Conventionally, of natural disasters). A SG is divided into

a ‘grid’ is an electromechanical system that provides one-way communication of
electricity from the generation station to the consumers. This paper introduces
the concept of two-way communication of electricity using a ‘smart grid’. A
‘smart grid’ uses a sensor networks to collect data and is programmed to act on
its own based on the data collected without requiring human intervention.

idea of Smart Grid(SG) was introduced to improve energy efficiency and
reliability with the capability of self-healing (in case of natural disasters).
A SG is divided into three major systems. The first is a ‘Smart Infrastructure’
that is the system that enables for the two-way flow of electricity and
information from the sensor networks. Like the classical power grid, the Smart
infrastructure is divided into Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution.
The smart energy subsystem consists of the power generation, transmission and
distribution. At the generation side, a concept of distributed generation(DG)
is introduced to account for the power generated by the consumers using
distributed generation resources such as solar panels, wind turbines etc. Large
deployments of DGs lead to a decentralized power system that enhances the
reliability. Transmission in SGs involve control centers, smart power
transmission networks and smart substations, that are built on the existing
ones to control, visualize, analyze and monitor the SG. At the distribution
end, electricity may be delivered as packets that contain information of the
electricity that is to be distributed. Deployment of DGs also promotes the
concept of ‘microgrid’, which is a local grouping of electrical generations and
storage of energy. The concept of microgrid is to be connected to macrogrid but
can be isolated during the generation stage locally. Another concept that
emerges from the SG is the ‘Vehicle to Grid’ and ‘Grid to Vehicle’ with the
modern world developing more electric vehicles(EV). EVs can communicate with
the grid when parked. The future work in ‘Smart infrastructure’ are in
effective utilization of the renewable energy sources, utilization of G2V and
V2G concept from EVs, large deployment of SGs.

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smart information subsystem mainly is divided into smart metering and smart
monitoring and management. The smart meters the measures the consumption of
users and also connects and disconnects based on the usage of consumers. It
also acts as support system for two-way communication between central system
and meter. The information exchanged is used to regulate power flows. The smart
monitoring and measurement system consists of sensor networks and Phasor
measurement units. Sensor networks are embedded into the power grid that
continuously assess the condition of the grid and transmission lines. The data
is collected in real time and appropriate control measures are taken to when a
situation such as a power failure occurs. With all the advantages, the sensors
must be calibrated appropriately and maintained remotely with high security to
prevent hacking. The Phasor measurement unit(PMU) determines the health of an
electrical grid by measuring the electrical waves. Since, there is a delay
between the power generation and reaching the consumer, phasors play an
important role to measure the heath of the system. PMUs are mainly used for
grid protection and health maintenance of the power system. The information
obtained from these sensor networks, PMUs and smart meters need to be managed
efficiently. The task of information management systems is to model the data
obtained, analyze the data and find optimal solutions for the system based on
the information obtained.

smart communication subsystem mainly consists of wired and wireless
technologies. Wired technology is mainly fiber optics and powerline
communications. Fiber optics is used for its high bandwidth and reliability. Powerline
communications(PLC) is used in the modern day of remote metering and load
applications. Wireless technology consists of cellular communication, wireless
mesh network, radio communication, satellite communication and optical
communication. Wireless mesh networks are used for increased reliability and
high data rate. Radio communications is carried out in antennas and provide
reliability and latency in coverage. Mobile communications are used to remotely
monitor using mobile phones. Satellite communications is also used for remote
monitoring and coverage of a wider area but has a delay issue. Optical
communication is more secure way of transmitting information but has a
disadvantage of getting blocked or disturbed by obstructions in between the
line of sight.

‘Smart Management System’ that manages the ‘Smart Infrastructure’ by regulating
the norms based on demand and improve the efficiency. The management objectives
are energy efficiency, utility cost and emission control. Energy efficiency
mainly focuses on managing demands and reduce energy losses. Utility cost
focuses improving utility quality while increasing profit and reduce cost of
utility. Emission control is used to reduce the emissions of CO2 caused by
electricity generation. The managements methods and tools involve optimization,
machine learning, game theory and Auction. Mathematical tools such as convex,
dynamic, stochastic, robust and particle swarm programming concepts are used to
optimize problems quickly with the limitations of the system. Machine learning
algorithms are used to train the system to emulate human behavior and predict
future trends based on the data collected. Game theory is used to analyze and
account for differential pricing and marketing trend. Auction can be used in future
when users have their own microgrids.

third is the ‘Smart Protection System’ that acts as a backup plan if the
existing system fails due to some reason (such as natural disasters). The Smart
protection system provides reliability and contains failure protection
mechanism. System reliability comes into picture when DGs get deployed into the
system. Failure protection mechanism mainly consists of prediction and
prevention mechanism and failure identification, diagnosis and recovery. Since
machine learning is used to predict future behavior based on the data obtained,
preventive measures can be taken before a disaster (such as blackouts) can be
avoided. In case a failure occurs, wide deployment of PMUs on the SGs can be
used to check for phasors, network parameters and error identifications.
Self-healing capabilities of the SG are introduced by dividing into microgrids
that function independently.

and Privacy is another aspect of ‘Smart Protection System’ to prevent hacking
of the system. Smart meters must be provided with security to prevent from
hackers to manipulate meter readings and data. Individual meter privacy also
should be maintained to prevent other users to study the trend of data. Also,
since data is transmitted at every instant, the transmitted data also should be
prevented from malicious attacks. Various protocols and intrusion detection
mechanisms are used to protect and prevent against attacks. Supervisory Control
and Data Acquisition(SCADA) systems are used to monitor the SGs, with the data
obtained from different grids in the system and control the SGs from a central

Artificial intelligence gaining a steady growth in the modern day, the
importance of smart grid is also increasing. This article provides a summary of
the smart grid and the different system partitions. Though it has a lot of
advantages, many aspects are to be considered for practical use of the smart
grid system. Firstly, due to large initial costs, the deployment of the SGs
should be analyzed and should be done efficiently. Secondly, the SG being a
complex system, experienced information and communication technology sectors
are required for accurate analysis. Thirdly, with all the advantages, the SG
should be widely accepted by the customers. Initiatives should be taken to
create awareness among customers to opt for Smart Grid Technology. Fourthly,
the protection becomes another important perspective. Security is generally
compromised to increase the profit and reduce the costs. In summary, Smart Grid
is an environment friendly, reliable and revolutionary technology. However, to
practically deploy these, improve the technology to be safe from malicious
attacks and completely make it self-capable is a farfetched agenda.