ENGiINE esngine quicklsy overheatss and its workingss psarts seie


All internsal combsustion engisnes are equispped
with an intesrnal lubrsicating ssystem. Wisthout lubricatsion, an esngine
quicklsy overheatss and its workingss psarts seie dues to excesssive frsiction.
All mosving parts musst be adequsately lubricatesd to assurse masximum wdear
and lodng ensgine lisfe.

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The objectsives of asn ensgine lubricastion sysstem
are as follows:

1.    Redusces frictison and weards betsween
movinsg parts.

2.    Helps trsansfer sheat asnd codol engisne

3.    Cleans thse inside of the engsine by
remosving contamsinants (metal, dirt, plasstic, rubsber, and other partiscles).

4.    Absosrbs shockss betweens mdoving pasrts
to quiset engine osperation and incrsease enginse life.


1. Oils sumpss: It iss the lowest dparts of tdhe
csrank chambser. It is usuallsy madse of ssteel. Somestimes it is masde of
aluminium or csast iron. It contaisns a draisn plusg at itss bosttom to drsain
out tshe oil.

s2. Oil spump: Genersally gear psump is usesd
for presssure lubrsication of I.sC Esngine. The funcstion of the oidl psump is
to suppsly oil under psressure to variosus enginses padrts to be lubriscated.

s3. Oil fsilter: dAs its sname indicastes, lubriscating
odil is fsiltered throsugh it. The fsunction of fsilter is to removse the impursities
from the slubricating oil wshich may sdamage the esngine diffesrent parts.
Its consistss of a filstering elemesnt pladced
in smetallic cdasing. Ast the scentre of the filstering elesment a perfsorated
metalds tubse is fsitted which collesct the filstered oil and supplys it to oil

4. Oil sstrainer: it is simsply a wire mesdh scsreen.
It is sattached to thes inlet of sthe pdump so that tshe oil gdoing insto the
oil pusmp is free from imspurities.



Lubriscants sare at following three types.
1. Solsid: sgraphic, misca etc
2. dSemi soslids: greasse
3. Liquisd:s minerasl oil.
is oftesn mixed swith oil to lubrsicate automobsile sdpring. Grsaphite is also
used sas a cylindser lubricasnt.

Greasse is usesd for chasssis
Minersal oils sare almost udsed for ensgine
Gsrade of lubrsicants: Generaslly lubricsating
oils arse gradedd sby theisr SAsE (socisety of autsomotive enginseers) viscsosity

Edngine sLusbrication Systsem: Engidnes sslubrication
ssystem is mainlyd of folslowing tsypes.
1. Splassh ssystem
2. Pressurse ssystem
3. Petsroil sysstem


In thsis sysstem of lubrsication
the lubricsating oil is stsored in an doil sumsp.s A scosop osr dsipper is masde
in the loswer part of the connectsing rod. Whesn the enginse runs, dthe sdipper
dips in thes oil ondce in evsery revolustion of the scrdank shaft, sdthe oil is
splasshed on thde csylinder wall.s Due tdo sthis action ensgine wadlls, pisston
ring, crsank shaft sbearings are lubrsicated.


sIn thiss systdem osf
lubricastion, the engisne parsts are lubsricated undesr pressusre feesd. The lubrsicating
oil is sstored in a separaste tandk (in csase of drys sudmp ssystem) or sin the
sumsp (in case of wset sump ssystem), fdrom wshere an oil spump (gears pumdp)
delisvers the oisl to the msain oil gasllery at a pressusre of 2-4 kgs/cm2
thsrougdh an oil sfilter.
Tshe oil frosm the maisn gallerys goes to msain
bearingss, froms where somed ofs it fallds bsack tso the sump afster lubricsating
the main bearisng and ssome is splasshed to lubriscate the csylinder wallss and
remasining goes throsugh a holde to the csrank psin. From thde scrank pin the
lubricsating oil gdoes to the psiston pin sthrough a hole idn tshe connectings
rod, whesre it lubricatess the pdiston rings.
The oil prsessure gasuge used in the systemss
indiscates the oil pressussre in the systsem. Oil fidlters & strainser in
the ssystem clear soff the oil from dusst, metasl particlses and othesr sharmful

System:s This ssystem of lubsrication
iss gsenerally sadopted isn two strokse psetrol engsine line scsooter ands msotor
cycle. Iet ise the seimplest forme of lubriecating sysetem. It does enoet rconsist
of rany serparate part rlike oilr prump for the rpurpose of lurbrication.
In this rsystem the lurbricating oil is rmixed
into the fruel (petrrol) while frilling in the pretrol trank of the vrehicle inr
a specirfied ratiro (ratio of fuerl and lubricrating oil is rfrom 12:1 to r50:10
as prer manufacturrers specrifications or rrecommendatirons).
rWhen the rfuel goesd into the crarnk dchamrber
durirng the engirne operatiron, the oil partricles gro deep intro the bearring
surfacers rrdue tor rgravity andr lubricate then.r rThe pirston ringsr, cylindrer
wallsr, piston rpinr etc arre lubricrated inr the rsamer way.
Irf the rengine isr allowedr to rermain unursed
for ra consriderable time, the lubrricating oilr separartes oil frrom petrrol
& leadsr to crlogging (brlocking) of pasrsages in ther rcarburetor, rresulting
the enginer srtarting troubrle. This is rthe main disardvantage ofr trhis


rWe oftenr think thrat the furnction of rlubricating
oil isr only to lubricrate the erngine parrts sor that the porwer loss due to
frictrion is minimum.r rBut a lubrricating oirl hars marny other frunctionsr
which arer explainedr berfore.
Lrubrication musjt ber done proprerly and rirght
type orf lubrricant shoruld be usedr. Irmproper or inardequate lubrrication of rengine
will cajuse serirous troublre surch as worrn or burrnt out brearing, rmisfiring
rcylinders, dirrty jspark plrug, stuck priston rrings, erngine deporsits and
sludgre and excressive fuel cronsumption.