Mr. Edwards Roberts
22 February 2018
EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION TO MESOPOTAMIAN
Civilization is generally defined as an advanced state of human society containing highly developed form of government, cultures, industry and common social norms. The word civilization comes from a Latin word called civils. Civilization first emerges from Mesopotamia (land between rivers). The name Mesopotamia is a Greek word, Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within Tigris and Euphrates river. Mesopotamia is now the modern-day Iraq. The Sumerians and Akkadians (including Assyrian’s and Babylonia’s) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of written history. Sumer was the capital city of Mesopotamia.
Besides Mesopotamia a second civilization grew up in Northern Africa, along the Nile River. Egyptians civilization formed by 3000B.C benefited from a trade and technology influence from Mesopotamia, but it produced a quite different society and culture, we know more about Egypt than about Mesopotamia.
Egyptians had a centralized government with one ruler(Pharaoh), and Mesopotamia had self-controlled cited state, in Mesopotamia each area was controlled by its own political center. Egyptian’s worshiped their ruler as a God. In terms of ideas and art Egyptians culture separated itself from Mesopotamia in a number of way beyond politics and monument building. The Egyptians had the pyramid whereas the Mesopotamia had the ziggurat. Mesopotamia eventually made pictograms into wedge-shaped signs that where pressed into clay tablets using a reed whereas the Egyptians write on papyrus.
Comparison in cities, in Egypt only the rich could write but in Mesopotamia everybody could write, Mesopotamia was much more urban than Egypt and Egypt cities where more village based. Egypt cities had religious house leading to the population center. Mesopotamia cities had their own independent ruler unlike Egypt.
Religion comparison, Mesopotamia had figurines to pray for them whiles they did other activities. Egyptians buried their pharaoh(Gods) in their own temple which is the pyramid, they also believed in life after death whereas they take their riches, wife and servant with them in death. Egyptians mummified their dead bodies.
Jobs comparison, Egyptians scrubs could be only the worthy people, Egyptians used flaxes for lining cloths. Mesopotamia had bakers for food, they also had bankers to manage t
Heir people’s money. With comparison with complex technology similarities, Egyptians used lake to store surplus water, they made glass and glass beads whereas Mesopotamia used glazed bricks for decoration, they used cedar plow for farming.
Another factor accounting for the difference is also geographical. Mesopotamia civilization developed on a flat plane, adjusting to terrain inhabited by nomadic herd’s. The rivers served as transportation corridors as well. The region was subject frequent visit by neighbors. The Nile valley is a more isolated region. Ancient Egypt was not so frequently visited by outsiders, the Egyptians civilization was more stable and conservative.
Socially both civilization where patriarchal, but Egypt was more lenient towards women, whiles Mesopotamia was stricter on their women. However, in Mesopotamia the male subjugated the women. To stop married women from tempting other men, they were forced to cover their bodies, except for their faces with veils. The Mesopotamia women had little impact on their society. Mesopotamia women where often arranged into marriages without the say on the subject. Certain Egyptian women were able to gain highly influential positions in their society, examples an Egyptian woman became the Queen of Egypt alongside her son (Cleopatra, Queen Nefertiti, etc.). Due to Egypt being less strict towards the women, Egyptian women were able to have a greater influence on their society.
In conclusion if I had a choice to live in either Egypt or Mesopotamia, I would rather live in ancient Egypt. One reason is because people had more right that in Mesopotamia and the laws where more fair. Egypt also had a very good soil for growing crops because of their minerals from the Nile river. In Egypt there was a good storage system for surplus resources and lot of open jobs. I would like to go visit Egypt purposely because I would like to see the pyramids and mummies. These are the factors that influenced my decision to prefer to live in Egypt other than Mesopotamia.