Dopamine in marketing or how market deceives customers’ brains.Today, the internet and social networks are one of the based sources for a human to obtain, distribute and process information. Thanks to the internet, man can do anything without living home, such as pay bills, communicate with family and friends. The internet has greatly changed human’ life, including the sales system. Each new generation changes the structure and principles of advertising because advertising mechanisms that work successfully on one generation can be useless when used on another generation. Today, the market is adjusting and changes to the “digital natives”.
Millennials or the “digital natives” are people born in the era of computer technology and social networks. Millennials prefer to spread and receive information through social networks. Millennials also like to take everything in control. (Newman, 2015). And before the market, there is a natural question: how to sell goods and services to those who like to control everything and prefers to receive and disseminate information throughout the internet and social networks? And the market finds a natural solution: 1. Use what a person cannot control – his body and brain, or rather the dopamine and its feedback loop. Dopamine – is a substance that is responsible for human motivation and involvement is a process.
(Balleine, 2007).2. Use what a person, at first glance, can control – social networks. Dopamine feedback loop occurs when incentives are used-stimulus such as receiving bonuses, increasing strength, unexpected winnings, etc.
This method is based on the work of Facebook, Instagram, and other social networks and internet shops: quick likes, shares and generally any interaction with users account that can be carried out instantly, the essence of the same bonuses. Each user becomes another source of dopamine feedback, providing their likes, which in turn increases their own chances to wait for the feedback. (Wienschenk, 2012).Studies show that when people view attractive images of food, they perceive its taste with great pleasure.
(Spence et al., 2016). That is why restaurants have moved from clear and rational organization of the menu “name -composition -price” to the album of juicy photos of the dishes themselves. Add to this the endless stream of food porn in social networks: the incentive system heats up as a mercury thermometer rubbed with a wool blanket. What is important is the constant visual presence of any, not only gastronomic products: the main thing is that the picture is in front of the client at the moment when he feels an unclear consumer which is but does not yet know who to give his money to. To track the direction of the desires helps collected customers’ personal activity data. This is how the advertisement that user has already paid attention to (or similar to it) appears in front of user’s eyes again and again.
Gamification is the main architectural principle of dopamine marketing. (Gatautis et al., 2015). Involvement of the consumer in game-like activity with a set of points, an opportunity to become a leader, unexpected bonuses and winnings allows achieving the maximum investments from him. Various customer loyalty systems are the interfaces of the game with a dopamine feedback: they stimulate people to buy certain goods and services at a certain time with the help of bonuses, discounts, contests, and other methods.
Experiments show that if subjects know exactly when and how much sweet juice they will receive, the dopamine is almost not produced. At the same time, then more expectations and bonuses gained than more actively includes a system of encouragement. (Steele et al., 2018). This is used by companies such as Kiip – mobile rewards platform and by the Urban Outfitters Inc. The applications support active users, unexpectedly rewarding them with prizes when they succeed. Brands get access to the target audience and associate it with happy moments of grandiose achievements and victories.
The less predictable the reward-the more pleasant it is. Dopamine is associated not only with hype and high spirits but also with nervousness and increased combat readiness because this substance is a precursor of adrenaline and norepinephrine. (Kitahama K. et al., 1985). The fear of losing something, as experiments in the field of neurobiology of decision-making show that is much stronger than the desire to save and accumulate.
(Abraham et al., 2014). Therefore, words such as “last chance “, “only two days left ” and etc., can make customers buy just to get rid of nervousness. The striking effect of “Black Friday”, when even wealthy people go crazy and with a primitive roar of a fight for goods which is not essential for them is a consequence of skillfully promoted the experience of scarcity. (Blackhurst, 2017).People are tended to exaggerate the value of a reward when there is a high risk of losing it.
Social networks had changed from the great times of Web 2.0. The Internet is not a static statue, it evolves and ups to date and also changes human society every day. Social networks are beginning to intertwine with neural networks, media and online stores are becoming attributes of modern culture.
The dopamine architecture of the market clearly shows how neuromarketing works: it forces people to pursue what they don’t need to only to further ignite for the itch of waiting for the reward. In this system of neuromarketing, it is difficult to act consciously and to analyze the processes taking place in the surrounding world.