Conceptual – Theoretical – Empirical

Conceptual – Theoretical – Empirical (CTE) Structure Evaluation
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Conceptual – Theoretical – Empirical (CTE) Structure Evaluation
Watson’s Theory of Human Caring
One of the middle range and commonly used nursing theories is the Watson’s theory of human caring (Butts & Rich, 2018). Middle range theories are specific to certain phenomena in the nursing profession, which may include pain or stress (Butts & Rich, 2018). These theories have been tested and proved effective in their application. Middle range theories are made easy to understand and apply (Butts & Rich, 2018). Watson’s theory of human caring aims at improving the patient and the healthcare practitioner relationship, which will lead to improved care to the patient (Butts ; Rich, 2018). Health care practitioners are educated on the benefits of the Watson’s theory and its application. Caring for the patients requires that a healthcare giver to be compassionate as caring is the main reason for the nursing profession (Butts & Rich, 2018).
Caring for patients improves the health of the patients, which is the main goal of health care profession (Alligood, 2014). Watson’s theory states that the nursing profession main aim is to better and improve the health of individuals, which can be achieved by implementing preventive measures to prevent illnesses, caring for those already sick, and ensuring that they regain their normal health through the treatment of illnesses (Alligood, 2014). Caring for the patients will enable all other objectives of the nursing profession to be achieved. Healthcare practitioners should practice caring for their patients, which will enhance healing. Watson’s theory of caring can be applied by health care practitioners acceptance of all patients regardless their social status, race, or any other factors which may promote discrimination (Alligood, 2014).

Evaluation of the Conceptual-Theoretical- Empirical Linkages
The Watson’s theory addresses how a caring relationship can impact the value and experiences of patients (Sitzman, Watson, ; Watson Caring Science Institute, 2014). The nursing profession should evolve around care as it is the important aspect for patients. Watson’s theory of human caring positively impacts the nursing profession from the education, the research process, and the application of nursing knowledge by the healthcare professionals (Sitzman, Watson, & Watson Caring Science Institute, 2014). This theory brought new perceptions of the nursing profession. Watson’s theory provides an ethical background of nursing.
Lack of caring for patients will lead to negative patient outcomes, which will decrease the quality of health care, and so it is important to address the issue of care and incorporate it into the nursing profession. Caring for patients can involve psychological support, social, physical, and spiritual support to patients in helping them in the recovery process (Sitzman, Watson, ; Watson Caring Science Institute, 2014). Watson’s theory of human caring is represented in almost all nursing specialties (Sitzman, Watson, & Watson Caring Science Institute, 2014). Watson’s theory represents the relationship between caring for the patients and the health care outcomes and has been tested through the process of research (Sitzman, Watson, ; Watson Caring Science Institute, 2014).
Previous tests have indicated a positive outcome after application of the caring concept (Sitzman, Watson, ; Watson Caring Science Institute, 2014). The theory further explains the changes expected to occur if the concept of caring is applied. Watson analysed individuals and how caring can be applied to the different components of individuals, which include the mind, the spirit, and the body(Sitzman, Watson, ; Watson Caring Science Institute, 2014). The Watson’s theory can be applied in the context of treating a patient and providing support to ensure that the patient fully regains his/her full health through a process, which involves the healthcare practitioner applying the theory in his/her practice (Sitzman, Watson, & Watson Caring Science Institute, 2014).

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Evaluation of the Selected Theory
Jean Watson who invented the Watson’s theory believes that nursing involves a strong relationship between the nurse and the patient where care must be applied to receive a positive outcome (Owens ; Gardner-Webb University, 2013). This relationship is important and caring for the patients indicates the value of the patients who are the main subjects and consumers of health services in the nursing profession (Owens ; Gardner-Webb University, 2013). In past research conducted using the Fawcett and Downs tool, the Watson theory indicated a positive relationship between the theory application and the results (Owens ; Gardner-Webb University, 2013). The Watson’s theory plays an important role than all other aspects of the nursing profession.

Caring has a high impact on the human behavior (Owens & Gardner-Webb University, 2013). The Watson’s theory is of a high significance in the nursing profession as it has positive impacts in the profession. Criticism of these theory involves the aspect of caring alone cannot be sufficient enough to guarantee positive outcomes as there are also other important aspect of the health care profession (Owens ; Gardner-Webb University, 2013). These critics also argue that care and the complex process involved in the delivering of health care services cannot be measured. Some individuals argue that the health care practitioners do not easily understand the Watson’s language, which makes the theory not accessible to application (Owens & Gardner-Webb University, 2013).
Evaluation of the Empirical Indicators
An empirical indicator can be defined as substitute for the Watson’s theory, which is a specific, and a concrete concept (Owens ; Gardner-Webb University, 2013). Watson stated that empirical indicators constitute the tools, which health care practitioners and researchers use in the application of the theory (Owens ; Gardner-Webb University, 2013). The empirical indicators may include the medical procedures, equipment, and policies used by health care practitioners in the application of the Watson’s theory in giving care to the patients (Owens & Gardner-Webb University, 2013). This theory interconnects all these other different elements, which plays an important role in the improvement of knowledge and skills in the nursing sector. To achieve the human care aspect in the nursing sector, there are several procedures, policies, and other resources that are necessary and must be implemented to create a suitable environment for staff member to apply this theory (Owens & Gardner-Webb University, 2013).
Evaluation of Research Findings
Research findings have indicated that the Watson’s theory can be tested using the methods used in the studying of caring in the nursing profession which can be done using the qualitative and the quantitative research methods (Alligood, 2014). Watson also provided researchers with the guidelines to use during research and a table of what instruments that may be used by researchers during the research process. These instruments are capable of measuring the Watson’s theory and its reliability (Alligood, 2014).
These arguments have faced a lot of opposition by researchers who argue that it is not possible to measure care or compassion because if this had been possible, it would be also easy to measure other health aspects, which may include the level of stress and the quality of life of individuals (Alligood, 2014). Some individuals argue that other concepts related to the Watson’s theory should also have empirical indicators, which are able to test the relationship between the concepts (Alligood, 2014). Research findings have also indicated the application of the Watson’s theory on other nursing theoretical frameworks, which include determining the relationship between caring for the patient and their safety and the relationship between caring for patients and the level of their health status (Alligood, 2014).
Evaluation of the Utility and Soundness of the Practice Theory
The Watson’s theory has been proved to surpass cultural and global boundaries and has been accepted in many health are setting all across the globe (Amendolair, 2012). Watson’s theory has been incorporated in research, education, and health care practices as it is important and able to fit in all health care settings as caring for the patient is the major aspect of the health care sector (Amendolair, 2012). This has led to Watson’s theory being accepted by all healthcare settings in different settings since all health care settings have a major goal of having positive patient outcomes, which can be guaranteed with the implementation of the Watson’s theory into their practice (Amendolair, 2012).

The only challenge facing the application of the Watson’s theory is the lack of knowledge by the health care practitioners, which may be hindered by the difference in language settings, and some places, which are not used to applying nursing theories and stick to the traditional nursing methods (Amendolair, 2012). The advantage of the Watson’s theory is that it can be applied in different health care settings and populations as it is not bias and its main motive is ensuring that patients are well cared for especially patients with chronic illnesses who need care in recovering from these illnesses (Amendolair, 2012).

References
Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing theorists and their work. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier.

Amendolair, D. (2012). Caring model: Putting research into practice. International Journal for Human Caring, 16(4), 14-21.

Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2018). Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice. Burlington, Massachusetts: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Owens, M. M., & Gardner-Webb University. (2013). The effects of Watson’s Theory of Caring and the Nurse Utilization of Caring Attributes. Boiling Springs, North Carolina: Gardner-Webb University.

Sitzman, K., Watson, J., ; Watson Caring Science Institute. (2014). Caring science, mindful practice: Implementing Watson’s human caring theory. New York: Springer Publishing Company: Watson Caring Science Institute.