Homework 1

Homework 1 (ANS) Morgan Bull

1. Name three tissue types that are innervated by the ANS (3 point)
Three tissue types that are innervated by the ANS would include the cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands.
2. On the basis of anatomy only (structure), describe 3 differences between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions? (6 points)
The sympathetic branch is located between T1 and L2 on the spine whereas the parasympathetic branch is located in the craniosacral region. The sympathetic branch has a chain ganglia whereas the parasympathetic branch has ganglia, but it is not in a chain and the ganglia are located near or embedded in the target tissues. Also, the sympathetic branch has preganglionic axons that are short whereas the parasympathetic branch has preganglionic axons that are long because they don’t go through chain ganglia.
3. Choose 4 target organs and explain the effect that both of ANS divisions has on these each of these 4 target organs (8 points)
There are many target organs that both the parasympathetic and the sympathetic ANS branches innervate. Four examples of target organs would be the heart, lungs, eyes, and bladder. The parasympathetic branch of the ANS deals with the resting and digesting state of our bodies, so this is why this branch would cause a decreased heart rate, constricted airways, constricted pupils, and increased urination. The sympathetic branch of the ANS deals with the active state of our bodies, so this is why this branch would cause an increased heart rate, dilated airways, dilated pupils, and decreased urination.
4.With respect to the ANS, in your own words explain the term ‘dual innervation’ (3 points)
Dual innervation is when both the sympathetic and parasympathetic ANS branches control many of the same organs in our body.