Due to the advancement of technology nowadays

Due to the advancement of technology nowadays, traditional bullying has converted from being physically actions into virtual which synonyms as cyberbullying. According to (Kidhealth.org by Larissa Hirsch, 2014), cyberbullying can be defined as the use of technology or digital tools to harass, threaten, embarrass or target other people when it comes to young people. In the other hand, when it engages with the involvement of adult, cyberbullying can be means in the other term as cyber-harassment or cyberstalking which it can be a crime that meet legal consequences and punishment.
Cyberbullying also can be referred to any behaviour or actions performed through electronic media by an or groups of individuals that repeatedly communicates antagonistically or aggressively through messages towards others intended to harm or discomfort. The author also discussed that cyberbullying is rather new in circumstances but it can diversely categorise in some common categories: i. flaming. ii. Slandering or denigration. iii. Harassing. iv. Masquerading. v. exclusion. Besides that, cyberbullying commonly involved harmful teasing, telling lies, making rude, mean comments, making fun others, spreading rumours, making threating or harassment comments towards others.
Cyberbullying is an intentional action and repeatedly harm others by using media or digital tools such as mobile phones, emails, internet chats, messages, social media and personal blogs. The author also explains that cyberbullying is actually an action or behaviour of an individual to dominate or control others which can be performed with various ways such as he or she intended to send a mean massage to other’s mobile phone, email or social media network. Ways in cyberbullying also can be spreading numerous of rumours online and sexting which it means he or she is sending a sexually suggestive pictures or messages to someone else intentionally to discomfort or humiliate.
Commonly, cyberbullying and cybervictims’ issues are numerous among the school children and very few heard and focused from the teenagers or adolescences and most of the survey in cyberbullying only focused in the United States and Europe and very few were carried out in Asian countries. Luckily, one study had found in Malaysia regarding to the emotional and physiological effects in cyberbullying among the university students. Statistics and studies also had showed that the trend of cyberbullying is rapidly growing up as according to the author’s statements informed that among 3767 middle school students in the United States had involved in cyberbullying and approximately 11% of their students had been cyber-victims, 7% of them were cyberbullied or cyber-victims and 4% were cyberbullies at once past recent months. As for Asian example, a studied had carried out in Taiwan among its 545 junior high school revealed that 64% of the students witnessed cyberbullying, 35% were cyberbullied and 20.4% had cyberbullied others.
One of the factors of cyberbullying is the usage of the internet. According to the author, the internet is now one of the effective platforms for social communications, allowing everybody to say and do anything freely. The author also stated internet may lead to cyberbullying which can resulted to the worst consequences on the cyber-victims, ranging from depression, isolation, anxiety, fear and the most serious in the cyber-victims could be intended to suicide. A survey had been conducted in the United States among 503 adolescences and found out who use mobile phones more likely to engage with the cyberbullying and become cyberbullied. Moreover, in the advancement of internet, cyber-victims show a higher rate in online activities such as chatting, emailing and sending instant messages to others than noncyber-victims and had increasing rapidly in recent years with the involvement of social network sites such as Facebook, Instagram and YouTube among the adolescences and were found out to be exposed to cyberbullying activities.
In addition, the author stated that gender had been playing an important role in bullying trends either in traditional bullies or cyberbullies. A study shows bullying behaviour among the pre- schooler and had found boys are physically victimised while girls are rationally victimised. However, in certain study, the results found out that no gender differences contribute to the issues of cyberbullying which means either female or male had been became as a cyberbully or cybervictims.
Furthermore, ages become a factor on the effect of cyberbullying issues. The authors had discussed that a study had conducted among the school children and adolescences between ages of 12 to 17 years old which they are in “brutalizing” period related to the cyberbullying. But many studies reported there was lack of relationship between age and cyberbullying victimisation. For example, in London, among school students from the ages between 11 to 16 years old are not affected by the cyberbullying and cyber-victims. But in the other hand, the author had stated some of the studies had proved the interaction between age and gender in relation to the effects of email bullying and the use of instant messaging. The boys are more believed the effects of email bullying to be worse than girls of the same age whilst the older boys found to be likely used instant messaging to cyberbully others.
Malaysia is one of no exception in performing cyberbullying among its citizens which can be proven with news reports and survey had showed that cyberbullying had rapidly growing in the communities. The author also stated that according to the Microsoft Global Youth Online Behaviour Survey, Malaysia is ranked 17th highest in performing cyberbullied among the 25 compared countries. This survey also stated that almost 33% of children in ages between 8 and 17 years old have been engaging with cyberbullying such as teased, harassment, calling means words and unfriendly treatment in social media. For example, in Malaysia, cyberbullying can be publicly seen which many students, artist, politicians or social activist had been cyberbullied by someone especially during general election in recent years with foul languages, harassment and threaten and at once it can show that cyberbullying not only involving the children but also among the adults. According to the author, a single study had been conducted in 365 Malaysian university students and found that 16.6% of the them had cyberbullied others outside the university between 2 to 3 times in a month.
As resulted in the research findings, the authors stated that 60.3% of the Malaysian reported never been cyberbullied within the last 6 months while 39.7% had doing cyberbullied. From the findings also resulted that 66.4% had never cyberbullied anyone, whilst 33.6% had admitted to do cyberbully to others. In fact, 61% from the Malaysian respondents had witnessed cyberbullying activities that 39.2% had no such experiences.
Besides that, in these research findings, the author stated that usage of digital tools and social media among Malaysian in cyberbullying had contributed to 64.4% as female taking the lead in almost levels, such rarely (62%), occasionally (14%) and frequently (8%). The author also found that majority of the cyber-victims and cyberbullies were between the ages of 21 to 25 years old, followed by ages 17 to 20 years old and the least was ages between 26 to 30 years old and had concluded that those who ages from 21 to 25 years old were reported to be more involvement in cyberbullying activities.
Finally, in the usage of internet within the cyberbullying, the findings had resulted most of the Malaysia cyber-victims and cyberbullies used internet 2 to 5 hours daily respectively 58.3% had been cyber-victimisation and 59.8% had cyberbullied others. The lowest users of internet who spend less than 1 hour daily suggested that those who spend more time in internet tend to be cyberbullied and involve in cyberbullying. As the results can show the relationship of cyber-victims can be inclined to become cyberbullies conversely.
As concluded by the author, the cyberbullying had become a phenomenon which had received much attention from the media and numerous of news outlets. First, cyberbullying commonly was indicated among the adolescences in Malaysia, both as cyberbullies and cybervictims but the frequencies was not as high in the Europe, United States and Taiwan. Secondly, the usage of social media as the main tools for cyberbullying in Malaysia is same as in the United States and it is not surprisingly that Malaysian was among the highest in the used of social media such as Facebook while it was different from Taiwan which was more usage in instant messaging as a dominant tool for cyberbullying. Thirdly, the author also concluded that someone who tend to cyberbully other would become a cyber-victim as well as compared to traditional bullies have no encourage to fight back but not in the case with cyber-victims. Moreover, the author stated that the Malaysian female outnumbered than the male for cybervictimisation as well as they were also found to cyberbully others than males and had showed the contrast with the studies from the United States. The tendency female to be cyberbullies was more probably because of actively use of cyberspace and internet. Next, it can be concluded that, no differences were found out between the ages and cyberbullying activities among the ages of 21 to 25 years old who’s claimed to be cyberbullied and cyber-victims. But somehow with people growing wiser and more matured with age, the tendency to cyberbully or cyber-victims was declined in rate. Finally, the author also concluded that people who those spend 2 to 5 hours daily on internet significantly engaged more with cyberbullying activities than whose spend less than 1 hour daily as well as concluded that social media had become the dominant digital tools especially in Malaysia used in cyberbullying activities.