Contrary elastic limit and modulus. All solids have

Contrary to popular belief steel is more elastic than rubber. This is due to the elastic limit and modulus. All solids have modulus and when deformed have potential energy. Catapults are a great example of this. To begin with solids have different amounts of elasticity. The definition of elasticity is the ability of a solid to revert to its original form. The more elastic something is the higher the elastic limit. Modulus is how flexible an object is.

The lower the modulus the higher the flexibility. Steel is more elastic than rubber, because when rubber stretches the molecules start sliding  apart. The modulus of steel is 193-207, depending on the type of steel. Rubber has a modulus of 0.001-0.05. Strain can be measured with pounds per square inch or pascals.

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When the strain is greater than the elastic limit, the object won’t revert back to the original form. On the topic of strain, the pascal is used in the metric system. A pascal=0.000145 pounds per square inch. A pascal is the force of 1 newton over 1 square meter. The pascal was named after French physicist Blaise Pascal.

Blaise Pascal lived from 1623-1662. He was a French physicist, mathematician, and philosopher. Created Pascal’s Law which states that fluid in a vessel puts pressure equally on all sides of the vessel.

He also proved that air has weight and air can create a vacuum. He also came up with Pascal’s Triangle which calculates probability. Nobody denies that forms of potential energy exist.

The four kinds of mechanical potential energy are elastic, gravitational, chemical, and nuclear. Elastic energy is caused by the deformation of a solid. Gravitational energy is caused by a material when it moves away from a massive object like the planets or stars. Chemical energy is the energy that is stored in between the bonds that hold molecules together. It is released when other molecules form or break apart. Nuclear energy is stored in the nucleus of an atom.

This energy is released when the atom undergoes fission or fusion. Fission is when one atom splits into multiple atoms. An example of this is a nuclear warhead. Fusion is when two atoms collide at mass speeds. An example is when two hydrogen atoms form one helium atom in the sun. There are few jobs that revolve around elasticity, like engineering, but there are hobbies, like catapults. When the catapult is thought of, most people think of the mangonel, but this is not the only one.

There are trebuchets onagers and ballistae in addition to the mangonel. The mangonel and ballistae are the only ones that use elasticity, the others use weight. HoSince the mangonel is most common this will explain how it works. The main parts are the bucket, restraining rope, payload, arm, rope, frame, Cantilever-type spring or torsion-type spring. The bucket holds the payload, w There are few jobs that revolve around elasticity, like engineering, but there are hobbies, like catapults. When the catapult is thought of, most people think of the mangonel, but this is not the only one. There are trebuchets onagers and ballistae in addition to the mangonel.

The mangonel and ballistae are the only ones that use elasticity, the others use weight. HoSince the mangonel is most common this will explain how it works. The main parts are the bucket, restraining rope, payload, arm, rope, frame, Cantilever-type spring or torsion-type spring. The bucket holds the payload, usually a rock.

The rope is for elasticity, and the restraining rope is for holding the bucket down. The arm is attached to the frame and the bucket. The frame holds it all together. A cantilever type spring is what most office supply catapults have. Here is an example.usually a rock. The rope is for elasticity, and the restraining rope is for holding the bucket down. The arm is attached to the frame and the bucket.

The frame holds it all together. A cantilever type spring is what most office supply catapults have. Here is an example. The torsion-type string has no rope up top. Instead, the rope is in the frame. The rope gets twisted to apply the right amount of force. On the next page is how the torsion spring works.

Since the mangonel relies on the deformation of an object the distance will vary far greater than the trebuchet and onager which use weight. The mangonel also fires ammunition at a shorter distance, due to this fact. Elasticity is an incredibly important thing to know about, because there are jobs and hobbies.

It is used for structural integrity of buildings, and in catapults firing mechanisms.