Hydrogen photocatalytic water splitting using naturally abundant solar

Hydrogen is one of the most important chemicals in industry and potential candidate as cleaner and sustainable energy sources. ADDIN EN.

CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>de Brito</Author><Year>2018</Year><RecNum>1</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>1</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>1</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1528780679″>1</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>de Brito, Juliana Ferreira</author><author>Tavella, Francesco</author><author>Genovese, Chiara</author><author>Ampelli, Claudio</author><author>Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin</author><author>Centi, Gabriele</author><author>Perathoner, Siglinda</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Role of CuO in the modification of the photocatalytic water splitting behavior of TiO 2 nanotube thin films</title><secondary-title>Applied Catalysis B: Environmental</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Applied Catalysis B: Environmental</full-title></periodical><pages>136-145</pages><volume>224</volume><dates><year>2018</year></dates><isbn>09263373</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.09.071</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>1 Nowadays, over 95% hydrogen production is based on decomposition of natural gas, which is not renewable and produces a hazardous CO2 as a byproduct to the environment.

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An attractive route in hydrogen production is the photocatalytic water splitting using naturally abundant solar energy, because, photocatalysis has a proven and promising approach that can provide solutions to environmental issues such as air and water pollution. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Laurier</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>2</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>2</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>2</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1528782199″>2</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Laurier, K. G.

</author><author>Vermoortele, F.</author><author>Ameloot, R.</author><author>De Vos, D. E.</author><author>Hofkens, J.</author><author>Roeffaers, M. B.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven , Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium.

</auth-address><titles><title>Iron(III)-based metal-organic frameworks as visible light photocatalysts</title><secondary-title>J Am Chem Soc</secondary-title><alt-title>Journal of the American Chemical Society</alt-title></titles><periodical><full-title>J Am Chem Soc</full-title><abbr-1>Journal of the American Chemical Society</abbr-1></periodical><alt-periodical><full-title>J Am Chem Soc</full-title><abbr-1>Journal of the American Chemical Society</abbr-1></alt-periodical><pages>14488-91</pages><volume>135</volume><number>39</number><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Oct 2</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1520-5126 (Electronic) 0002-7863 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24015906</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24015906</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1021/ja405086e</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>2 Since the revolutionary news about photocatalytic effect of TiO2 by Fujishima and Honda in 1972, ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><RecNum>3</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>3</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>3</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1528785450″>3</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Akira Fujishima</author><author>Kenichi Honda</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>&lt;Electrochemical Photolysis of water at a semiconductor electrde.

pdf&gt;</title><secondary-title>Nature</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Nature</full-title></periodical><pages>37-38</pages><volume>238</volume><section>37</section><dates><year>1972</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>3 a tremendous research has been carried out on photochemical based water splitting to generate hydrogen because this process is green and clean, producing only water as a byproduct. However, without ignoring the intriguing nature of the research, the photochemical based water splitting into hydrogen is a challenging issue with respect to finding an ideal photocatalyst that meets the basic requirements such as an appropriates band gap for sunlight absorption, suitable band positions for water reduction/oxidation, and stability under the required reaction conditions. ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Moriya</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>4</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>4</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>4</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1528789771″>4</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Moriya, M.</author><author>Minegishi, T.</author><author>Kumagai, H.</author><author>Katayama, M.</author><author>Kubota, J.

</author><author>Domen, K.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Chemical System Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan.</auth-address><titles><title>Stable hydrogen evolution from CdS-modified CuGaSe2 photoelectrode under visible-light irradiation</title><secondary-title>J Am Chem Soc</secondary-title><alt-title>Journal of the American Chemical Society</alt-title></titles><periodical><full-title>J Am Chem Soc</full-title><abbr-1>Journal of the American Chemical Society</abbr-1></periodical><alt-periodical><full-title>J Am Chem Soc</full-title><abbr-1>Journal of the American Chemical Society</abbr-1></alt-periodical><pages>3733-5</pages><volume>135</volume><number>10</number><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Mar 13</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1520-5126 (Electronic) 0002-7863 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>23437875</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23437875</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1021/ja312653y</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>4 To date, several types of hydrogen production photocatalysts, which operate under UV or visible-light irradiation conditions, have been developed.

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gov/pubmed/24946131</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1021/ja502076b</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>8 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CITE.DATA 9-12 ZnS, ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Zhang</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>53</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>13</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>53</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1530074540″>53</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Zhang, J.</author><author>Wang, Y.</author><author>Zhang, J.</author><author>Lin, Z.

</author><author>Huang, F.</author><author>Yu, J.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350002, China.</auth-address><titles><title>Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production activities of Au-loaded ZnS flowers</title><secondary-title>ACS Appl Mater Interfaces</secondary-title><alt-title>ACS applied materials &amp; interfaces</alt-title></titles><periodical><full-title>ACS Appl Mater Interfaces</full-title><abbr-1>ACS applied materials &amp; interfaces</abbr-1></periodical><alt-periodical><full-title>ACS Appl Mater Interfaces</full-title><abbr-1>ACS applied materials &amp; interfaces</abbr-1></alt-periodical><pages>1031-7</pages><volume>5</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Feb</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1944-8252 (Electronic) 1944-8244 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>23320503</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.

nih.gov/pubmed/23320503</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1021/am302726y</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>13 CdS,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 ADDIN EN.

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</author><author>Du, Y.</author><author>Song, B.</author><author>Xu, P.

</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Highly Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production on CdS/Cu7S4/g-C3N4 Ternary Heterostructures</title><secondary-title>ACS Appl Mater Interfaces</secondary-title><alt-title>ACS applied materials &amp; interfaces</alt-title></titles><periodical><full-title>ACS Appl Mater Interfaces</full-title><abbr-1>ACS applied materials &amp; interfaces</abbr-1></periodical><alt-periodical><full-title>ACS Appl Mater Interfaces</full-title><abbr-1>ACS applied materials &amp; interfaces</abbr-1></alt-periodical><pages>20404-20411</pages><volume>10</volume><number>24</number><dates><year>2018</year><pub-dates><date>Jun 20</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1944-8252 (Electronic) 1944-8244 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>29847085</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.

gov/pubmed/29847085</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1021/acsami.8b02984</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>16 Black phosphorous, ADDIN EN.

CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Liang</Author><Year>2018</Year><RecNum>57</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>17</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>57</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1530074881″>57</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Liang, Qingshuang</author><author>Shi, Fangbing</author><author>Xiao, Xiufeng</author><author>Wu, Xiaofeng</author><author>Huang, Keke</author><author>Feng, Shouhua</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>In?Situ Growth of CoP Nanoparticles Anchored on Black Phosphorus Nanosheets for Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production</title><secondary-title>ChemCatChem</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>ChemCatChem</full-title></periodical><pages>2179-2183</pages><volume>10</volume><number>10</number><dates><year>2018</year></dates><isbn>18673880</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1002/cctc.201701907</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>17 SnS2, ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Yu</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>58</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>18</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>58</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1530074961″>58</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Yu, J.</author><author>Xu, C.

Y.</author><author>Ma, F. X.

</author><author>Hu, S. P.</author><author>Zhang, Y. W.

</author><author>Zhen, L.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology , Harbin 150001, People&apos;s Republic of China.</auth-address><titles><title>Monodisperse SnS(2) nanosheets for high-performance photocatalytic hydrogen generation</title><secondary-title>ACS Appl Mater Interfaces</secondary-title><alt-title>ACS applied materials &amp; interfaces</alt-title></titles><periodical><full-title>ACS Appl Mater Interfaces</full-title><abbr-1>ACS applied materials &amp; interfaces</abbr-1></periodical><alt-periodical><full-title>ACS Appl Mater Interfaces</full-title><abbr-1>ACS applied materials &amp; interfaces</abbr-1></alt-periodical><pages>22370-7</pages><volume>6</volume><number>24</number><dates><year>2014</year><pub-dates><date>Dec 24</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1944-8252 (Electronic) 1944-8244 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>25411908</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.

nih.gov/pubmed/25411908</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1021/am506396z</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>18 heterostructured [email protected], ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Xin</Author><Year>2018</Year><RecNum>59</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>19</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>59</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1530075042″>59</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Xin, Yani</author><author>Huang, Yi</author><author>Lin, Kui</author><author>Yu, Yifu</author><author>Zhang, Bin</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Self-template synthesis of double-layered porous nanotubes with spatially separated photoredox surfaces for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production</title><secondary-title>Science Bulletin</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Science Bulletin</full-title></periodical><pages>601-608</pages><volume>63</volume><number>10</number><dates><year>2018</year></dates><isbn>20959273</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.scib.

2018.03.015</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>19 Fe2O3, ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Tamirat</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>9</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>20</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>9</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1528952478″>9</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Tamirat, Andebet Gedamu</author><author>Su, Wei-Nien</author><author>Dubale, Amare Aregahegn</author><author>Pan, Chun-Jern</author><author>Chen, Hung-Ming</author><author>Ayele, Delele Worku</author><author>Lee, Jyh-Fu</author><author>Hwang, Bing-Joe</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting using three dimensional urchin-like hematite nanostructure modified with reduced graphene oxide</title><secondary-title>Journal of Power Sources</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Power Sources</full-title></periodical><pages>119-128</pages><volume>287</volume><dates><year>2015</year></dates><isbn>03787753</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.

04.042</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>20 CuGaSe2, ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Moriya</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>4</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>4</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>4</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1528789771″>4</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Moriya, M.</author><author>Minegishi, T.</author><author>Kumagai, H.</author><author>Katayama, M.</author><author>Kubota, J.

</author><author>Domen, K.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Department of Chemical System Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan.</auth-address><titles><title>Stable hydrogen evolution from CdS-modified CuGaSe2 photoelectrode under visible-light irradiation</title><secondary-title>J Am Chem Soc</secondary-title><alt-title>Journal of the American Chemical Society</alt-title></titles><periodical><full-title>J Am Chem Soc</full-title><abbr-1>Journal of the American Chemical Society</abbr-1></periodical><alt-periodical><full-title>J Am Chem Soc</full-title><abbr-1>Journal of the American Chemical Society</abbr-1></alt-periodical><pages>3733-5</pages><volume>135</volume><number>10</number><dates><year>2013</year><pub-dates><date>Mar 13</date></pub-dates></dates><isbn>1520-5126 (Electronic) 0002-7863 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>23437875</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.

nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23437875</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.

1021/ja312653y</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>4 Si, ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Lin</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>11</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>21</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>11</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1528953056″>11</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Lin, Y.</author><author>Battaglia, C.</author><author>Boccard, M.

</author><author>Hettick, M.</author><author>Yu, Z.</author><author>Ballif, C.</author><author>Ager, J. W.</author><author>Javey, A.</author></authors></contributors><auth-address>Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California , Berkeley, California 94720, United States.

</auth-address><titles><title>Amorphous Si thin film based photocathodes with high photovoltage for efficient hydrogen production</title><secondary-title>Nano Lett</secondary-title><alt-title>Nano letters</alt-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Nano Lett</full-title><abbr-1>Nano letters</abbr-1></periodical><alt-periodical><full-title>Nano Lett</full-title><abbr-1>Nano letters</abbr-1></alt-periodical><pages>5615-8</pages><volume>13</volume><number>11</number><keywords><keyword>Catalysis</keyword><keyword>Electrodes</keyword><keyword>Hydrogen/*chemistry</keyword><keyword>Platinum/chemistry</keyword><keyword>Silicon/*chemistry</keyword><keyword>Solar Energy</keyword><keyword>Sunlight</keyword><keyword>Titanium/chemistry</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>1530-6992 (Electronic) 1530-6984 (Linking)</isbn><accession-num>24079390</accession-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24079390</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1021/nl403265k</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>21 CdTe HYPERLINK l “_ENREF_22” o “Xavier Mathew, 2002 #10″ ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><RecNum>10</RecNum><DisplayText><style face=”superscript”>22</style></DisplayText><record><rec-number>10</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”2swr0ret32v5v3edfrmpfzr6wzsftzd5ft2e” timestamp=”1528953053″>10</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Xavier Mathew, A.

Bansal, J.A. Turner, Ramesh Dhere, N.R. Mathews and P.

J. Sebastian</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>&lt;Photoelectrochemical Characterization of Surface Modi?ed CdTe for Hydrogen Production.pdf&gt;</title><secondary-title>Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems</full-title></periodical><pages>149-154</pages><volume>5</volume><section>149</section><dates><year>2002</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>22 etc already find application as hydrogen generating photocatalyst materials. However, the visible light absorption, complexity of photocatalyst fabrication, cost of co catalyst and the limited performance of some presently developed photocatalytic systems for the water reduction reaction are highly limiting factors. On the other hand, people also used platinum and other noble metals as heterogeneous hydrogen evolution catalysts; however, their limited earth abundance and cost precludes further development and/or large-scale applications.

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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 23, 24 Therefore, the development of a new type of photocatalyst with low cost, narrower band gap to effectively utilize sun light and superior performance for highly stable hydrogen production is important yet challenging.

Because of its nontoxic nature, abundance and narrower band gap (about 2.0 eV), copper oxides, in particular Cu2O is a promising candidate for the development of efficient solar driven photocatalysts