In an organization, Leadership is about influencing and motivating people towards an effective contribution for the success. Based on different situations in an organizational environment there are many leadership theories can be applied. All these theories been categorized and differentiated based on forms and times of applications as below.
One category of theories are the ones which are based on the leaders with no interaction to the followers. Another category is the transformational approach of a leader to get workers to motivate and deliver exceptional performance and transactional approach of a leader to set systems, process, and routine works delivering self-improvement. The third category would be universal theories used in every situation and contingency theories which are only used in special conditions.
The most common theories which are widely used by most of the organizations are,
* “Great Man” Theories: Very traditional and old concept of leadership being inherited from generation to generation
* Trait Theories: This is certain leadership qualities being inherited and made them a leader
* Contingency Theories: This is to select the best suitable method based on the situation
* Situational Theories: This is leader changes and select best strategy of action
* Behavioral Theories: There are certain actions which make a leadership effective
* Participative Theories: Every member in the group participates to give his suggestions.
* Management Theories: Are called as transactional theories which focus on group performance.
* Relationship Theories: are called as transformational theories which focus both on group and individual performance.
Most Common Theories used in the Organization
1. Behavioral Theories
This means the actions of the leader in certain situations which makes him different than the other team members. According to this theory the leader’s actions speaks more than the words and has capability make an impact on the team through his behavior.
In order to understand this in a practical situation, at Ayurva, when an employee gets late continuously late, after two days the leader start his work earlier and start the morning briefing on time which makes the late comer aware that leader has noticed him not being on time to start work. Even without speaking a word directly on this the leader conveys a corrective method to the employee which is very smooth in most cases.
2. Situational and Contingency Theories:
This means that a leader can adopt different leadership styles in different circumstances in order to handle the situation. Depend on the need and urgency and his capacity of handling it, it could be autocratic or even could be democratic approach if it is a case he needs suggestions from the team on the particular matter. It has contingence to the situation as well hence it could be identified as contingency theory too.
At Ayurva, with a small team in operations this theory is very much applied in most situations. In case of emergency situations with any tourist arrivals or any issue with resort reservations, the leadership takes the control of the situation with an autocratic approach and giving instructions to the team to follow. Also in a situation of handling a stressed out employee the leadership uses a behavioral impact with more of a supportive approach with the work load or allowing him a break or release of duties as a helpful method.
3. Transformational Leadership Theory
As per the transformational theory people tend to follow the leader who influence and motivate them in terms of achieving targets as well as personal growth. People willing to work under such a leadership because in is always inspirational and a great exposure for experience and learning for the future growth. Transformational leadership is a visionary approach with a great ability to articulate the same to the employees mind and motivate and trigger their interest to drive towards achieving those targets. Transformation leader is always there in the center and available to ask help and has the ability to lead the team with a very good clear vision.
Celebrations, ceremonies and special wellness retreats that Ayurva organizes for the staff are some of the methods to uplift the motivation by letting them to absorb something could personally benefit them.