Discourse Analysis as a research tool moves from a language-based view to a more functional view of language focusing on connections between texts/speeches and their social practices to explain the significance of the spoken or written product.
Discourse analysis as a social cultural analysis considers discourse as an interactional activity and emphasizes the social function of language .This method does not only examine words and sentences form and meaning, but also analyzes all the social cultural factors related to discourse. According to that, the speaker or writer is not just a transmitter of the information, he also tries to engage and interact in a given social activity in a given social situation. This language interaction involves social cultural contexts, so we cannot infer the meaning of language element in terms of its linguistic examination unless we take the context in which the discourse is produced into consideration. For instance the social features of the participants (gender, ethnics, age, social status …) play an important role in the context and therefore in the meaning. In other words discourse analysis reveals how the linguistic choice and selections are determined by and tied to the social conditions of its use.
As an illustration to the above, different contexts of discourses suggest a specific attitude towards them; for instance we expect people engaging in medical discourses to be concerned with health care and never refer to their political/religious interests.