Introducing the theoretical framework for his study, Walker, Shenker and Hoover-Dempsey (2010) discussed the cultural background of the parents and how they influenced their level of participation in the school.
These authors have described four levels of involvement. Level 1 addressed the reason why parents are involved or what motivates them to participate, their raising children. One of the most constant factors affecting parent motivation was parent relationships.
Therefore, if a parent receives an invitation to participate in some way, regardless of who extends the invitation (child or teacher), and the parents ‘ reports of the invitation have been positive, that the parent is most likely motivated to be Involved. Levels 1.5 and 2 focused on the definition of parental involvement. As noted in the literature, parental involvement can be expressed in many different forms; However, participation in schools was called the traditional type of participation (Walker, Shenker and Hoover-Dempsey, 2010). Walker et al. The indicated parental participation could also be defined as encouraging and reinforcing that parents give to their children.
The involvement of Level 3 refers to the responsibility of the students to participate in their realization.