FAR TECHNIQUES OF GENETIC ENGINEERING AND ALSO

FAR EASTERN FEDERAL UNIVERSITYSCHOOL OF BIOMEDICINEGENE THERAPHY BY KRISHNAMURTHY BANUMATHY GROUP -4(E)INTRODUCTION GENE THERAPHY IS USED FOR PEVENT GENETIC DISORDER OR CHRONIC DISEASE WITH THE USE OF GENES AND TECHNIQUES OF GENETIC ENGINEERING AND ALSO WE HAVE MANY TECHNIQUES AND THEY STILL IN EXPERIMENTAL STAGES.IN FUTURE THIS TECHNIQUES MAY ALLOW DOCTER TO TREAT DISORDER BY INSERTING GENE INTO PATIENTS CELL INSTEAD OF USING DRUG OR SURGERY .THE GENE THERAPHY DEVELOPMENT LIES ON THE TRANSFER GENETIC MTERIAL MATERIAL INTO NUCLEI OF INDIVIDUAL CELLS ,THEN ONLY WE WILL REPRODUCED IN NORMAL COURSE OF CELL DIVISION AND WE WILL HAVE A LASTING EFFECTS .

THE REASEARCHERS ARE ALSO TESTING SEVERAL APPROCHES IN GENE THERAPHY.THEY ARE USED TO INTRODUCE NEW GENE IN OUR BODY AGAINST DISEASE.AND REPLACE MUTATED GENE WITH HEALTHY COPY OF GENE .DEVELOPMENTS AND RESEARCH IN GENE THERAPHY THE MOST GENE THERAPHY TRIALS ARE DOING IN US(UNITED STATES),AND EUROPE AND ALSO SOME COUNTRIES NOW INTIATING THAT’S INCLUDES AUSTRALIA .A FORM OF IMMUNE DEFENCIES ADENOSINE DEAMINASE DEFICIENCY IS THE FIRST TREATED IN HUMAN IN 1990 BY USING GENE THERAPHY AND NOW ALSO GENE THERAPHY IS USED FOR TREATING MANY NEW MELANOMA AND SOME HERIDARY DISEASE WHICH CAUSE IMPAIRED VISION . DESPITE OF OUR HOPE IT CAN ALSO USED TO CURE CANCER AIDS AND IT CAN ALSO REVERSE THEIR FUNCTION BY MAKING ABNORMAL GENE TO THEIR NORMAL ACTIVITY.HOWEVER IN CONTRAST TO SUCCESFUL GENE THERAPHY FOR MEDICAL PURPOSE REQIURES THE MEETING AND MAINTAINCES OF RIQUIOR .IT INCLUDE THAT TRANSFERRED GENE TO CELL WHERE IT GET MAXIMUM POTENTIAL IT ALSO VARIES FOR DIFFERENT DISEASE.

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THE NEW GENE CURING IS LONG LASTING AND PRODUCE ENOUGH FACTOR TO ENSURE BLOOD CLOTING . THE HEALTHY GENES ARE NOT DISTRUBED BY NEW TRANSGENES . BENEFITS OF GENE THERAPHY YES WE NEED TO USE GERMLINE GENE THERAPHY BECAUSE IT ENABLE US TO CORRECTION DISEASE CAUSING MUTATION THAT PASS FROM ONE GENERATION TO OTHER SPARING FUTURE GENERATION FROM SUFFERING FROM DISEASE AND IT ALSO MADE OUR GENERATION TO BE HEALTHY .WITH WIDESPREAD OF GERM LINE GENE THERAPHY PARTICULAR GENETIC CONDITION COULD BE ELIMINATED FROM THE POPULATION ALTOGETHER . HUNTINGTONS DISEASE COULD BECOME DISEASE OF PAST LIKEWISE BY THE MEANS OF GENE THERAPHY WE CAN MAKE MORE DISEASE ERACIATED FROM OUR GLOBAL . THIS REGULATION PREVENTS GENE THERAPHY BEEN USED TO SELECT CHARACTER FOR NON-MEDICAL PURPOSE TO DESINE BABY. IT ENSURE THAT GENETIC MODIFICATION PRACTICES AND IT CREATE POTENTIAL HARMFUL THINGS ARE AVOID TOGETHER . IN THE UNITED KINGDOM THE GENE THERAPHY ADSVISE COMMITE WAS INTRODUCE IN 1993 TO REGULATE THE BENEFITS OF GERMLINE GENE THERAPHY IT ENABLES THE GENERATION BEING TREATED TO LEAD A HEALTHY LIFE.

THE US NATIONAL HUMAN GENOME RESEARCH INSTITUTE, AIMS TO IDENTIFY ALL ETHICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH EMERGING GENETIC RESEARCH. IT BELIEVES THAT CONSIDERATION OF THE ETHICAL ARGUMENTS SHOULD ACCOMPANY NEW GENETIC MODIFICATION PRACTICES, INSTEAD OF DOING NOTHING . IT WILL HELP TO CREATE THAT POTENTIALLY HARMFUL CONSEQUENCES ARE AVOIDED ALTOGETHER.

IF GERMLINE GENE THERAPY HAS THE POWER TO ELIMINATE A DISEASE TOTALLY FROM THE POPULATION IT WILL DECREASE REMOVE THE LONG TERM HEALTHCARE COSTS OF TREATING THE DISEASE. THIS IS LIKELY TO JUSTIFY IT BEING AVAILABLE THROUGH THE NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE (NHS) IN THE UK. MAY THE GERMLINE GENE THERAPY HAS THE POTENTIAL TO DESTRY OR ELIMINATE A DISEASE COMPLETELY FROM THE POPULATION IT WILL REDUCE/REMOVE THE LONG TERM HEALTH COSTS OF TREATING THE DISEASE. THIS IS LIKELY TO JUSTIFY IT BEING AVAILABLE THROUGH THE NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE (NHS) IN UK. DEFECTS AND WHY WE ARE NOT ACCEPTING GENE THERAPY THE EFFECTS OF GENE THERAPY ARE TOO UNPREDICTABLE. DESPITE WHETHER THE THERAPY SUCCESSFULLY CURES THE DISEASE, OTHER MUTATIONS CAN POTENTIALLY BE INTRODUCED.BECAUSE GERMLINE GENE THERAPY TARGETS THE REPRODUCTIVE CELLS, ANY ADDITIONAL MUTATIONS THAT ARE INTRODUCED AS A RESULT WILL BE PASSED ON TO THE NEXT GENERATION.

PEOPLE PRODUCED THROUGH GERMLINE GENE THERAPY CANNOT GIVE THEIR CONSENT FOR THEIR GENETIC MATERIAL TO BE MODIFIED. HYPOTHETICALLY GERMLINE GENE THERAPY COULD BE USED TO SELECT FOR PARTICULAR PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS REGARDLESS OF WHETHER THEY ARE IMPORTANT FOR THE HEALTH OF THE INDIVIDUAL. ON A LARGE SCALE, GERMLINE GENE THERAPY COULD RESULT IN THE SELECTION OF CHARACTERISTICS TO “ENHANCE” THE GENETICS OF A POPULATION.

THE WIDESPREAD USE OF GERMLINE GENE THERAPY MAY MAKE SOCIETY LESS ACCEPTING OF PEOPLE WHO ARE DIFFERENT OR WHO HAVE A PARTICULAR DISABILITY OR GENETIC CONDITION. IN AREAS OF THE WORLD WITHOUT A FREE HEALTH SERVICE, ONLY PARENTS WHO CAN AFFORD SUITABLE HEALTH INSURANCE WILL BE ABLE TO UNDERGO GERMLINE GENE THERAPY. POORER PARENTS WILL NOT HAVE ACCESS TO THIS FORM OF THERAPY. GERMLINE GENE THERAPY WOULD NEVER BE EFFECTIVE ENOUGH TO RULE OUT THE NEED FOR POST-FERTILISATION SCREENING OF EMBRYOS?. GERMLINE GENE THERAPY INVOLVES MORE STEPS AND INTRODUCES ADDITIONAL RISKS TO THE EMBRYO COMPARED WITH IVF AND SCREENING FOR HEALTHY EMBRYOS BEFORE IMPLANTATION.

ARGUMENTS AGAINST THERE ARE FEW ARGUMENTS AGAINST SOMATIC CELL GENE THERAPY. SOME ARGUE THAT YOU MIGHT ACCIDENTALLY CHANGE THE GERM LINE. OTHERS SAY IT IS NEW AND EXPERIMENTAL, AND HAS UNKNOWN RISKS. BE THAT AS IT MAY, FOR SOMATIC CELL GENE THERAPY THE BENEFITS ARE GENERALLY HELD TO FAR OUTWEIGH THE RISKS. THE MAJORITY OF THE ARGUMENTS HERE ARE AGAINST GERM-LINE GENE THERAPY ANY MISTAKE YOU MAKE ON A GERM LINE IS PASSED TO FUTURE GENERATIONS, AND MAY AFFECT THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE THE PEOPLE AFFECTED BY GERM-LINE GENE THERAPY – CHILDREN, AND FUTURE DESCENDANTS, DID NOT AGREE OR CONSENT TO THE TREATMENT.YOU ARE TAMPERING WITH NATURE AND PLAYING GOD AT THE POINT WHEN GENE THERAPY GOES WRONG, IT COULD LEAD TO HORRIFIC MUTATIONSTREATING DEFECTIVE GENES PUTS YOU ON A SLIPPERY SLOPE – SOON YOU WILL BE ‘CURING’ BALDNESS, OBESITY, POOR EYESIGHT ETC – ACTUALLY ENHANCING THE POPULATION, LIKE HITLER’S IDEA OF A MASTER RACEONLY RICH PEOPLE WILL BE ABLE TO AFFORD THESE TREATMENTS – IT GOES AGAINST IDEAS OF EQUALITY AND JUSTICECONCLUSIONTHE QUESTION WAS IF GENE THERAPY COULD CURE GENETIC DISEASES. AFTER OBTAINING INFORMATION AND VIEWS FROM DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES, I CAN CONCLUDE THAT GENE THERAPY HAS THE POTENTIAL TO CURE DISEASES SUCH AS CYSTIC FIBROSIS AND PARKINSON’S DISEASE, HOWEVER, IT CANNOT BE PROVEN NOW TO BE AN EFFECTIVE TREATMENT. ALTHOUGH THEIR IS NO GUARANTEE THAT THE VECTOR CARRYING THE HEALTHY GENE WILL LAND IN THE PLACE IT IS INTENDED, FUTURE TESTS MAY MAKE IT A POSSIBLE GUARANTEE.

 OF THE TESTS THAT WERE DONE USING GENE THERAPY, THE PATIENT WAS ONLY HELPED FOR A SHORT PERIOD OF TIMEAS FOR THE OTHER QUESTION OF WHETHER GENE THERAPY SHOULD BECOME A REGULAR PROCEDURE IN MEDICAL PRACTICES REGARDING GENETIC DISEASES, THE ANSWER IS VERY CONTROVERSIAL. RIGHT NOW, THERE IS NO CHANCE THAT THIS PROCEDURE WOULD BE USED IN MEDICAL PRACTICES AS IT HAS LEAD TO INEFFECTIVE RESULTS. HOWEVER, IF GENE THERAPY DOES BECOME EFFECTIVE IN THE FUTURE, SHOULD WE STILL USE IT? AS I HAVE MENTIONED BEFORE, A POTENTIAL RISK OF THIS PROCEDURE WOULD BE FINDING OUT THE GENETIC MAKE-UP OF AN INDIVIDUAL. MANY FEEL THAT THIS IS UNETHICAL. THE POTENTIAL IS SO GREAT THAT SCIENTISTS SAY THERE IS A POSSIBILITY OF “DESIGNER BABIES”, WHERE SOME FEEL IS UNETHICAL AND OTHERS, A DREAM COME TRUE. ON THE OTHER SIDE, THE POTENTIAL OF GENE THERAPY CAN LEAD TO A CURE FOR CYSTIC FIBROSIS, PARKINSON’S DISEASE, AND EVEN CANCER.

 IF GENE THERAPY PROVES TO BE SUCCESSFUL, THE QUESTION LEFT FOR THE PUBLIC IS IF A CURE FOR DISEASES THAT HAVE TAKEN MANY LIVES IS VALUED MORE THAN ETHICAL BELIEFS. REFERENCE HTTP://GHR.NLM.NIH.GOV/PRIMER/THERAPHY/ETHICS HTTPS://WWW.YOURGENOME.ORG/DEBATES/ISGERMLINE-GENE THERAPHY ETHICALS