In vitro fertilisation is a form of assisted pregnancy for those who may not be able to conceive naturally. In the monthly ovulation cycle one of the ovaries release is egg. After ovulation, the egg enters the fallopian tube. Woman is likely to get pregnant if she has sex just before, during or right after ovulation. During this time, a sperm cell from man semen is able to fertilize the egg while it is inside the fallopian tube.
As it travels through the fallopian tube the fertilized egg or the embryo loses its outer shell that nourished it while in ovary. It then enters the uterus and loses the protective outer layer called zona pellucida. In a process called zone the hatching, embryo gets implanted into the lining of the uterus. This makes a permanent connection between the woman and the embryo.
This forms an organ called ler Center which allows to pass on oxygen and nutrients from the woman to the embryo and the pregnancy continues. Infertility, single parenthood etc are the conditions where in vitro fertilization IVF is implemented. Before IVF, the woman must undergo medication process so that more than one egg is grown and matured. A semen sample is required from the man so that the healthiest sperms can be collected in order to enhance the chance of pregnancy. In case, the male Potter is sterile or the woman doesn’t have a partner, a donor semen is used.
IVF involves three main processes: Follicle aspiration: Here eggs are harvested from the ovaries using a suction device connected to a needle. The needle penetrates vagina and B ovary to collect several eggs at a time. Fertilization: here the eggs are placed in a petri dish and artificially inseminated using the enriched and processed sperms from the semen sample collected. Eggs are either mixed with sperms or a single sperm is injected into the egg. The second process is called intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
Embryos are then monitored for 3 to 5 days in the lab. Sometimes lab may create zona pellucida around some of the embryos. This assisted hatching helps embryos to get implanted into the uterus.
Embryo transfer: here the fertilized eggs are transferred to the uterus. Hormone therapy is done to help embryos to get implanted. Some embryos are transferred right away and some are frozen for future use. A tool called speculum is inserted into the vagina so that the cervix is clearly visible. Fluid containing embryos is taken into a syringe.
Syringe is attached to a long catheter which is then inserted into the uterus via cervix. Embryos are then injected inside. The woman is needed to rest on back for next 15 minutes