thus. Complex. training. improves. sports. performance. of. players. particularly. for. volleyball. and. basketball.

Training. Methods

A. complex. training. set. involves. performing. two. exercises. back. to. back,. with. a. brief. rest. period. in. between.. Generally,. complex. training. program. can. be. used. in. three. phase’s viz general. phase,. speci?c. phase. and. competition. phase. of. training.. According. to. Brandon. (1999). the. following. are. example. workouts. for. each. phase.

? General. Phase

In. general. phase. the. players. should. complete. all. sets. of. the. strength. exercise. with. a. recovery. of. 60. seconds/set. followed. by. a. three. minute. rest. and. then complete. all. sets. of. the. matched. plyometric. exercise. with. a. recovery. of. 90. second/set. e.g..

Exercise Reps Rest/Set
Squats 3. ×. 6. RM 60. seconds
Split. Leg Squats 3. ×. 6. RM 60. seconds
3. minutes. rest
Squat Jumps 3. ×. 6 90. seconds
Lateral. bounds. (Ice. skaters) 3. ×. 6 90. seconds

3. ×. 6. RM. means. 3. sets. with. 6. repetitions. max. (RM).

? Speci?c. Phase

In. the. speci?c. phase. the. plyometric. exercises. must. be. speci?c. to. your. sport/event.. The. Players should. perform. one. set. of. strength. exercise. immediately. followed. by. one. set. of. the. Plyometric. exercise. e.g.. 6. squats,. 6. squat. jumps,. 3. minutes. rest,. 6. squats,. 6. squat. jumps. (with. minimal. recovery. between. the. squats. and. squat. jumps).

Exercise Reps Rest/Exercise
Squats ;S quat. jumps 3. ×. 6. (8RM). 3. ×. 6 3. minutes
Split. Leg. Squats ; Lateral. bounds. (Ice. skaters) 3. ×. 6. (8RM). 3. ×. 6 3. minutes

. 3. ×. 6. (8RM). means. 3. sets. of. 6. repetitions. with8. repetitions. max. (RM).

? Competition. Phase

In. the. competition. phase. the. plyometric. exercises. must. be. speci?c. to. your. sport/event.. Same. training. as. in. specific. phase. is. followed. in. completion. phase. with. an. increase. in. repetitions.. The. Players should. perform. one. set. of. strength. exercise. immediately. followed. by. one. set. of. the. Plyometric. exercise. with. maximum. repetitions. e.g.. 6. squats,. 6. squat. jumps,. 5. minutes. rest,. 6. squats,. 6. squat. jumps. (with. minimal. recovery. between. the. squats. and. drop. jumps)..

Exercise Reps Rest/Exercise
Squats ; SquatJumps 3. ×. 6. (12RM). 3. ×. 6 5. minutes
Split. Leg. Squats ;. Lateral. bounds. (Ice. skaters) 3. ×. 6. (12RM). 3. ×. 6 5. minutes

3. ×. 6. (12RM). means. 3. sets. of. 6. repetitions. with12. repetitions. max. (RM).

Note.. Proper. Warm. up/dynamic. stretching. before. beginning. and. Cool. down. /static. stretching. after. finishing. complex. training. must. be. ensured.


Complex. training. allows getting. a. lot. of. work. done. in. the. shortest. possible. time.. By. combining. several. exercises. into. one. extended. exercise. the. training. time. as. well. as. total. work. output. is. maximized.. Complex. training. greatly. increases. intensity. due. to. the. nature. of. its. effect.. It. is. a. great. training. tool. to. prepare. the. body. for. intense. activity.. It. builds. muscle. stamina. and. endurance.. By. combining. different. exercises. into. one. exercise. you. can. target. multiple. muscle. groups. at. once.. This. improve. muscle. activity. and. the. need. to. flexible. the. muscles. with. energy. so. that. the. body. work. harder. to. breakdown. carbohydrate. molecules. which. can. be. used. for. energy.. More. calories. are. burned. when. the. body. works. harder. to. breakdown. carbohydrates.. Complex. training. workout. is. a. great. way. to. burn. maximum. total. calories.. As. complex. training. is. somewhat. similar. to. circuit. training,. it. also. creates. somewhat. of. a. cardiovascular. effect. in. the. body.


‘Complex. training. allows. the. players. to. work. the. muscle. fibres. in. conjunction. with. the. nervous. system. in. such. a. way. that. the. slow-twitch. fibres. are. taught. to. behave. like. fast-twitch. fibres. Such. a. process. is. also. referred. to. as. muscle. fibre. type. shifting. Moreover. increase. in. fast-twitch. muscle. fibres. from. slow-twitch. muscle. fibres. occurs. due. to. the. long. term. training. effects. of. complex. training. Generally,. the. aim. of. complex. training. is. to. stimulate. the. players. to. develop. more. muscle. fibres. by. which. strength. can. be. expressed. quickly. for. greater. power. generation. The. way. complex. training. works,. in. theory,. is. that. the. isometric. part. of. the. exercise. will. cause. the. muscle. fibres. which. are. typically. recruited. for. a. given. movement. to. become. fatigued.. The. sport. specific. plyometric. movement. which. immediately. follows. the. isometric. movement. will. then. require. the. neuromuscular. system. to. recruit. new. muscle. fibres,. since. the. fibres. typically. recruited. are. now. fatigued.. The. end. result. is. that. more. muscle. fibres. are. recruited. when. performing. a. particular. movement. enabling. you. to. jump. higher. or. do. a. more. difficult. move.’.


. The. ambition. in. a. complex. training. regime. is. not. just. to. achieve. better. results. in. an. individual. workout. but. also. to. condition. the. players. so. that. they. can. perform. more. powerfully. as. a. standard. Subjective explanation,. previous. research,. studies. and. reports. on. the. topic. suggest. complex. training. is. an. area. of. interest. for. training. professionals.. Empirically. minded. professionals. have. responded. with. data. to. guide. the. application. of. complex. training. While. implementing. Complex. training. the. factors. such. astraining. age,. training. history,. degree. of. absolute. strength,. exercise. selection,. load,. duration. of. the. session,. and. days. of. recovery,. as. well. as. which. individual. is. a. responder. to. the. training. activity. should. be. considered.. The. goal. of. complex. training. over. long-term. training. is. to. intensely. enhance. power. output. in. tasks. such. as. volleyball. and. basketball.. Hence,. complex. training. is. an. efficient. way. to. improve. strength. and. power. of. players.

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