Cyrus was born during the period of 600–599BC. He was son of Cambyses I King of Anshan and Mandane daughter of Astyagesthe King of Media, Cyrus was grown up as king by his father Cambyses I ,hisGrandfather Cyrus I and great-grandfather. Cyrus married Cassandane who was anAchaemenian or Persian and the daughter of Pharnaspes who bore him two sons,Cambyses II and Bardiya along with three daughters, Atossa, Arty stone, andRoxane.
Cyrus and Cassandane were known to love each other very much Cassandanethe love between them can realize through Cassandane words, ”she found it more bitter to leave Cyrus thanto depart her life”After cassandane’s death Cyrus put all overhis attention on public affairs throughout the kingdom. It is also noted thatCyrus was originally named ”Agradates” by his step-parents according to thatwhen reuniting to his real family with his original family following the namingcustoms his father Cambyses I named him Cyrus after his grandfather who wasCyrus I. Afterhis father’s death, Cyrus the great took responsibility of throne as emperor ofPersian empire at Pasargadae which was capital of Achaemenian empire under Cyrusthe Great rule. The Persian Empire was foundedby Cyrus the Great in 550 BC it also called Achaemenid Empire after becomingking of Persian Empire he went to war against Astyages the last king of theMedian empire(585–550BC) according to some ancient scripts, the AchaemenianCyrus the Great was Astyages grandson through his daughter Mandane, but thisrelationship is probably legendary. According to Babylonian inscriptions,Cyrus, king of Anshan in south-western Iran began war against Astyages in 553BC and in 550 BC the Median troops rebelled and Astyages was taken as a prisoner.Then Cyrus occupied Ecbatana the Median capital city in modern Iran Hamadancity. The Persian Empire was based in Western Asian of World the empire wasexpanded from the Eastern Europe in the west to the Indus Valley in the east itwas one of the largest empires in ancient history, Persian empire had land areaof 5.5 million square kilometers and was larger than any previous empire inhistory.
The Persian Empire was renowned throughout in history for itssuccessful model of a centralized governance, building infrastructure such asroad systems and a postal system throughout all over in Empire, the use of anofficial language across its territories, and the development of civil services,facilities and a large professional army. The Persian empire got enough successin its political and social system that later inspired other empires to adoptthose similar system. By the 7th century BC the Persians had settled in thesouthwestern portion of the Iranian region which came to be their heartland.From this region Cyrus the Great first time came to defeat the Medes, Lydia,and the Neo-Babylonian Empire, establishing the Achaemenid Empire or PersianEmpire.
Cyrus The Great was kindleader and he was creator of First Chartered Human Rights. He helped everyperson living in his territory mostly Jewish he helped Jewish to get free frombrutality of Babylonian empire it is also called Babylonian exile or Babyloniancaptivity it is the period in Jewish history during which a number of peoplefrom the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia they were livingas slaves in under rule of Babylonian emperor and then famous Babylonianconquest or Battle of Opis happened. At thetime of the Battle of Opis, Persian was the leading power in the Near East itspower had grown vastly under its king, Cyrus The Great, who had conquered ahuge territories to create an empire that covered an area corresponding to themodern countries of Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kyrgyzstan andAfghanistan. The only remaining significant unconquered power in the Near Eastwas the Neo-Babylonian Empire, which controlled Mesopotamia and other kingdomssuch as Syria, Judea, Phoenicia and some land of Arab region.
It had beenclosely linked with Cyrus’s enemies. The Babylonian Empire was previously formallycooperating with emperor Croesus of Lydian Empire for a military or other purpose,the Lydian kingdom was overrun by the Persian king Cyrus a few years before the invasion ofBabylonia. During the time of the battle of Opis, Babylonia was in badgeopolitical situation not giving hope of future success or good result, the Persianempire territory was bordered to Babylonian empire from three sides to the north,east and west. The Empire was also been suffering different economic problemslike shortage of facilities, food and its king Nabonidus was said to be unpopularamong many of his people for his bad religious and social policies which were notbased on or comply with rules, standards, or laws to what is generally done orbelieved by people.
Duringthe aftermath between two empire thedefeat of Babylonian empire at Opis appears to have ended without any seriousresistance to the Persian invasion. The Nabonidus Chronicle was emperor of Babylonianempire at that time. The battle occur on the fourteenth day on 6 October whereSippar a city of Babylonian empire was captured without battle. Nabonidus waspresent in Sippar when the Persians arrived there, Cyrus remained in Sippar andon the sixteenth day on 12 October governor of Gutium state and the army ofCyrus entered Babylon without any battle. Nabonidus himself was capturedshortly afterward when he returned to Babylon. According to the 3rd century BCBabylonian historian Berossus, king Nabonidus had no way to go and hesurrendered to Persian army and was deported to jail in Carmania (State/city ofPersian empire), where he lived his last days of life and died some years later.
Persian troops took control of the city though the Nabonidus Chronicle provideslittle detail of how this was done. Seventeen days later, on 29 October Cyrushimself entered Babylon, where he was proclaimed king, he issued royalproclamations being new king of Babylon and appointed governors of his newlyconquered land. Cyrus The Great shown quality of being tolerant to peoplegiving freedom to Jewish to go back to their Holy city Jerusalem by fall ofBabylonian empire.
We can realize his intentions for humanity through his ownwords, ”Wheneveryou can, act as a liberator. Freedom, dignity, wealth these three together makesthe greatest happiness of humanity. If you leave all those three quality uponyour people, their love for you will never die”. During the rule of Cyrus the GreatPersian empire reached its high peaks he made Empire an Absolute monarchy andhe also made Persian empire political structure to work and depend on toleranceand diplomacy which later after his death followed by Darius I .
Cyrus theGreat build new infrastructures in cities and villages living style of peoplewas shifted towards betterment and improved. The historical mark of the PersianEmpire went far beyond its territory and military influences included cultural,social, technological as well as religious influences. Many people adoptedPersian customs in their daily lives some being employed or allied to thePersian kings. The Persian empire also started to use of advance politicsduring rule of Cyrus. He created a new centralized government or administrationin which Persian Empire was divided into 23 small regions called satrapies orinto states and governors or satraps were made to rule those regions and onlyKing of Empire had a power for choosing those governors even though PersianEmpire had efficient and strong army to protect its territory. The King ofPersian Empire Cyrus the Great was considered as a divine person Cyrus made a force officially known as”immortals”” to protect empire and himself from any danger, Alsoother force was created known as ”king spies” to kept watch on various satrapiesto make sure there is no any uprising The Cyrus was following Zoroastrianism religion and all Persian peoplewere following Zoroastrianism, in this religion there is Prophet called ”Zoroaster”and God ”Ahura Mazda”. There are three concepts in religion there is only oneGod the singularly creative and sustaining force of the Universe and that humanbeings are given a right of choice in this religion, there is a concept of judgmentafter death and also last concept of good deeds will led you go to Heaven andevil deeds will led you go to Hell. The Persian empire played instrumental rolein the spread of Zoroastrianism as far east as China.
This religion shares many central concepts with the major world religions ofJudaism, Christianity, and Islam.