DEFINITION having a nationality and being outside the country

DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS

Asylum
Seeker:

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“A
person who has left his/her country of origin and formally applied for asylum
in another country, but whose application has not yet been concluded.” (Anon n.d.)

 Refugee:

“A
person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of
race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or
political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or,
owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that
country; or who not having a nationality and being outside the country of his
former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to
such fear, is unwilling to return to it”(Echr-cedh
1998).

 

Fertility:

“It is the ability for a woman to conceive a
child and give birth to her children. Fertility incentives are the state
benefit that is accrued to both mother and child in order to support the family
which aims at subsidizing the welfare of the family by providing cheap houses,
child support payment, and free education, mother welfare payments for stay
home mothers or temporary unemployed due to childbearing”(Anon n.d.).

 

AIM

The aim of this paper is to
examine the quick response by the women to fertility and its benefits on
arrival in Germany. This paper also seeks to understand the cause and the
reason for the migration patterns from their places of origin and choice of Germany
as a destination.

 

HYPOTHESIS

It is to assess the
relationship between female migrants’ social benefits on fertility and their
increased fertility desires for more children.

 

 

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

Migration
Trends.

By statistical analysis, about 20 percent of the
population have migration backgrounds and that makes Germany one of the
European countries with the largest migrant population. The largest migrant
groups in Germany are those from the former Soviet Union, followed by the
groups are made up of ethnic Turks, numbering about three million and is very
often spoken of as Germany’s largest non-native population group. The next on
the list are people from Southern Europe, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain, next
are those from the Far East and the Middle East and finally, people from
Africa, the smallest of the groups. The demographically youngest migrant groups
found in Germany are those with Turkish and African backgrounds and they are the
groups with the highest birth rates (Kreyenfeld 2010).

African Immigrants are relatively young at the time
of arrival; unlike the other migrant groups under consideration. This group
continues to grow solely on the basis of their high fertility rates, while the
native population have been shrinking for decades; since migrants tend to have
more children than they do and their percentage share of the population will
continue to grow even without any further immigration.

 

Policies
on Asylum Seekers

The European Union convention made lot of resolution
on asylum seekers and refugees; Article 3 and 12 of the
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (states that ‘No one shall be
subjected to torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment’. A person
can make a claim for protection based directly on Article 3 of ECHR as states
are prohibited from returning a person to a country where she/he may suffer a
violation of his/her rights under Article 3) and Men and women of
marriageable age have the right to marry and to fund a family according to the
national laws governing the exercise of these rights respectively.

 

 

 

 

Fertility
Theories

The literature on fertility
goes back at least to Thomas Malthus and the nineteenth-century debate on the
Poor Law (Boyer, 1989). Malthus argued that “the Poor Law subsidized marriage
and fertility by removing the natural checks on population growth of delayed
marriage and abstention from sexual activity” (Anon n.d.), this was articulated from
his famous book Essay on the Principle of Population (1798). He saw positive checks to population growth as a
contributing factor to the shortening of human fertility.

Recent theories have linked migration and fertility prevalence from
different aspects of human lives, such as:

Disruption
theory:
It considers the economic and psychological costs of migration and notes the
stresses people are exposed to from migration processes and after arrival;
which may cause a short term disruption of fertility (Goldstein, 1973; Hervitz,
1985; Kulu, 2005). After arrival at a place of destination, people need time to
settle down, which makes the occurrence of conception unlikely. An anticipatory
effect is assumed that there is temporary separation between partners which decreases
fertility.

Socialization
theory:
This stresses the childhood socialization processes of an adult. “It assumes
that the norms and values adopted in the home country are essential for the
later fertility behavior of migrants” (Hervitz, 1985; Kahn, 1994; Kulu, 2005; Stephen
and Bean, 1992)” Those norms and values of fertility are shaped during early
childhood of migrants and are predominant in their fertility behavior(s) in the
country(s) of destination. Migrants will maintain the norms and values learned
during socialization; even if the norms and socialization process in the host
country are different. As migrants adjust to the host county’s socialization
process, there is convergence in the norms and values of the country of origin
and that of the host country.

Adaptation
theory:
Cultural and socioeconomic conditions posit the differences between a migrant’s
country of origin and host country of destination in terms of fertility
preferences. From the view of household micro economies, there is a shift in the
cost benefit calculation of having an additional child in the host country
(Becker, 1998). Thus, migrants’ adjustment to a desired number of children
might change both in the short and long run due to the social, economic, and
cultural conditions in the host country (Kulu, 2005; Milewski, 2007).

Today, in the developing countries; there is a huge rise in poverty and
hunger, lack of basic infrastructure and health care facilities
which now are great threats to human lives; leading to the huge migration rate from
the west African sub-regions. According to Malthus, subsidizing (which could be
a form of indirect earns such as free housing, free healthcare services, social
welfare payments, free education for children, and other public services) for
the poor will lead to an increase in fertility rate. The key modern reference
on fertility as an economic decision is (Becker 1960), that argues that
children should be analyzed as durable consumption and production goods. Within
the Becker’s framework, demands for children responds to changes in the cost of
a marginal child. The effect of income changes on fertility has been a major
debate in recent times; he asserts that the demand for an additional child is
directly proportional to the level of income of the parents.  In other words, the demand for an addition
child is equal to the family subsidies available.

In addition to the fore going, Germany has been known to
be a social welfare state and has given opportunities to migrants to benefit
from such privileges. Immigrants are often perceived as a
burden to public budget as they allegedly pay less tax; they consume goods and
services provided by the Government. On the other hand, refugees and asylum
seekers are non-contributors to government tax, they are solely dependent on
and expend all necessary aids from the government.

Finally, the theories link migration with the legal
status of the mother and her fertility desire. Fertility may increase shortly
after migration because undocumented migrants want to obtain legal or economic
benefits by giving birth (Bledsoe, 2004; Bledsoe et al., 2007).  However, this theory only applies to specific
contexts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

METHODOLOGY

 

Sample size: The number of respondents were five (5) women in
total. Two (2) unmarried and three (3) married.

 

Data
collection:
The data collected were done by semi structured interview questionnaire. It was
a face to face interview session with the respondents and audio recordings were
also made.

 

Method:
Mixed Method1.

Qualitative
method2
was used by administering questionnaire which comprises of both structured and
unstructured questions; which also made the respondents engage in a reflective
exercise. Quantitative method3
was also used to describe the data collected in terms of percentages and
frequencies to establish the statistical relationship between variables.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 Mixed
method should be embraced as an extension to a more detailed research process,
mixed method is not another type or new research method, it is a more robust
and broader approach of investigating phenomena by examining the advantages and
the disadvantages of using either a qualitative or quantitative research
approach(Creswell 2003).

2 A
qualitative research is a very technical and robust method to investigate the
origin or the root cause of social problems. It tends to give more meaning to
the sociological and psychological issues originating from ethnographical study
of culture, people and local environment which goes beyond the numerical
attributes of research explanations (Creswell 1998).

3 Quantitative
research methodology is defined as a conventional system a researcher uses in
carrying out the research, it involves the collection of data for the purpose
of information gathering which are quantified and processed through statistical
treatments in order to support or criticize already existed data.