DESIGNING E-LEARNING CONTENT USING QFD METHOD AND AGILE METHOD IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT COURSE STUDY By:KetmantoStudent ID: 1201154235ENGINEERING STUDYSCHOOL OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERINGTELKOM UNIVERSITY2018 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTIONI.1 Background E-learning is a way of learning that is outside or even inside of the traditional class, delivered on electronic device, such as Personal Computer (PC), laptop, smartphone, etc, with goal to support learning. The learning contents are in digital form to be later stored in electronic form. That means the content and everything in it to help people learn are included in the course (Clark & Mayer, 2016).
The main purpose of e-learning is to improve job performance by educating through e-learning itself. The terminology of e-learning is spreading to the entire world on many fields. Business, Science, Art, History, etc. It is some kind of part that can never be separated when it comes to educate people or new employees. It includes the content the individual or organization need to learn. It gives flexibility to them since they do not have to come on-site to learn it whether in the class or room. It can save trainer fee during the training session within the organization. Not only the e-learning can benefit individual or organization, but also it may breaks the limit of what education can do; That is to spread the education to the entire community and to the rest of the world.
Not to mention that industry 4.0 is changing the industry to smart factory in which the e-learning will be useful to firm performance (Lalic, Majstorovic, Marjanovic, Deli?, & Tasic, 2017). Some of universities around the world have been knowing for its successful implementation in e-learning. One of them is Harvard University. Through edX learning platform (About Us, 2018), which Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology founded, It offers distance learning program in which anyone with the internet can gain access to courses from Harvard, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and other partner.
Flexible, and self-directed learning are some of benefits of this program.Hopefully, more universities around the world which have not implemented e-learning yet, will follow in the coming years. It is just a matter of time until lots of material in the class will be converted to e-learning. And what makes more special, it will be distributed widely on the internet so everyone can gain access wherever they are and whenever they are.By distributing widely, it may help lecturer to teach lots of student more effectively and efficiently in this era. Not only that, it may be helpful to combat the course study issues in School of industrial Engineering, Telkom University, which located in Bandung, Indonesia.Take a look at project management course study in industrial engineering major. Project management is given three credits for taking the course.
It means 150 minutes in the class, 150 minutes, and 180 minutes self-study. For every 5 lecturers to take on 13 classes, with one class consists of 30 students in average. Lots of time and lots of students in one meeting.Turns out that the 150 minutes course must be taught by the lecturer to students. But there is a catch.
A new report comes from survey which conducted by the writer from February, 10th 2018 to February, 19th 2018 . The report consist of 58 respondents from students year of 2013 and 2014 who had already taken project management course study in school of industrial engineering, shows that 39% of respondent who felt the course has a lot of material. It tops the other reasons. They don’t think lots of material can be taught only in the class. Even the other 150 minutes exercise and 180 minutes self-study can not help them entirely to learn project management. If it continues to be like that, it will become too hard to achieve learning objective.
Not to mention that, sometimes lecturers use PowerPoint Presentation with so much information in one slide and with no time to waste, they might not teach everything about the lesson or just skip one material to the next until the time ends. That might be one of the reason the class was boring to some students. The impact may be huge. The study (Tze, Daniels, ; Klassen, 2015) found that boredom in class could give negative impact on students’ academic outcome. It will be painful for the students to learn in class.
The solution of that problem is simple and it has been there since the beginning of this study. E-learning. It can give alternative choice for students to learn more despite the limited time takes in the class. They can learn at home, at school, anyplace they want it even 15 minutes before the class get started. But, are they ready to learn it? Still in the same survey which conducted by the writer, shows that 84% in support for e-learning to be needed in the course study. As for now, e-learning may be chosen as the solution. But in what platform e-learning should be made? video learning may be the one to start with. Also in the same survey the writer has conducted, 72.
1% says video learning is a good one to deliver the course while 54% says youtube is the right platform to be the e-learning platform. And then, by creating video learning and publishing it on youtube will be the perfect idea. Not to mention that, 42% people (Digital in Indonesia, 2018) in indonesia use youtube as the most active social media.Because of it, the writer intent to write how to create video learning for project management course study using youtube platform.
There are two phases in project management the writer intent to write. Monitoring and controlling and closing. Why these two matters in project management? Because the project control is third phase after initiating, planning, and executing and is the most important phase in project management (Aramyan, 2018).
It saves the money, time, and make sure the project is still on the right track after being executed. The other crucial phase that is as important as monitoring and controlling, is closing. It is the final step of project before completion.
In the september 2017, the cassini NASA mission has came to an end after 20 years of mission (Kaplan, 2017) . The project manager said,” I’m going to call this the end of the mission. Project manager, off the net”.
It is pretty clear that project must be finished no matter what after first being initiated.To create the e-learning content for monitoring and controlling, and closing, the writer used several methods. One of the methods in creating e-learning content is Quality Function Deployment or in short QFD. It is to focus on the customer requirement and then translate all requirements into graphical or technical chart that explains what the customer really wants (Bossert, 1991). The main advantage of using QFD is the writer may receive the customer needs from the customer itself and the writer will translate it into graphical or technical chart to see some of what customers are interested in the product or service. However, just like how the world has changed, faster than before, it is not wise for just depending on one method because not every problem can be solved by using one method. There is also a risk of solving problems using traditional method because of the fast changing world people live in.
But there is another useful method, that is agile method. It can deliver the result faster than traditional method (Ambler & Lines, 2012). There are fifteen disciplined agile principles and one of them is to deliver working solution frequently. By doing so, the project team may have fast feedback or response for them to improve the process.
In this study, the writer intend to write how to create e-learning content using QFD method combined with agile method with intention to give students flexile learning about monitoring and controlling and closing. The video will be the media for delivering materials and videos should be accessible on Youtube. The writer also want to test whether e-learning video made by writer will be helpful for audiences by giving them some tests to see the result. The result should be measurable. These are the first e-learning contents being made for project management course study in school of industrial engineering, Telkom University, especially in monitoring and controlling and closing phase.
I.2 Formulation of The ProblemBased on the Background, The writer intents to create e-learning content using QFD method combined with agile method to combat project management course study issue and the student performance after using e-learning content.I.
3 ConstraintThe e-learning content created is for industrial engineering student in School of Industrial Engineering, Telkom University. The survey which conducted by the writer, also occured and took place in School of Industrial Engineering, Telkom University for industrial engineering student.I.4 ObjectiveThe purpose of this study is to design the e-learning content using QFD method combined with agile method to help students to learn.
I.5 Significance of StudyThe benefit of this report go to both writer and reader. As for writer, The study can show the result of E-learning content using QFD method combined with agile Method, and study can be the first step for further studies in the years ahead focusing more in e-learning, QFD, and agile method. As for reader, the reader can learn about QFD method and agile method, the reader can learn how to design the E-learning content using QFD method combined with agile method and the reader can use this study as a reference to create the next study in the coming years.
I.6 Systematics WritingCHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTIONExplanation about the study and its purpose CHAPTER 2 FRAMEWORK THEORYTheories that are used in this study. It consists of primary theory, relevant theory and the position of the theory the writer used in this study.
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY How the study was conducted by the writer. CHAPTER 4 DATA PROCESSING How the data was processed before executing CHAPTER 5 ANALYSIS The result of the study was analyzed to reach the conclusionCHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONThe final section contains conclusion for the study and suggestions for further studies in the future. CHAPTER II FRAMEWORK THEORYII.1 Main TheoryThe main theory means the theory which the writer focused on. This study used several theories: II.1.1 ProjectProject is a word to describe temporary activities to create unique product, service, or result (Project Management Institute, 2017).
It only lasts for a certain time period which consists of many short-time length tasks. It has the beginning and an end. It focuses on cost, time, and scope. The project itself is led by the project manager who ensure the project may not run out of budget and time.
It must be delivered to success. Project sometimes is mistaken for operation. Operation is the ongoing work to sustain the businesses once the project is done or terminated due to the end of the project. On the other hand, operation is the ongoing process with the resulting product or service to be made after the project is finished. Project needs to be unique while the operation manages to operate the project’s outcome once the project is done. Project must be managed by the project manager and the project itself needs standard process to be launched by the project manager.
There is a standard process in project that focuses on meeting the project objective. It is called Project management process groups. Project management process groups are divided into five Groups:Initiating Process Group. Initiation means the foundation of the project. The reason why the project must be developed or started. It contains the goal and the main objective of the project. Planning Process Group. It will help the project management team to identify cost, time, quality, schedule, scope and everything related to the project.
It is also to plan the action required to meet the the objective of the project. Executing Process Group. It is the time to execute all the plans which were planned in planning process group. Monitoring and Controlling Process Group.
In this process, the project is monitored and controlled to ensure the project is still on the right track. It is to review and regulate the performance of the project. Closing Process Group. The project will be closed after reaching the final step by formally closing the project or contract. II.1.2 E-learningE-learning may be described as one of ways to deliver the course on electronic device that the goal is to support learning (Clark & Mayer, 2016).
E-learning may be what it is as information and instructional method that can help people learn the course by using the content. It refers to what in e-learning. E-learning can be delivered on many electronic devices as printed text and pictures such as illustrations, video, photo, spoken words, or even no spoken words. It refers to how. That is how courses are delivered via electronic devices and designed for individual or company self-study. Why e-learning matters? It is intended for learners to keep learning and performing jobs to reach the goal of individual or organization. It may save the training cost and make it more easily to learn since individual or organization can stay at one place learning many things without getting distracted by many other things.II.
1.3 Quality Function DeploymentQFD (Quality Function Deployment) was first introduced by Yoji Akao in 1966 (Bossert, 1991). It is a method to draw customer requirement into a technical chart and to ensure the quality is being checked. The purpose of QFD is to meet customer needs. It focuses on the customer and only customer that became the main focus on QFD.
Several steps in QFD were started by forming a team. While developing the product, it was started by cross functional team or cross functional management that includes expert from different fields such as sales, marketing, design, engineering, etc (Maritan, 2015)After forming the team, obtaining information about customer requirements becomes an important part. Customer requirement informations may quantitative or qualitative, some of them may not solicited, etc.
The team will be looking for information because it determines the needs of product or services that must be delivered to customer. Then, all information were put together to be analyzed by the team; The team may use several tools to complete the task.II.
1.4 AgileThe agile model is currently being used in software development. But the terminology of agile itself has spread to the entire world in many fields. Compare to the traditional model, agile may be useful since customer needs change, market conditions change, processes are taking too much time, lack of information to schedule work, etc (Moreira, 2013)The agile model allows user to test their own goods as soon as it is finished. That means agile is iterative and incremental. An iteration has a duration. It might be one week, one month, etc.
After it is done, it may possible to release the current version of goods no matter which part it is, initiating, executing or even the final one.Every project sometimes needs different iteration. How team members solve the problem should depend on the needs such as people, problem, or the tools that are being used. It is not only in the software development but also in every project scope. It may be useful since the agile model can be a transformation project. II.2 Additional TheoryAdditional theory is other theories that support the main theory for writer. Several additional theories in this study are:II.
2.1 Project DefinitionProject definition is a documented requirement which includes the objective and scope of project. Somehow it explains about “why” and “what” (Newton, 2016). Why refers to the reason why the project should be started and what refers to understanding the output of the project.
II.2.2 Project ObjectiveProject objective can be described as the result of finishing the project. To get the best results, the project objective can be explained by using SMART approach (Scott, 2015) . Below are SMART approach: Specific. Project should be defined as specific as it can to avoid misunderstanding about the project itself.Measurable.
The result of project can be measurable to determine the whether the project passed the measurement. Attainable. The project should be possible to do within the time it took to begin. Relevant. The project should be relevant with the project manager mission to execute.
Time-bound. The project must be finished before or at the time the given deadline ends. II.2.
3 Scope StatementProject scope statement contains the description of the project such as project name, project manager, and date of approval. It also contains how the project to be deliverable, assumptions, acceptance criteria, assumptions, and constraints.II.
2.4 Work Breakdown StructureWork breakdown structure is the list work activities of the project to be accomplished by the project manager. It shows detailed definition and activities of the project.II.2.5 Project TimeThe project itself need estimation time to complete. In this study, there are several ways to describe the estimation time of project : Gantt Chart.
A chart that shows schedule information including activities, dates and its duration. Project Schedule Network Diagram. The diagram in which the logical relationship will be helpful to calculate the schedule.
Critical Path Method. A method to estimate the minimum duration of the project and amount of schedules. Critical Chain Method.
A method to explain the past success and failure to predict the future of the project (Leach, 2000). II.2.6 Quality MetricQuality metric explains about how to measure the project attribute. To measure the project, the project needs measurement such as failure rate, errors, customer satisfaction, amount of tasks completed on time, etc.
II.2.7 Stakeholder AnalysisStakeholder analysis contains information such as roles of team members on the project, attitudes, interest, and the position in the organization. Below are examples of information of the stakeholder involved: Interest. Interested person in interested position.Rights.
Legal rights of the project such as occupational health and safety, moral rights, and etc. Ownership. Individual or company who has the asset or property.Knowledge. Specialist who can benefit the project.
Contribution. Actions that contribute to the project itself. Also, there is a stakeholder register which explains about identified stakeholders such as identification information, assessment information, and stakeholder classification.
II.2.8 Communication PlanProject communication plan intends to exchange information between each stakeholder to make it easier for the project being executed or done. The project manager may pay attention to this since information is the key to execute the project whether it happened in internal organization, such as stakeholders in project or organization or external organization like vendor, customer, etc.II.2.9 Risk AnalysisNo matter what kind of project the project manager will handle, it is always too risky to begin the project.
The outcome may not look what it was planned and what was planned does not always have a happy ending. To get closer look of what the project may go wrong, it will be helpful to use probability and impact matrix. It combines the probability, threats, and opportunities to analyze the risk. II.3 Other ToolsOther tools are also described here such as software or additional tools needed for this study. They are:Microsoft Excel.
Spreadsheet software to calculate the calculation.VideoScribe. A software to create the video. Google Form. Online survey maker to spread the survey.Google Spreadsheet.
Online spreadsheet to analyze the survey made by Google Form.II.4 Position Theory Based on ResearcherThis study is inspired by wonderful researches from around the world and ready to execute. Before executing the study, take a look at these researches which have been useful from the beginning:A.
The Application of Quality Management in e-Learning, by QFD Technique and Based on Customers’ Needs (Eftekhar, Mansouri, & Heidarnia, 2012)The study focused on quality management in e-learning using QFD Technique. The study was published in 2012 and took place in Tehran, Iran. The study was conducted by Faezeh Eftekhar, Saiedeh Mansouri, and Sharzad Heidarnia.The study began with analyzing step which was to define the problem. After analyzing step, the the study planned a strategy for making the instruction. During these steps, it was also to develop the instruction. After determining the requirement, the result is requirement that should be considered for creating e-learning content in future plans to improve the quality of services. Relation and differentiation between the study from Eftekhar et at al with the study conducted by writer can be seen in table II.
1Table II.1 Relation and Differentiation Between The Writer and Eftekhar et al.RelationThis study used the same method like the study from Eftekhar, Mansouri, and HeidarniaDifferentiationThe object of the study is industrial engineering student in School of Industrial engineering at Telkom UniversityThe writer includes another method, that is agile method.
The writer measures the student performance The study is good at explaining how the study was conducted by using QFD method but it does not have agile method in it. The study was also lack of proving whether the e-learning content can improve student performance or not. B.
Agile Model Adaptation for E-Learning Students’ Final-Year Project (Ashraf, Shamail, & Rana, 2012) The study focused on adapting agile model for e-learning project. The study was published in 2012 and took place in Pakistan. The study was conducted by Muhammad Adnan Ashraf, Shafay Shamail, and Zeeshan A. Rana.The study shows how project deliverables were being done. It was also to demonstrate how agile model can be adapted for e-learning. The project management activities allowed them the task division and time management during the project services.
Relation and differentiation between the study from Ashraf et al with the study conducted by writer can be seen in table II.2Table II.2 Relation and Differentiation Between The Writer and Ashraf et alRelationThis study used the same method like the study from Ashraf, Shamail, and RanaDifferentiationThe object of the study is industrial engineering student in School of Industrial engineering at Telkom UniversityThe writer includes another method, that is QFD methodThe writer measures the student performanceThe study is good at explaining how the study was conducted by using agile method and how difference between existing and proposed approach but it does not have QFD method in it. The study was also lack of proving whether the e-learning content can improve student performance or not.
C. An Approach using Agile Method for Software Development (Choudhary & Rakesh, 2016) The study focused on adapting agile model software development. The study was published in 2016. The study was conducted by Bharat Choudhary and Shanu K Rakesh.
The study shows how project was being executed. In this case, by using agile model, the allocation project time can be measurable. Relation and differentiation between the study from Choudhary & Rakesh with the study conducted by writer can be seen in table II.3Table II.3 Relation and Differentiation Between The Writer and Choudhary and RakeshRelationThis study used the agile method like the study from Choudhary and RakeshDifferentiationThe object of the study is industrial engineering student in School of Industrial engineering at Telkom UniversityThe writer includes another method, that is QFD methodThe writer’s objective is never meant for softwareThe writer measures the student performance The study is interesting about how agile model can give benefit for software development especially in allocating the project time. However, the study focused on software development, not e-learning. D. A Design and Development Of E-learning Content For Multimedia Technology Using Multimedia Game (Kaewkiriya, 2013)The study focused on designing e-learning content.
The study was published in 2013. The study was conducted by Thongchai Kaewkiriya.The study shows satisfaction of e-learning content using multimedia games. The study also included comparison test for before and after testing. Relation and differentiation between the study from Kaewkiriya with the study conducted by writer can be seen in table II.4Table II.4 Relation and Differentiation Between The Writer and KaewkiriyaRelationThis study used the e-learning as learning media like the study from KaewkiriyaDifferentiationThe object of the study is industrial engineering student in School of Industrial engineering at Telkom UniversityThe writer includes QFD method and agile methodThe writer used video as learning mediaThe writer measures the student performanceThe study is interesting.
Using e-learning media, which is multimedia game, as the learning media for students to learn. But the study did not use QFD method and Agile method. Besides, the study only focused on multimedia game, not video. E. Effects of e-learning on Students’ Motivation (Harandi, 2015)The study focused on the effect of e-learning on students’ motivation. The study was published in 2015. The study was conducted by Safiyeh Rajaee Harandi.
The study shows that students were motivated when it comes to learning using e-learning. By doing that, they tend to achieve the learning objective. Relation and differentiation between the study from Harandi with the study conducted by writer can be seen in table II.5Table II.
5 Relation and Differentiation Between The Writer and Harandi RelationThis study still in one field which is e-learningDifferentiationThe object of the study is industrial engineering student in School of Industrial engineering at Telkom UniversityThe writer includes QFD method and agile methodThe writer used video as learning mediaThe writer measures the student performance CHAPTER III METHODOLOGYIII.1 IntroductionResearch method may refers as all methods or techniques that are used by researchers. On the other hand, Research methodology is a way of how research is conducted which has systematic approach (Kothari, 2004). In this chapter, the writer described how the study was conducted.III.
2 Nine Steps Flow DiagramFigure III.1 Nine Steps Flow DiagramNine steps flow diagram shows how the writer conducted the study in nine steps. This study was started by defining the problem of the study.
By defining the problem, the writer came up with objective and formula to tackle the problem itself. After that, Designing the method and ways to solve the problem must be designed. Then, collecting and analyzing data may be the focus on solving the problem.
Deployment came as a result of collecting and analyzing data. Next, the product was tested to tackle the problem. Finally, the report showed how the result impacting and solving the problem.
III.3 Research DesignIn this section, Research design shows how the study would be conducted. It is to provide the strategy to collect data to address the study or research problem with less effort, time and money (Kothari, 2004). The writer includes conceptual diagram and systematic approach.
III.3.1 Conceptual ModelConceptual model is a model which represents the system and everything involved in it (Embley & Thalheim, 2011). In this study, the writer drew the conceptual model as shown in figure III.2Figure III.2 Conceptual ModelMonitoring and controlling are the main inputs in creating e-learning content. Those two refer to project management plan designed by the writer to deliver e-learning content with QFD method and agile method.
The output will be the student performance before and after. The result is measurable to judge whether the e-learning content help students or not.III.3.2 Systematic ApproachSystematic approach is how the study which is systematic was being conducted. It is to explain the systematic approach taken by writer to write this study.
It is shown in figure III.3. Each phase is explained below: Figure III.3 Systematic ApproachInitiationIn this phase, the project was initiated by forming team, using scope statement and project requirements, and survey to measure whether the project was feasible or not. Planning The second phase is all about work structure that defines activities within the project. Then, the concept about the project was being discussed.
In quality field, schedule, plan, and stakeholder engagement. Execution Deployment using QFD method and agile method were implemented in this phase. The content was made through testing, feedback, and some improvements were added. Once it meets the user expectation, the final improvements, through testing, feedback, and some responses to changing, were implemented. Monitoring and Controlling Monitoring and controlling came as the execution was being executed. Through the process, the execution was monitored to ensure the project may run well.
It is to make sure the project is still on the right track.ClosingThe project is closed after being done. The content is ready to be published on Youtube. Evaluation is needed to make sure the project met the objective.
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