ENGiINE LUsBRICATING SYSsTEMSAll internsal combsustion engisnes are equisppedwith an intesrnal lubrsicating ssystem.
Wisthout lubricatsion, an esnginequicklsy overheatss and its workingss psarts seie dues to excesssive frsiction.All mosving parts musst be adequsately lubricatesd to assurse masximum wdearand lodng ensgine lisfe.OBJECTsIVESOF LUBRsICATION SYSTEMThe objectsives of asn ensgine lubricastion sysstemare as follows: 1. Redusces frictison and weards betsweenmovinsg parts.
2. Helps trsansfer sheat asnd codol engisneparts. 3. Cleans thse inside of the engsine byremosving contamsinants (metal, dirt, plasstic, rubsber, and other partiscles).4.
Absosrbs shockss betweens mdoving pasrtsto quiset engine osperation and incrsease enginse life. MAIN PARTSs OF LUsBRICATIONSYSTsEM1. Oils sumpss: It iss the lowest dparts of tdhecsrank chambser.
It is usuallsy madse of ssteel. Somestimes it is masde ofaluminium or csast iron. It contaisns a draisn plusg at itss bosttom to drsainout tshe oil.s2. Oil spump: Genersally gear psump is usesdfor presssure lubrsication of I.sC Esngine.
The funcstion of the oidl psump isto suppsly oil under psressure to variosus enginses padrts to be lubriscated.s3. Oil fsilter: dAs its sname indicastes, lubriscatingodil is fsiltered throsugh it.
The fsunction of fsilter is to removse the impursitiesfrom the slubricating oil wshich may sdamage the esngine diffesrent parts.Its consistss of a filstering elemesnt pladcedin smetallic cdasing. Ast the scentre of the filstering elesment a perfsoratedmetalds tubse is fsitted which collesct the filstered oil and supplys it to oilgalslery.4. Oil sstrainer: it is simsply a wire mesdh scsreen.
It is sattached to thes inlet of sthe pdump so that tshe oil gdoing insto theoil pusmp is free from imspurities. TsYPES OF LUBsRICANTSLubriscants sare at following three types.1. Solsid: sgraphic, misca etc2. dSemi soslids: greasse3. Liquisd:s minerasl oil. Grsaphiteis oftesn mixed swith oil to lubrsicate automobsile sdpring.
Grsaphite is alsoused sas a cylindser lubricasnt.Greasse is usesd for chasssislubrsication.Minersal oils sare almost udsed for ensginelubricsation.Gsrade of lubrsicants: Generaslly lubricsatingoils arse gradedd sby theisr SAsE (socisety of autsomotive enginseers) viscsosityno.TYPES sOF LUBRIsCATING (OIL) SsYSTEMS Edngine sLusbrication Systsem: Engidnes sslubricationssystem is mainlyd of folslowing tsypes.1.
Splassh ssystem2. Pressurse ssystem3. Petsroil sysstemsSsplashSystem: In thsis sysstem of lubrsicationthe lubricsating oil is stsored in an doil sumsp.s A scosop osr dsipper is masdein the loswer part of the connectsing rod.
Whesn the enginse runs, dthe sdipperdips in thes oil ondce in evsery revolustion of the scrdank shaft, sdthe oil issplasshed on thde csylinder wall.s Due tdo sthis action ensgine wadlls, pisstonring, crsank shaft sbearings are lubrsicated.PresssureSystedm:sIn thiss systdem osflubricastion, the engisne parsts are lubsricated undesr pressusre feesd. The lubrsicatingoil is sstored in a separaste tandk (in csase of drys sudmp ssystem) or sin thesumsp (in case of wset sump ssystem), fdrom wshere an oil spump (gears pumdp)delisvers the oisl to the msain oil gasllery at a pressusre of 2-4 kgs/cm2thsrougdh an oil sfilter.Tshe oil frosm the maisn gallerys goes to msainbearingss, froms where somed ofs it fallds bsack tso the sump afster lubricsatingthe main bearisng and ssome is splasshed to lubriscate the csylinder wallss andremasining goes throsugh a holde to the csrank psin. From thde scrank pin thelubricsating oil gdoes to the psiston pin sthrough a hole idn tshe connectingsrod, whesre it lubricatess the pdiston rings.The oil prsessure gasuge used in the systemssindiscates the oil pressussre in the systsem.
Oil fidlters & strainser inthe ssystem clear soff the oil from dusst, metasl particlses and othesr sharmfulpasrticles.PestroilSystem:s This ssystem of lubsricationiss gsenerally sadopted isn two strokse psetrol engsine line scsooter ands msotorcycle. Iet ise the seimplest forme of lubriecating sysetem. It does enoet rconsistof rany serparate part rlike oilr prump for the rpurpose of lurbrication.In this rsystem the lurbricating oil is rmixedinto the fruel (petrrol) while frilling in the pretrol trank of the vrehicle inra specirfied ratiro (ratio of fuerl and lubricrating oil is rfrom 12:1 to r50:10as prer manufacturrers specrifications or rrecommendatirons).rWhen the rfuel goesd into the crarnk dchamrberdurirng the engirne operatiron, the oil partricles gro deep intro the bearringsurfacers rrdue tor rgravity andr lubricate then.
r rThe pirston ringsr, cylindrerwallsr, piston rpinr etc arre lubricrated inr the rsamer way.Irf the rengine isr allowedr to rermain unursedfor ra consriderable time, the lubrricating oilr separartes oil frrom petrrol& leadsr to crlogging (brlocking) of pasrsages in ther rcarburetor, rresultingthe enginer srtarting troubrle. This is rthe main disardvantage ofr trhissystemr.CONCLUrSIONrrWe oftenr think thrat the furnction of rlubricatingoil isr only to lubricrate the erngine parrts sor that the porwer loss due tofrictrion is minimum.r rBut a lubrricating oirl hars marny other frunctionsrwhich arer explainedr berfore.Lrubrication musjt ber done proprerly and rirghttype orf lubrricant shoruld be usedr. Irmproper or inardequate lubrrication of renginewill cajuse serirous troublre surch as worrn or burrnt out brearing, rmisfiringrcylinders, dirrty jspark plrug, stuck priston rrings, erngine deporsits andsludgre and excressive fuel cronsumption.