In conclusion, the information above has shown that different candies have different properties in both crystalline & non-crystalline candy. Crystalline candies such as fondant and fudge, are made using lower final temperature and have a lower concentration of sugar in their final stage. Unlike crystalline candies, non-crystalline candies such as hard candies, caramel, and marshmallows have a higher concentration of sugar which requires a higher temperature during its manufacturing stage. The most obvious difference between crystalline candies and non-crystalline candies is the presence of interfering agents. To make crystalline candy, interfering agents is not needed but to make non-crystalline candy, interfering agents is required to prevent crystallisation of sugar.
Sugar syrup can be produced with the heating of sucrose with water itself, but sometimes the process is slow that manufacturers will add lemon juice, cream of tartar or any catalysts that can speed up the process without changing the sweetness of the sugar. Most of the sugar can be quickly inverted by the mixing of sugar and citric acid or cream of tartar, at the ratio of 1:1000 by weight and adding water. Meanwhile, invert sugar syrup can be produced by heating, without the help of any acids or enzymes. From there onwards, different ingredients and solutions are added, to give its flavour and texture. The sugar mixture is then left for crystallization, this will determine whether it is a crystalline candy or non-crystalline candy.
Fondant and fudge are the examples of crystalline candies, they are soft and easy to be chewed. The sugar syrup is first left to cool until it becomes like a soft ball at a temperature of 112° C, it is then left to cool until it reaches 43°C. At this stage, this is where crystallization must occur at which the mixing of a cream of tartar will make the soft ball more intact. The ball is then laid on a flat surface with corn syrup to make either a rolled fondant or poured fondant.
However for fudge, it becomes more thicker as it progressively gets blended. It will form more tiny crystals which give its usual smooth and thick texture.
Non-crystalline candies such as hard candies are made of high concentration of sugar syrup or sugar solution that is boiled at high temperature at around 146-154°C until it begins to evaporate to form sugar crystals. At this point, interfering agents is added to prevent crystallization of candy. After adding interfering agents, the solution is left cool on a flat surface and is prepared to be flavoured, coloured and shaped.
Caramel is a non-crystalline candy which is sometimes in sticky liquid form. To make caramel,sugar solution which is heated to 170°C. Then, butter is added to contribute to the smooth buttery looking of caramel at the end of caramelization.
Marshmallows is another example of non-crystalline candy but it has larger size and bouncy texture. To make marshmallows, sugar syrup is heated to 130°C and then mix with gelatin. The gelatin is added to give the marshmallows firm bouncy looking while whipped egg white is added to give the marshmallows a smooth texture.