Education can be defined as the transmission of the values, skills, beliefs and accumulation of knowledge of a society; it is designed to guide students in learning a culture, molding behavior in the ways of adulthood, and directing them toward eventual role in society.
Education is there to help people become useful members of the society, should also help them to develop an appreciation of their cultural heritage and live more satisfying lives. (Mlowosa, Kalimang’asi and Mathias, 2014)Several methods can be used to educate learners/students these methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research. The methodology of teaching is known as pedagogy.
Education is divided into stages as follows preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and then college, university, or apprenticeship. (wikipedia.org)A significant number of students in the institution of learning especially in secondary schools are truants. They become truants in order to engage in activities which are neither under the control of the home nor the school to depend upon themselves, the truants trick their parents and teachers and frequent truancy may lead to crimes such as petty theft, taking and selling drugs, smoking Indian hemp and prostitution. Truancy is more a proof of the inadequacy of our present educational system than an evidence of any tendency to crime.
The education system in Nigeria is not efficient especially in public schools where students’ absence is not quickly noticed as a result of population of students and lack of commitment by both parents and teachers. The ways in which children exhibit their truancy are many. An example can be cited in Zaria local government area of Kaduna state where students usually go to the bush to hunt animals and collect fruits, go to hidden places to play, wondering about in the streets without any purpose some go to rivers to swim others engage in petty trades and jobs to get money to buy whatever they desire and some even engage in secret relationships that always make them to leave the school premises. Some students naturally cannot bear or remain in an atmosphere at home or in the school where rules and regulations are established such students will have to explore other places to gain their freedom, relax and satisfy their curiosity. Obviously, such students will become truants in the school. Truant is a person that stays away from school without good reasons. He or she is irregular at school attendance activities.
Truancy is one of the offences which students in institutions of learning commit. From research work carried out it was discovered by Bozumah Baharudin (2002) that truancy is of varying degree in institutions of learning and it is comparatively greater in the secondary schools than the high institutions of learning. Students that engage in truant behaviours are likely to fail their terminal examinations. While those who attend classes and study hard are likely to record success in their educational pursuits but those who are lazy are likely to meet failure in their academic endeavors.
There is a significant relationship between truant behavior and dropout rates among secondary school studentsFurther, the 2014 WAEC results proved that most candidates failed to meet entry requirements in the universities, as their terminal examination performance also appears to be on a decline. (Sambe, Avanger and Agba, 2014)